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  • July 31, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and arrested 1 Palestinian trying to enter Israel for work at the separation wall near Zeita. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif...

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  • July 17, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 3 Palestinians with live ammunition during a late-night raid in Tubas; 1 was arrested. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinians in al-...

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  • July 9, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man near Turmus ‘Ayya. In East Jerusalem, some 150,000 Palestinian worshippers performed prayers at the Haram al-Sharif compound for Eid...

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  • June 30, 2022

    In the West Bank, settlers with military protection toured Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus, leading to a confrontation with Palestinians protesting the incursion; 3 Israelis were shot and injured by...

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  • June 28, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces demolished 1 mobile home, water tanks, and tree saplings in az-Za‘ayyem, and 1 agricultural structure in Nahalin. Israeli forces also handed 1 demolition notice...

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  • June 26, 2022

    In the West Bank, the Shin Bet arrested 3 Palestinian relatives of the Palestinian man who was stabbed to death by an Israeli settler on 6/21 near the Ariel settlement. The 3 were also...

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  • June 23, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians using live ammunition during a raid in Dheisheh refugee camp. 11 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ramallah,...

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  • June 8, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers re-erected a settlement outpost near al-Lubban ash-Sharqiya; the settlement outpost was dismantled by Israeli forces on 6/7. 18 Palestinians were arrested during...

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  • June 5, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attempted to enter Nabi Salih but were repelled by Palestinians. Israeli forces raided Shufa, seizing Palestinian flags from poles and houses. Israeli forces...

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  • May 31, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military escort raided Halhul, vandalizing 1 mosque; Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians with live ammunition and others with baton rounds and...

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  • May 30, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers set fire to dozens of Palestinian-owned olive trees in Burin, causing extensive damage. Israeli settlers also interrupted traffic and waved Israeli flags at the...

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  • May 29, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attacked Palestinians in Burin, throwing Molotov cocktails at several homes. Israeli settlers also assaulted 1 Palestinian man working his land near Ya‘bad,...

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  • May 25, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers set fire to 1 Palestinian vehicle near the Za‘atra checkpoint. Israeli settlers also vandalized homes, a mosque, and a bulldozer in ‘Urif. Elsewhere, Israeli...

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  • May 23, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers used pepper spray on a Palestinian family at a checkpoint near Burqa, injuring 3, including 1 infant; the infant was rushed to a hospital. Israeli forces shot...

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  • May 22, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers stole 1 residential tent and vandalized a fence in Khirbet Martaba. Israeli also settlers assaulted 2 Palestinian minors in Qusra, leading to the hospitalization...

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  • May 19, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized Palestinian property in Imreiha and assaulted 12 Palestinians in al-Mazra‘a al-Qibliya. Israeli forces seized 2 residential structures belong to 2...

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  • May 16, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces prevented Palestinian farmers from working their land in al-Diyouk al-Tahta and Khirbet Humsa, confiscating 1 tractor in Khirbet Humsa and demolishing 1 fence and...

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  • May 14, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces raided Kafr Qaddum, injuring 3 Palestinians with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also shot and injured 1 Palestinian at a checkpoint near al-...

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  • May 11, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and killed Shireen Abu Akleh, a prominent Palestinian-American Al Jazeera journalist, while her and colleagues, wearing press uniforms, were covering a raid...

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  • May 10, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers uprooted 17 olive trees and vandalized 1 agricultural structure in Kafr ad-Dik. Israeli settlers with military escort raided Joseph’s Tomb, leading to a...

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  • May 8, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor at the Tekoa settlement, claiming that he was armed with a knife. Israeli settlers also set fire to a car parts workshop in...

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  • May 5, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers allowed their sheep to graze on Palestinian farmland planted with olive tree saplings and chickpeas in al-Khader. Israeli settlers also threw stones at...

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  • May 3, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized 3 agricultural structures in Kafr ad-Dik. Israeli settlers also stole crops in the Masafer Yatta area near Hebron. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers...

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  • April 29, 2022

    In the West Bank, 1 Israeli settlement security guard was shot and killed by 2 assailants at the entrance to the Ariel settlement. Israel said it arrested the alleged attackers on 4/30 in Qarawat...

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  • April 28, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers razed Palestinian farmland near Sabastiyya. 3 Palestinians were arrested, including 2 during a late-night raid in Qalqilya and 1 at the Jalamah checkpoint. In...

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  • April 27, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian homes in Kafl Haris, injuring 2. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian and wounded 4 others during a raid in Jenin refugee...

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  • April 26, 2022

    In the West Bank, some 45 Israeli settlers attacked 3 Palestinians with stones, clubs, and pepper spray in Kisan; 1 of the Palestinian victims underwent surgery for his injuries to his head....

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  • April 24, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military protection raided Qaryut; no injuries were reported. Israeli settlers also razed 10 dunams (2.5 acres) of Palestinian-owned land in al-Farisiya....

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  • April 22, 2022

    In the West Bank, 1 Palestinian shot by Israeli forces in al-Yamun on 4/18 succumbed to his injuries. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 6 with...

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  • April 21, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attacked Palestinians working their land near Sinjil. Israeli settlers also assaulted Palestinian shepherds near Kisan. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers blocked a...

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In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and arrested 1 Palestinian trying to enter Israel for work at the separation wall near Zeita. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound. Israeli forces arrested PA governor of Jerusalem Adnan Ghaith during a house raid in Silwan. Governor Ghaith was later placed in house arrest on 8/4. 2 others were arrested, including 1 in the Hadassah hospital and 1 at the Damascus Gate plaza. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/31; MEMO, WAFA 8/1; WAFA 8/3; WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 8/4; MEMO 8/5; PCHR 8/4; UNOCHA 8/5)

The Israeli security cabinet voted to deduct $176 million from its yearly transfer of PA taxes collected by Israel to the PA, saying it is the amount the PA pays to Palestinian militants in Israeli prisons and their families. Meretz leader Nitzan Horowitz abstained from voting, calling the vote a charade as Israel makes up the money in other payments to the PA to alleviate its financial issues. PA presidential spokesperson Nabil Rudeineh called the decision “robbery” and said the PA will not change its policy. (HA, WAFA, WAFA 7/31; MEMO 8/1)

The Israeli cabinet approved plans for the construction of a joint industrial park with Jordan. The $59 million plan will see Israeli and Jordanian factories on the Jordanian side while a logistics wing will be built in Israel above the West Bank. The agreement was reportedly made during Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid’s visit to Amman on 7/27. (HA, JP, TOI 7/31; AJ, MEMO 8/1)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 3 Palestinians with live ammunition during a late-night raid in Tubas; 1 was arrested. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinians in al-Twana, causing tear-gas related injuries. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound. Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian using a baton round during a late-night raid in Kafr ‘Aqab. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/17; PCHR 7/21; UNOCHA 7/22)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man near Turmus ‘Ayya. In East Jerusalem, some 150,000 Palestinian worshippers performed prayers at the Haram al-Sharif compound for Eid al-Adha. 2 Palestinians were arrested, including 1 at the Haram al-Sharif compound and 1 at the Damascus Gate plaza. (WAFA, WAFA 7/9; PCHR 7/21; UNOCHA 7/22)

Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid spoke to Jordanian king Abdullah II. (HA 7/9)

U.S. president Joe Biden published an op-ed in the Washington Post defending his decision to visit Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman in Jeddah next week. Among President Biden’s arguments was working toward normalization between Israel and Saudi Arabia. (WP 7/9; AP, MEE 7/10; HA 7/11)

The UAE announced it will donate $25 million to the Makassed hospital in East Jerusalem. According to Axios reporting, the Biden administration had asked the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar to donate $100 million in total to Palestinian hospitals in East Jerusalem ahead of Biden’s visit where he is expected to announce a U.S. donation of $100 million to hospitals serving Palestinians in East Jerusalem. (AX 7/10)

In the West Bank, settlers with military protection toured Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus, leading to a confrontation with Palestinians protesting the incursion; 3 Israelis were shot and injured by Palestinian gunmen, including 1 soldier, and Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian using live ammunition, 16 others with baton rounds, and 40 were injured with tear gas. Israeli settlers also set fire to Palestinian-owned land planted with grapes and olives in Husan and uprooted some 200 cucumber saplings in Halhul. Israeli forces rammed a motorcycle carrying 2 Palestinians with their car in al-Khader, injuring both. Israeli forces also delivered stop-work notices for 2 houses and 1 agricultural structure in Ma‘in in the Masafer Yatta area. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ni‘lin, al-Am‘ari refugee camp, Qarawat Bani Hassan, Anabta, Arrabah, Aida refugee camp, and al-Arroub refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, 2 Waqf guards were arrested at the Haram al-Sharif compound; 1 of them was later barred from entering the compound for 1 week. 2 others were arrested at the Bab al-Rahma area of the Haram al-Sharif compound and in Silwan. (AP, HA, JP, MEE, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/30; WAFA 7/1; PCHR 7/7; UNOCHA 7/22)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke to U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken in a phone call. According to a statement by the PA, the 2 spoke about preparations for president Joe Biden’s upcoming trip to Palestine and Israel later this month. Secretary Blinken also spoke to the soon-to-be Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid, congratulating him on his appointment (see below). (HA, REU, WAFA 6/30; REU 7/1)

The members of the Knesset voted to dissolve the parliament, leading to a new round of Israeli elections on 11/1. Foreign minister Yair Lapid will be prime minister beginning at midnight until a new prime minister is elected. (HA 6/29; AJ, AJ, AP, AX, HA 6/30)

The EU sent a letter to Al Haq and the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR), informing the Palestinian rights organizations that it will reinstate EU funding that was cut after Israel alleged that Al Haq had financial ties to the PFLP. The EU anti-fraud agency OLAF did not find any indication that the Israeli allegations were true. The EU suspended funding to Al Haq and PCHR in May 2021. (AJ, HA 6/30; WAFA 7/2; MDW 7/5)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces demolished 1 mobile home, water tanks, and tree saplings in az-Za‘ayyem, and 1 agricultural structure in Nahalin. Israeli forces also handed 1 demolition notice against 1 house, stop-work orders against 13 structures in Deir Balut, and 3 stop-work orders against homes in al-Twana in the Masafer Yatta area. 11 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Jaba‘, Silat al-Harithiyya, al-Yamun, ad-Doha, and Hebron. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces arrested 1 Palestinian man, alleging that he stabbed 1 Palestinian police officer at the Haram al-Sharif compound. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/28; WAFA 6/29; PCHR 6/30; UNOCHA 7/22)

Hamas released a video of 1 Israeli citizen held prisoner in Gaza, Hisham al-Sayid, who they say is in deteriorating health. Al-Sayid was seen in the video lying in a bed with an oxygen mask and IV drip. The man was arrested by Hamas after crossing from Israel to Gaza in 2015. (AP, MEE, REU 6/28; MEMO 6/29)

The UAE overturned a death sentence against 1 Palestinian citizen of Israel who was arrested 1 year ago for carrying more than 1 pound of cocaine. She was sentenced to life in prison on 7/7. (AP, HA 6/28; HA 7/7)

In the West Bank, the Shin Bet arrested 3 Palestinian relatives of the Palestinian man who was stabbed to death by an Israeli settler on 6/21 near the Ariel settlement. The 3 were also eyewitnesses to the killing and had given their testimony to Israeli police before being arrested. Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians at the Taibe checkpoint near Tulkarm. Elsewhere, Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian using a baton round during a raid in Nur Shams refugee camp. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Nur Shams refugee camp, Qaryut, Beit Umar, and al-Khader. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound. 1 Palestinian family demolished their own home in Wadi al-Juz, displacing 2. 2 Fatah activists were arrested. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen; no injuries were reported. (HA, MEMO, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/26; HA, HA 6/27; PCHR 6/30; UNOCHA 7/2)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas met with Jordan’s king Abdullah II in Amman. (WAFA, WAFA 6/26)

Israel’s economy ministry said the Israeli cabinet had approved issuing 3,500 additional permits for Palestinians to work in manufacturing and services to relieve an Israeli shortage of skilled workers. (REU 6/26)

The Wall Street Journal reported that senior Israeli military officials partook in a meeting in March this year with top officials from Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the U.S., and representatives from Bahrain and the UAE in Sharm El Sheikh. At the secretive meeting, the officials were reported to have discussed efforts to combat Iranian missile and drone capabilities. The reporting comes 1 week after Israel’s defense minister Benny Gantz said that Israel is working with Arab partners in what he called “Middle East Air Defense Alliance.” (HA, WSJ 6/26; HA, MEMO 6/27)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians using live ammunition during a raid in Dheisheh refugee camp. 11 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ramallah, Bayt Rima, Beit Ula, Fawwar refugee camp, Idhna, Jenin, Jericho, and Fari‘ah refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, 4 Palestinians were arrested during raids in Silwan and Shu‘fat refugee camp. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen west of al-Sudaniyya; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/23; PCHR 6/30; UNOCHA 7/2)

The Israeli justice ministry began the process of registering land adjacent to the Haram al-Sharif compound, including at the Ophel Archeological Park in the Old City. (HA 6/26; MEE 6/27; MEMO 6/29)

Israeli military authorities extended the administrative detention period of 1 Palestinian prisoner by 4 months despite promising to release him at the end of his current detention period after he had been hunger striking for 111 days. The man is currently hospitalized for complications related to his hunger strike, which he ended on 6/21. The man resumed his hunger strike on 7/2 (WAFA 6/23; WAFA 7/5)

Hamas political bureau chief Ismail Haniyeh met with Hezbollah secretary general Hassan Nasrallah in Beirut. There were also reports that Haniyeh was scheduled to meet with Lebanese president Michel Aoun and prime minister Najib Mikati. (HA 6/23)

The PLO executive committee met in Ramallah. During the meeting, the committee discussed the U.S. Biden administration’s failure to fulfil its promises to the Palestinian people and plans to initiate national dialogue to end the intra-Palestinian political division. (WAFA 6/24)

Peace Now released a report marking the first year of the Bennett-Lapid government, detailing how the current Israeli government has accelerated the displacement of Palestinians compared to average numbers during the Netanyahu governments. Compared with the yearly average of the Netanyahu governments, the Bennett-Lapid government has promoted 26% more settlement units, issued tenders for 15% more settlement construction, demolished 35% more Palestinian homes in the West Bank, and 59% more Palestinian homes in East Jerusalem. Additionally, settler violence has risen with 45% and 45 more Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces compared with the yearly average of the Netanyahu governments. (PCN 6/23)

Israel’s foreign minister Yair Lapid met with his Türkiye counterpart Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu in Ankara, in a bid to further normalized relations between the 2 countries. (AJ, ALM, HA, MEE, REU 6/23)

24 Democratic senators, led by Chris Van Hollen (D-MD), wrote a letter to the Biden administration, calling on it to “ensure that a comprehensive, impartial, and open investigation” into the killing of Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh is conducted. The senators also addressed secretary of state Antony Blinken, attorney general Merrick Garland, and FBI director Christopher Wray. (HA, MEE, REU 6/23; AJ, MDW, WAFA 6/24)

President of Suriname Chandrikapersad Santokhi told the National Assembly that Suriname would not build an embassy to Israel in Jerusalem, citing budget constraints. Suriname announced plans to open an embassy to Israel in Jerusalem during a visit by its foreign minister Albert Ramdin on 5/30. (AJ, HA 6/24)

UNRWA announced that it had received pledges of $160 million for its general programming, but warned that it still expects a shortfall of $100 million in its core budget for 2022. (WAFA 6/24)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers re-erected a settlement outpost near al-Lubban ash-Sharqiya; the settlement outpost was dismantled by Israeli forces on 6/7. 18 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ni‘lin, al-Mughayyir, Bayt Rima, Balata refugee camp, Rujeib, Bayt Dajan, Ya‘bad, Jenin, Tulkarm, Tubas, Fawwar refugee camp, and Beit Fajjar. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities took measurements for the demolition of a 4-story apartment building in Silwan. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces arrested 2 Palestinian fishermen and seized their boat within the fishing zone. (PCHR, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/8; PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

The Israeli supreme court rejected a petition for a retrial in a case where the Israeli settler group Ateret Cohanim allegedly purchased 3 buildings in the Old City from the Greek Orthodox church, allowing the settler organization to evict the Palestinian tenants. The Greek Orthodox church called the ruling “unfair” and without “any legal logical basis.” The EU voiced concern about the supreme court ruling. (HA, YNET 6/9; MEMO, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/10; MEMO, WAFA 6/11)

Israel extended its antiquities authority to the West Bank. The Israel Antiquities Authority will replace the Coordinator on Government Activities in the Territories in managing archeological sites in the West Bank. (HA 6/8)

Speaking, via phone link at a conference on the holy sites in Jerusalem, dubbed “Property Documentation and the Historical Status of the Holy al-Aqsa Mosque,” PA president Mahmoud Abbas said that the PA would not accept any changes to the status quo of the holy sites in Jerusalem, saying all Islamic and Christian holy sites are Palestinian. (WAFA, WAFA 6/8; WAFA 6/9)

Israeli media reported that members of a Liberian delegation in Israel headed by minister of state for presidential affairs Nathaniel McGill told Israeli journalists that Liberia will open a trade office in Jerusalem that eventually will become Liberia’s embassy to Israel. The delegation was meeting Israeli officials, including president Isaac Herzog. (ALM 6/9)

Axios reported that last week, Israel refused a proposal for a White House summit with the PA, U.S., Egypt, and Jordan to create a political horizon for ending the occupation. (AX 6/8)

Axios also reported that the White House is sending the newly appointed assistant secretary of state for Near East affairs, Barbara Leaf, to Israel and Ramallah for meetings with Israeli and Palestinian officials. (AX 6/8)

Haaretz reported that the EU commission’s anti-fraud office will not open an investigation into the 6 Palestinian rights organizations Israel deemed terrorist organizations in October 2021, saying that it had not seen sufficient evidence from Israel against the 6 organizations. EU diplomats told Haaretz that the evidence handed to EU countries by Israel was not compelling and did not meet the threshold of proof. (HA 6/8)

In a visit to the Buraq Wall/Western Wall, Bosnia and Herzegovina parliament speaker Dragan Čović told reporters that the Old City is part of Israel. (JP 6/10)

The World Bank approved a grant of $30 million for PA reforms in transparency, inclusion, and green economy and a $7 million grant for social services and online employment oppounities for Palestinians in Gaza. (WAFA 6/8)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attempted to enter Nabi Salih but were repelled by Palestinians. Israeli forces raided Shufa, seizing Palestinian flags from poles and houses. Israeli forces also seized 1 t-shirt from a 3-year-old at a checkpoint near Tura, saying that the t-shirt depicted a rifle. 10 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Hebron, Husan, Nablus, and al-Am‘ari refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound, closing it off to Muslim worshippers. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinian farmers and shepherds east of Rafah, al-Qarara, and Maghazi; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/5; PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

Lebanese president Michel Aoun and prime minister Najib Mikati condemned Israel for placing an Israeli gas-drilling rig in a maritime zone that both countries claim is theirs. Prime Minister Mikati said “the Israeli enemy’s attempts to create a new crisis, by encroaching on Lebanon’s maritime wealth, and imposing a fait accompli in a disputed area in which Lebanon adheres to its rights, is extremely dangerous.” Israel claimed that the gas-drilling rig was placed outside of the disputed area. President Aoun and Prime Minister Mikati later, on 6/6, called on U.S. envoy Amos Hochstein to complete negotiations in Beirut on demarcating the 2 countries’ maritime borders to “prevent an escalation.” A Haaretz investigation using satellite images later suggested that the gas-drilling rig was not in the maritime area that both Israel and Lebanon claim. (AJ, HA, REU 6/5; AJ, AN, HA, MEE, REU, REU, TOI 6/6; REU, REU, REU 6/7; AP, REU 6/9; HA 6/12)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military escort raided Halhul, vandalizing 1 mosque; Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians with live ammunition and others with baton rounds and tear gas when the Palestinians confronted the settlers. Israeli settlers also assaulted Palestinian farmers in Shufa, causing injuries. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers chased Palestinian herders off their land in al-Juwaya in the Masafer Yatta area and let their cattle graze on Palestinian crops. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers with Israeli police escort attacked 3 Palestinians in Silwan, causing hospitalizations, and vandalized 1 vehicle. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces arrested 8 Palestinian fishermen and seized 2 boats within 3 nautical miles northwest of the Rafah seaport; 6 of the 8 fishermen were released on 6/1. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/31; PCHR 6/1)

Hamas’s military judicial authority sentenced 2 Palestinians for spying for Israel. 1 of the Palestinians was sentenced to life in prison while the other received a 7-year sentence. (JP 5/31)

An Israeli military court sentenced 1 Palestinian man to life in prison plus 25 years for the killing of an Israeli soldier in the West Bank on 8/2019 and ordered him to pay $450,000 to the family of the soldier. The Palestinian man was not present at the killing, but the court claimed that he had formed a cell that incited the murder of the Israeli man. (HA 5/31)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke with U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken in a phone call. According to Axios reporting, President Abbas pressed Secretary Blinken on Israeli attempts to change the Status Quo at the Haram al-Sharif compound, the lack of a political horizon, the Israeli settler march on 5/29, and the Biden administration’s failure to act on its campaign promises on Palestine. Abbas also asked the U.S. to remove the PLO from the U.S. list of terror organizations and to reopen the PLO mission in Washington D.C. Abbas also met with Jordanian foreign minister Ayman Safadi in Ramallah. (WAFA 5/31; AX, WAFA 6/1)

Haaretz reported that an Israeli plan to reduce the economic gaps between Palestinians and Israeli Jews living in Israeli cities had been postponed due to failure to fund the program. The plan was finalized in October 2021 in response to tensions between Palestinians and Israeli Jews in cities in which both populations reside. Additionally, some local governments have opposed earmarking funds exclusively for Palestinian communities in the cities they govern. (HA 5/31)

Israel and the UAE signed a free trade agreement removing tariffs on food, agriculture, cosmetics, medical equipment, and medicine. The agreement also defines tax rates, imports and intellectual property. The free trade agreement was part of the Israeli-UAE-U.S. normalization agreement. (REU 5/30; ABC, AJ, ALM, BB, HA, JP, MEMO, NBC, REU, TOI, WSJ 5/31; CNN 6/1; ALM, HA 6/2)

U.S. state department spokesperson Ned Price told reporters that the Biden administration remains committed to reopening the U.S. consulate to Palestinians in Jerusalem. The statement comes after reporting in the Times of Israel that the U.S. had given up on its plans due to the instability in the Israeli government coalition. (REU 5/31; MEMO 6/1; AX 6/4)

15 Democratic members of the U.S. house of representatives, led by Cori Bush (D-MO), wrote a letter to Secretary Blinken urging him to send the “strongest message possible” to prevent Israel from evicting more than 1,000 Palestinians from the Masafer Yatta area, calling the displacement of Palestinians “a war crime.” (HA, MEE 5/31; WAFA 6/1)

Lebanese parliament reelected Nabih Berri of the Amal Movement as speaker at the 1st parliamentary session of the newly elected parliament. Speaker Berri, who received 65 of 128 votes, has been the speaker of the parliament since 1992. (AJ, HA, MEMO, REU, REU 5/31)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers set fire to dozens of Palestinian-owned olive trees in Burin, causing extensive damage. Israeli settlers also interrupted traffic and waved Israeli flags at the main intersection in Huwwara. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers threw stones at a school in ‘Urif, damaging solar panels. Israeli settlers also marched through Hebron, waving Israeli flags. Israeli forces destroyed 1 water well and seized equipment in Ras Atiyeh. Israeli forces also delivered demolition notices for 2 homes in the Masafer Yatta area. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/30; MEMO 5/31; UNOCHA 6/4)

Israel’s defense minister said at a meeting of the Blue and White party that he wants to explore the option of adding the Jewish supremacist group Lehava and the Beitar Jerusalem football club fan faction La Familia to the list of terrorist organizations after both groups participated in Jewish-led violence against Palestinians during the flag march on 5/29. Israel’s public security minister Omar Bar-Lev also said at a Labor meeting that he intends to speak to the attorney-general about the issue. (AJ, F24, HA, JP, TOI 5/30; MEMO, TOI 5/31)

The PA condemned the Israeli flag march in Jerusalem on 5/29, saying it “crossed all red lines.” The UAE foreign ministry and the OIC also condemned the large settler encroachment of the Haram al-Sharif compound on 5/29, asking Israel to reduce tensions. (WAFA 5/30; HA 5/31)

The Israeli foreign ministry announced that Suriname will open its embassy to Israel in Jerusalem. The announcement came shortly after Suriname’s foreign minister Albert Ramdin met with the Israeli foreign minister Yair Lapid in Israel. During the meeting, Foreign Minister Lapid offered Suriname humanitarian assistance to help the country cope with severe flooding. (HA, MEE, MEMO, REU 5/30)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attacked Palestinians in Burin, throwing Molotov cocktails at several homes. Israeli settlers also assaulted 1 Palestinian man working his land near Ya‘bad, causing bruises. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Bazariya, leading to tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Burin, injuring 2 with baton rounds and 7 with tear gas. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Dayr Sharaf, injuring 1 with a baton round and 23 with tear gas. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters near Tulkarm, causing tear-gas related injuries. Meanwhile, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in al-Bireh, injuring 2 with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters at the Jalama checkpoint, causing tear-gas related injuries. Separately, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Atuf, causing tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces also raided Dheisheh refugee camp, injuring 3 Palestinians with live ammunition. In East Jerusalem, some 70,000 Israeli settlers and racist right-wing Israeli activists marched through the Old City, chanting racist and Islamophobic slogans like “Death to Arabs,” insulting the Prophet Muhammad, and mocking the death of Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh during the annual flag march; Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians protesting the march; 81 were injured by baton rounds and pepper spray, 23 of whom were treated at hospitals. More than 60 were arrested, only 2 of which were Israeli settlers. Israeli settlers also attacked several Palestinians and their property in the Old City, including with assault and pepper spray. More than 2,500 Israeli settlers led by MK Itamar Ben-Gvir also toured the Haram al-Sharif compound, raising Israeli flags. Elsewhere, after the flag march, Israeli settlers attacked Palestinians and their property, including several vehicles in Sheikh Jarrah, assaulting 1 Palestinian journalist covering the events for the Israeli public broadcaster Kan. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinians east of al-Qarara and Gaza City; no injuries were reported. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen west of Gaza; no injuries were reported. (REU, WAFA 5/26; ALM, HA, MEE, REU 5/27; ALM, HA, MDW 5/28; AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, HA, HA, MDW, MEE, MEE, NPR, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WSJ 5/29; AJ, AJ, ALM, ALM, AP, CNN, HA, HA, HA, IN, LAT, MEE 5/30; MEMO 5/31; AP, HA, HA 6/2; UNOCHA 6/4)

While speaking at Elon Moreh during an event celebrating the Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem, the commander of the Samaria brigade Roi Zweig said that “the [Israeli] army and the settlement enterprise are one and the same.” (HA 5/30; MDW 6/3)

The Israeli government told the high court of justice that it is enforcing a ban on Israeli settlers accessing the Homesh settlement outpost. Haaretz reporting said that the Israeli military is not enforcing the ban and allows Israeli settlers to access the outpost regularly. (HA 6/2)

The Times of Israel reported that the U.S. Biden administration had shelved plans to reopen the U.S. consulate to Palestinians in Jerusalem and instead is promoting the deputy assistant secretary of state for Israeli and Palestinian affairs Hady Amr to special envoy to Palestinians. The Palestinian Affairs Unit at the U.S. embassy to Israel will, according to the TOI reporting, begin to report to Hady Amr rather than to the U.S. ambassador to Israel. PA officials have voiced frustration with the U.S. administration for failing to fulfill its promises to Palestine and using the Israeli government coalition’s instability as an excuse. (TOI 5/29; AA 5/30; MEMO 5/31; HA 6/2)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers set fire to 1 Palestinian vehicle near the Za‘atra checkpoint. Israeli settlers also vandalized homes, a mosque, and a bulldozer in ‘Urif. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers with military escort stormed Huwwara, leading to a confrontation between Palestinians and Israeli forces; 1 was injured by a baton round and 6 by tear gas. Israeli settlers also removed Palestinian flags in the town. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor while escorting Israeli settlers to Joseph’s Tomb near Nablus; 19 other Palestinians were injured by baton rounds and 67 by tear gas. Israel claimed that Palestinians threw stones and Molotov cocktails at the Israeli forces escorting the settlers. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces demolished a 2-story apartment building in Beit Safafa, displacing 13 Palestinians from 2 families. (ABC 5/24; AJ, AP, CBS, HA, JP, MDW, MEE, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/25; PCHR 5/26; UNOCHA 6/4)

An Israeli appeals court overturned a lower magistrate court’s decision from 5/23 to allow 3 Israeli Jews access to the Haram al-Sharif compound after they performed prayers at the compound, effectively upholding that Jews are not allowed to pray at the compound. The judge cited “safeguarding of public order” as a decision for the ruling. (AJ, HA, MEE, REU 5/26)

Turkey’s foreign minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu toured East Jerusalem in what was described as a private visit to prevent a chance for the public to see him accompanied by Israeli officials. The Waqf was responsible for his security at the Haram al-Sharif compound. Foreign Minister Çavuşoğlu also met with Israeli foreign minister Yair Lapid and Israel’s tourism minister Yoel Razvozov. Çavuşoğlu said that he believes Israeli Turkish normalization will have a positive impact on finding a peaceful solution to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. (HA 5/24; AA, AJ, ALM, HA, HA, REU, REU, WAFA 5/25)

MK Michael Biton of the Blue and White Party announced that he would no longer vote with the Israeli government coalition until an agreement has been made on public transportation reform. Biton said he would make an exception in the case of a no-confidence vote on the Israeli coalition. (TOI 5/25)

The New York Times reported that 1 Iranian engineer, Ehsun Ghadbeigi, was killed and 1 other person was injured in a suicide drone attack on the Parchin military base near Tehran. According to the reporting, a U.S. official confirmed that Ghadbeigi was assassinated but did not say who conducted the attack. The NYT said the attack fit a pattern of Israeli strikes on Iran. (HA 5/26; HA, NYT 5/27; HA 6/6)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers used pepper spray on a Palestinian family at a checkpoint near Burqa, injuring 3, including 1 infant; the infant was rushed to a hospital. Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian minor at a checkpoint near Ras Kaskar. Israeli forces also demolished 3 agricultural structures in Kafr ad-Dik, 2 residential structures near Jericho, and delivered demolition notices for 3 residential structures in al-Juwaya in the Masafer Yatta area. 10 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ni‘lin, Kafr Ni‘ma, Karbatha al-Misbah, Birzeit, Harmala, Tuqu‘, Hebron, Balata refugee camp, Jenin, and Rumana. In East Jerusalem, 2 Israelis were detained at the Haram al-Sharif compound after engaging in Jewish prayers. (TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/23; HA, WAFA, WAFA 5/24; PCHR 5/26; UNOCHA 6/4)

2 Palestinians said that they were tortured for a month by the Shin Bet before confessing to throwing stones at Israeli forces, leading to 8-month sentences. The alleged torture included stress positions, solitary confinement, sleep and food deprivation, and denial of bathroom access. (HA 5/23; HA 5/24)

Haaretz reported that an Israeli probe into the death of a Palestinian man who was attacked by Israeli police in April at the Haram al-Sharif compound but died on 5/14 stated that the man had not been hit by an Israeli baton round; instead, the 21-year-old man had a heart attack that led to head trauma. (HA, TOI 5/23)

The PA foreign ministry said it had submitted a file to the ICC prosecutor documenting Israeli violations of international law, including the killing of Palestinian American Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh. The general secretary of the Palestinian National Initiative Mustafa Barghouti also called out the international community’s double standard in sending 42 ICC investigations to Ukraine to document violations of international law there while not starting an investigation into violations by Israel in Palestine. (AJ, MEE, WAFA 5/23)

Axios reported that the U.S. Biden administration is leading negotiations between Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt over Tiran and Sanafir Island in the Red Sea, which have been subject to dispute between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Axios said that the negotiations are part of the U.S. and Israeli efforts to normalize ties between Israel and Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia’s foreign minister Faisal bin Farhan said later, on 5/24, that Saudi normalization with Israel is dependent on an end to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Haaretz later reported that Saudi Arabia directly approached Israel in 2017 about the status of the 2 islands because a transfer of the 2 required Israeli approval due to the Israeli-Egyptian peace agreement of 1979. (AX 5/23; MEE, MEMO, TOI 5/24; HA, MEMO 5/25; INT 5/27; HA, HA, HA 5/29; MEE, REU 5/30)

Israel Hayom reported that Israel and Morocco had signed 13 memorandums of understanding on issues pertaining to technology, agriculture, and climate at a conference in Casablanca dubbed Connect to Innovate. (ALM 5/26)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers stole 1 residential tent and vandalized a fence in Khirbet Martaba. Israeli also settlers assaulted 2 Palestinian minors in Qusra, leading to the hospitalization of 1 of them. Israeli forces subsequently violently dispersed Palestinians in Qusra protesting the settler attack, injuring 22 with baton rounds and tear gas. Israeli forces also shot and injured 7 Palestinians with baton rounds during a raid in Jifna; others suffered tear-gas related injuries. 8 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Silwad, Ras Karkar, Beit Fajjar, and al-‘Ain refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, dozens of Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound. Israeli forces assaulted and detained 4 Palestinians in the Old City. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/22; WAFA 5/23; PCHR 5/26; UNOCHA 6/4)

A Jerusalem court overturned an Israeli police decision to bar 3 Jewish people from entering the Haram al-Sharif compound after they violated the ban on praying at the Muslim site. PA president Mahmoud Abbas called the court decision “a grave assault against the historic status quo,” and Jordan said the ruling violates international law. Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett’s office issued a statement saying that there had been no policy change at the Haram al-Sharif compound. Hamas said that the court decision crossed “all red lines and is a dangerous escalation.” Israeli police appealed the decision on 5/23. (AJ, HA, MEMO, REU, TOI 5/22; CNN, HA, JP, MEE, TOI, WAFA 5/23)

The 6 Palestinians who escaped Gilboa prison on 9/6/2021 were sentenced to 5 years in prison for their escape and each fined $1,487. 5 other Palestinian prisoners were sentenced to 4 years for assisting in their escape. (AJ, AP, HA, MEMO, WAFA 5/22)

Hamas imposed a 16.5% tax on 24 products from the West Bank, including bottled water and soft drinks. PA economy minister Khaled al-Osaily called the new taxes “illegal and not permissible within the same nation.” (ALM 6/1)

Hamas and the PA warned Israel, in separate statements, against carrying out the right-wing flag march through East Jerusalem on 5/29. (HA, MEMO 5/22)

Ghaida Rinawie Zoabi, who on 5/19 announced that she was leaving the Israeli government coalition, said she would resume supporting the coalition after meetings with foreign minister Yair Lapid and several mayors. Rinawie Zoabi’s reversal brought the government coalition back to an equal number of Knesset members to that of the opposition. Rinawie Zoabi told her colleagues on 5/19 that she was leaving the coalition due to Israeli attacks on Palestinians at the Haram al-Sharif compound and at the funeral for Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh. She further stated that the government coalition is not a government of change but a right-wing government. (AP, AX, HA, MEMO, NYT, REU 5/22; HA 5/23)

In Iran, a colonel in the Iranian Revolutionary Guard’s Quds Forces, Hassan Sayyad Khodaei, was assassinated in front of his house in Tehran by 2 people on a motorbike. Iranian president Ebrahim Raisi said on 5/23 that the assassination is being investigated and that Iran will revenge the killing. The New York Times reported later, on 5/25, that Israel had told the U.S. that it was behind the assassination of Khodaei. (AA, AJ, AP, HA, MEE, REU, TOI 5/22; AP, GDN, HA, IN, JP, MEE, REU 5/23; AJ, ALM, AP, HA 5/24; HA, NYT 5/25; HA 5/26; REU 5/29; REU 5/30)

Chairperson of the EU parliament’s relations with Palestine Manu Pineda was forced to cancel a trip to the occupied Palestinian territories with a group of other EU parliamentarians after Israel refused to allow him entry to Israel and his delegation access to Gaza. President of the EU parliament Roberta Metsola said on Twitter that she regretted the decision but that she would continue her visit to Israel. (HA, TOI 5/21; AJ, JP, TOI 5/22; HA, MEMO, WAFA 5/23; MEMO 5/25)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized Palestinian property in Imreiha and assaulted 12 Palestinians in al-Mazra‘a al-Qibliya. Israeli forces seized 2 residential structures belong to 2 families in Markaz in the Masafer Yatta area, displacing 12 for a 2d time since 5/11, when Israeli forces also demolished their residential structures. Israeli forces also delivered stop-work notices for 6 residential structures in Artas. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Bayt Rima, al-Ubeidiya, al-Khader, Hebron, and Nablus. In East Jerusalem, 3 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Qalandia refugee camp and Biddu. In Israel, Israeli forces tried to shoot down its own drone near Lebanon after misidentifying it. (HA, MEMO, REU, WAFA, WAFA 5/19; WAFA 5/20; PCHR 5/26; UNOCHA 6/4)

Defense for Children International – Palestine said Israel had used a 16-year-old Palestinian girl as a human shield on 5/13 by forcing her to stand in front of an Israeli military vehicle during a raid in Jenin on 5/13. (DCI-P 5/19)

Haaretz reported that Israel’s military police criminal investigation division had decided not to open a criminal investigation into the murder of Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh, reportedly because they fear such an investigation into an Israeli soldier would cause controversy among the Israeli right. Israel’s military also said it may have identified a rifle used by an Israeli soldier that could have killed Abu Akleh, but said it could not confirm this unless the PA hands over the bullet for analysis. The U.S. on 5/20 reiterated its call for a “thorough and transparent” investigation, while not directly addressing the Israeli decision not to launch a criminal investigation. (ABC, AJ, AP, CBS, GDN, HA, INT, MDW, MEE, MEMO, TOI 5/19; AJ 5/20)

1 member of the Meretz party, Ghaida Rinawie Zoabi, said she was leaving the government coalition, making the coalition a minority government with 59 out of 120 seats at the Knesset. Rinawie Zoabi criticized the coalition for being right-wing and hawkish, specifically pointing out the Israeli-led violence at the Haram al-Sharif compound and the killing of Abu Akleh. (AJ, ALM, AP, AX, CNN, HA, HA, MEE, NYT, REU 5/19)

Israel’s defense minister Benny Gantz met with his U.S. counterpart, Secretary Lloyd Austin. According to U.S. officials, the 2 mainly spoke about Iran, but Austin also brought up the Israeli-led violence at the funeral for Abu Akleh on 5/13. (HA, MDW, MEMO 5/19)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces prevented Palestinian farmers from working their land in al-Diyouk al-Tahta and Khirbet Humsa, confiscating 1 tractor in Khirbet Humsa and demolishing 1 fence and 1 storage room in al-Diyouk al-Tahta. Israeli forces also delivered demolition notices for 3 poultry sheds in Ya‘bad. 16 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Beitunia, al-Bireh, Jenin, Halhul, Tulkarm refugee camp, Qalqilya, and Bethlehem. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces violently dispersed the funeral procession for 1 Palestinian man who, on 5/14, succumbed to injuries sustained by Israeli forces at the Haram al-Sharif compound on 4/22; 1 Palestinian man was resuscitated after being shot by Israeli forces using a baton round, some 70 were injured, including 13 that were taken to hospitals, and 20 were arrested. 11 journalists were prevented from covering the event. Israel said 6 police officers were lightly injured by stone throwing. Israeli forces also arrested 1 of the pallbearers who was attacked by Israeli police during the funeral procession for Shireen Abu Akleh on 5/13. Elsewhere, Israeli forces demolished 1 house under construction and 3 agricultural structures in Isawiya. (HA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/16; MDW, WAFA 5/17; AJ, MEE, WAFA 5/18; AJ, REU 5/18; PCHR 5/19; UNOCHA 6/4)

U.S. congressperson Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) introduced a resolution to the U.S. House to recognize the Nakba. The resolution was co-sponsored by Betty McCollum (D-MN), Marie Newman (D-IL), Ilhan Omar (D-MN), Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY), Jamaal Bowman (D-NY), and Cori Bush (D-MO). (AJ 5/16; MDW, MEMO, WAFA 5/17; AJ, JP 5/18; TOI 5/19)

The Intercept reported that 2 U.S. congresspeople André Carson (D-IN) and Lou Correa (D-CA) were circulating a letter demanding that the FBI investigate the 5/11 killing of Abu Akleh, who was an American citizen, in the West Bank. By 5/19, the letter had received 57 signatures from members of the U.S. House. (INT 5/16; AJ 5/19; HA, MEE, WAFA 5/20; MDW 5/26)

The EU announced a donation of $26 million in humanitarian aid to Palestinians in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Gaza. (WAFA 5/16)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces raided Kafr Qaddum, injuring 3 Palestinians with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also shot and injured 1 Palestinian at a checkpoint near al-Bireh, saying he had thrown stones at a settler vehicle. Elsewhere, Israeli forces delivered a demolition notice for 1 mosque in Arab ar-Ramadin. In East Jerusalem, 1 Palestinian man shot by Israeli police with a baton round to his head on 4/22 at the Haram al-Sharif compound died of his injuries. 1 Palestinian family demolished their own home in Sur Baher, displacing 5. (AP, HA, MEE, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/14; PCHR 5/19; UNOCHA 6/4)

Israeli police commissioner Kobi Shabtai said he had ordered a probe into the Israeli police’s violent dispersal of the funeral procession for journalist Shireen Abu Akleh in East Jerusalem. (AJ, AP, HA 5/14; WP 5/15)

Rulers of the UAE appointed Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al Nahyan as the new president of the UAE. Mohammed bin Zayed had served as the de facto ruler of the UAE after his half-brother, President Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan, suffered a stroke in 2014. The UAE announced that President Khalifa had died on 5/13. PA president Mahmoud Abbas visited the UAE on 5/15 to offer his condolences. (WAFA 5/13; AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, HA, REU 5/14; WAFA, WAFA 5/15)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and killed Shireen Abu Akleh, a prominent Palestinian-American Al Jazeera journalist, while her and colleagues, wearing press uniforms, were covering a raid in Jenin refugee camp, 1 other journalist was injured (for more see below). Israeli forces subsequently raided the home of Abu Akleh in East Jerusalem, where her friends and family were gathered; the Israeli forces confiscated Palestinian flags. Israeli forces also shot and killed 1 Palestinian with a baton round in al-Bireh; several others were also injured with baton rounds. Elsewhere, Israeli forces demolished 19 structures in Masafer Yatta, including 9 residential structures and delivered demolition notices for another 19 structures, including 6 homes. The demolitions followed a high court of justice ruling on 5/4, allowing Israel to displace more than 1,000 Palestinians in the area. Israeli forces also demolished 1 Palestinian-owned home in al-Walaja and 1 Palestinian-owned home in al-Twana. 8 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Nur Shams refugee camp, Beita, and Silwad. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian in the Old City, claiming that the man had charged at Israeli police; Israel did not say whether the man was armed. Israeli forces also demolished a commercial structure in Jabel Mukaber. (AA, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, AX, GDN, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, INT, MEE, MEE, MEE, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, NYT, PCHR, PCHR, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/11; +972, AJ, AJ, AJ, ALM, AP, HA, HA, HA, IN, MEE, MEE, MEMO, NYT, PCHR, WAFA, WP 5/12; HA, UNOCHA 5/13; AJ 5/19; AJ, MEE 5/20; UNOCHA 6/4)

After Israeli forces killed Abu Akleh, Israel’s prime minister Naftali Bennett said it was Palestinian gunfire that killed her. Later, after B‘Tselem, among others, had proved that it could not have been the Palestinians Israel claimed had hit Abu Akleh; Israel later acknowledged that it may have been their soldiers that killed Abu Akleh with a shot to the head, as her colleagues and other eyewitnesses had said. Israel said it would investigate the incident and offered that the PA join their investigation, which the PA rejected, calling for an international investigation and referring the case to the ICC. According to the PA, Israel claimed that the PA had rejected the joint investigation before Israel had offered it as a possibility to the PA. PA civil affairs minister Hussein Sheikh said that Israel deliberately had targeted her for assassination. The Israeli diaspora minister Nachman Shai acknowledged in an interview “that Israel’s credibility is not very high in such events.” Several countries called for an investigation into Abu Akleh’s death. Israel later said that its initial investigation into the death of Abu Akleh was inconclusive. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, ALM, ALM, AX, GDN, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, INT, MEE, MEE, MEE, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/11; AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, ALM, CBS, CNN, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA. HA, HA, MDW, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, NYT, NYT, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WP, WSJ 5/12; AJ, AJ, HA, HA, JP, LT, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, REU, TIME, WAFA, WAFA 5/13; REU, WAFA 5/14; AP 5/16; MEE 5/19)

400 members of the Nachala settler movement gathered at a conference in the West Bank, discussing plans to erect 10 new settlement outposts on 20 July later his year. (HA 5/14)

Israel’s interior minister Ayelet Shaked signed an order to merge the unrecognized village of Dahmash with the city of Ramle, despite opposition to the merger from the village’s Palestinian residents. The residents of Dahmash had begun making their own plans for merging with Sdot Dan Regional Council because the council includes several farming communities like Dahmash, but the interior ministry advised against this due to Sdot Dan being predominantly Jewish. (HA 5/12)

United Arab List leader Mansour Abbas told reporters that his party would give the Israeli government coalition another chance after temporarily suspending its membership of the coalition last month after days of Israeli-led violence at the Haram al-Sharif compound during the month of Ramadan. (AP, AX, HA, JP 5/11; ALM 5/12; TOI 5/13)

Syria said Israel had attacked 1 target in Khader in the Quneitra province; no injuries were reported. (AJ. HA, REU 5/11)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers uprooted 17 olive trees and vandalized 1 agricultural structure in Kafr ad-Dik. Israeli settlers with military escort raided Joseph’s Tomb, leading to a confrontation with Palestinians; 1 Palestinian was shot with live ammunition and 13 with baton rounds; others suffered tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces demolished 2 agricultural structures in al-Khader. Israeli forces also raided Burqa, opening fire near 2 schools and forcing them to evacuate. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces demolished a 3-story building in Silwan, displacing 45 Palestinians; according to the families, they were not given prior notices or allowed to remove their possessions. 5 Palestinians were injured as Israeli police violently dispersed protesters during the demolition. (HA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/10; WAFA 5/11; PCHR 5/12; UNOCHA 6/4)

Haaretz reported that Israel had revoked entry and work permits from 1,100 Palestinians who are relatives or friends of Palestinians accused of recent attacks against Israelis. In March, Israel expanded the list those subject to collective punishment measures to include 2d-degree relatives of suspected Palestinian attackers. The 2d-degree category includes cousins, grandparents, neighbors, and close friends. (HA 5/10)

Israel’s prime minister Naftali Bennett claimed that he had expelled 6 Waqf guards for supporting Hamas and said he had rejected Jordan’s request to increase Waqf staffing at the Haram al-Sharif compound. (HA, TOI 5/10)

EU high commissioner for foreign and security affairs Josep Borrell hosted a meeting of the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee at the EU commission’s building in Brussels. PA prime minister Mohammed Shtayyeh and finance minister Shukri Bishara participated in the meeting, as did Israeli regional affairs minister Issawi Frej. Prime Minister Shtayyeh called on High Commissioner Borrell to hold Israel responsible for its actions during a meeting between the 2 of them. (UNESCO, WAFA 5/10; ALM 5/11)

Kuwait contributed $2 million to the UNRWA general programming. (WAFA 5/10)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor at the Tekoa settlement, claiming that he was armed with a knife. Israeli settlers also set fire to a car parts workshop in Beit Umar, causing around $15,000 worth of damage. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers uprooted some 20 olive trees in al-Twana. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man at the separation barrier near Tulkarm as he attempted to enter Israel. Israeli forces also delivered demolition notices for 4 houses in the Masafer Yatta area and demolished 1 home in al-Twana, leading to a confrontation with Palestinians; light injuries were reported. Israeli forces also assaulted 1 Palestinian journalist covering an Israeli force raid in al-Twana. The journalist was hospitalized for his injuries. Israel said it had arrested 2 Palestinians in Rummana, who Israel suspects killed 3 Israelis in Elad on 5/5. 13 others were arrested during late-night raids in Qarawat Bani Hassan, Balata refugee camp, al-Walaja, Bayt Rima, Bil‘in, ‘Azun, Qatanna, and Hizma. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound. Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian man at the Damascus Gate plaza, saying that the man had stabbed and wounded 1 Israeli police officer. Israeli forces also delivered a demolition notice for 1 2-story apartment building in Silwan. (+972, AJ, AJ, HA, HA, HA, HA, MEE, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/8; HA, HA, PCHR, WAFA 5/9; PCHR 5/12; UNOCHA 5/13)

Israel said that on 5/9 it would reopen the crossings to the West Bank, allowing Palestinian workers and merchants to enter Israel after closing the crossings on 5/3. An exception was made in Rumana, where Israel said the Elad attackers were from. Crossings between Israel and Gaza remained closed. (HA 5/8; HA 5/25)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers allowed their sheep to graze on Palestinian farmland planted with olive tree saplings and chickpeas in al-Khader. Israeli settlers also threw stones at Palestinian vehicles near Burqa. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers vandalized 40 olive tree saplings in Sinjil. Israeli settlers also erected structures on Palestinian-owned land in Jalud. Meanwhile, armed Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man and set up a canopy near al-Khader. 2 Palestinian minors were arrested near the Aida refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians at the Haram al-Sharif compound to clear the area for Israeli settlers; 15 Palestinians were injured by baton rounds and tear gas, and some 60 were arrested. Nearly 1,000 Israeli settlers toured the compound, waving Israeli flags. The PA and Jordan condemned the dispersal of Palestinians at the compound and the settler visit. In Gaza, 1 Palestinian was arrested near the Gaza fence east of Khan Yunis. In Israel, unknown assailants killed 3 people and wounded 4 others during a knife and axe attack in the Ultra-Orthodox city of Elad. Israel said they had identified 2 suspects from Jenin. PA president Mahmoud Abbas condemned the attack. Thousands of Palestinians commemorated the Nakba by marching to the depopulated village of Mi‘ar in the Galilee. (AA, AJ, AN, AP, F24, HA, HA, HA, JP, MEE, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, NBC, NPR, NYT, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/5; AJ, AP, AP, CNN, HA, JP, REU, WAFA 5/6; PCHR 5/12; UNOCHA 5/13)

Israel extended the closure of all crossings between Gaza, the West Bank, and Israel to 5/8, citing the attack in Elad (see above). The crossings were scheduled to be reopened at midnight on 5/5. (HA 5/1; HA 5/5; AJ 5/6)

Israel published a declaration signed on 4/12, which seizes 22,000 dunams (5,445 acres) of land south of Jericho for an Israeli nature reserve named Nachal Og in the West Bank. About 6,000 dunams (1,483 acres) are privately owned by Palestinians. Palestinians will be forbidden from grazing their livestock and planting on the 22,000 dunams once the declaration takes effect, 60 days after its publishing. (WAFA 5/5; PCN 5/24; HA 5/25)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized 3 agricultural structures in Kafr ad-Dik. Israeli settlers also stole crops in the Masafer Yatta area near Hebron. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man in Kafr Malik. 5 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in al-Yamun, Bayt Qad, and al-Ayn refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound, singing the Israeli anthem and waving Israeli flags. Israeli forces delivered demolition notices for 1 house in Silwan and 1 house in Shu‘fat refugee camp. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinian farmers east of Khuza‘a; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/3; PCHR 5/12; UNOCHA 5/13)

Israel closed all crossings between Gaza, the West Bank, and Israel from 3pm for the Israeli celebrations of Memorial Day and Independence Day. The crossings are scheduled to reopen at midnight on 5/5. (HA 5/1)

Haaretz reported that the Jerusalem municipality and the Israeli ministry of tourism plans to erect a 328-foot flagpole donning the Israeli flag in Jerusalem. The flag, if the plans is carried out, will be visible in all of Jerusalem. (HA 5/3)

In the West Bank, 1 Israeli settlement security guard was shot and killed by 2 assailants at the entrance to the Ariel settlement. Israel said it arrested the alleged attackers on 4/30 in Qarawat Bani Hassan and identified them as Palestinians. Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ brigade took responsibility for the attack. Israeli settlers razed farmland in al-Farisiya. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 9 with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also placed dirt mounds at the northern entrance to Salfit, blocking access. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Beit Dajan, causing tear-gas related injuries. 3 Palestinians were arrested, including 2 during late-night raids in Bil‘in and Tulkarm and 1 at the Qalandia checkpoint. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers threw stones and bottles at a bus carrying Palestinians in the French Hill neighborhood. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters at the Haram al-Sharif compound, injuring 42 with baton rounds and tear gas; 22 were hospitalized for their injuries. 1 Palestinian was arrested in the Old City. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 6 nautical miles northwest of Rafah; no injuries were reported. In Israel, 1 mosque in Jaffa was vandalized with spray paint depicting the Star of David and the Israeli flag. (AJ, HA, HA, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/29; AJ, AP, AP, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/30; PCHR 5/12; UNOCHA 5/13)

The head of Bisan Center for Research and Development Ubai Aboudi said Israel had prevented him from traveling to a conference in Mexico via the Allenby bridge. Aboudi, who is a U.S. citizen, said the Israeli officers refused to tell him why they prevented him from traveling abroad. The Bisan Center is 1 of 6 Palestinian rights organizations that was placed on Israel’s terrorism list in October. 1 day later, on 4/30, Israel prevented the director of Addameer, Sahar Francis, from traveling to the same conference from Ben Gurion airport. (MDW 4/29; AA, AP 5/1; TOI 5/2)

Israel charged 2 Palestinians from Umm al-Fahm for having prior knowledge of an attack in Hadera on 3/27, in which 2 were killed by a Palestinian citizen of Israel. (HA 4/29)

The student newspaper at Harvard University, The Harvard Crimson, endorsed the BDS movement in an editorial. (JDF 4/29; MDW, TOI 4/30; HA, MEMO 5/1)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers razed Palestinian farmland near Sabastiyya. 3 Palestinians were arrested, including 2 during a late-night raid in Qalqilya and 1 at the Jalamah checkpoint. In East Jerusalem, 1 Palestinian was arrested near the Haram al-Sharif compound. (WAFA, WAFA 4/28; MEMO 4/29; PCHR 5/12; UNOCHA 5/13)

1 Palestinian who had been on hunger strike for 57 days in protest over his administrative detention was taken to a hospital as his condition deteriorated. (WAFA 4/28)

The Israeli supreme court rejected a petition by Peace Now and the city of Hebron to prevent the construction of the Hezekiah settlement in Hebron, which will add 31 settlement units to the city. The supreme court ordered the petitioners to pay $3,000 to the Israeli state and to the Israeli settlement in Hebron. (HA 4/28; MEMO 4/29)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian homes in Kafl Haris, injuring 2. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian and wounded 4 others during a raid in Jenin refugee camp. 6 were arrested during the raid and a punitive demolition notice was posted on the family home of 1 Palestinian who allegedly killed 3 Israelis on 4/7 in Tel Aviv. 8 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ramallah, Hebron, and Beit Duqqu. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen northwest of Rafah, arrested 6, and seized 1 boat. (AJ, AP, HA, MEE, MEE, PCHR, PCHR, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/27; MEMO, PCHR 4/28; UNOCHA 5/13)

1 Palestinian citizen of Israel was sentenced to 14 years in prison for allegedly planning an attack in Jerusalem in November 2020. According to the Israeli prosecutor, the man admitted that he wanted to harm Israeli soldiers but not civilians. (HA 4/27)

A 97-page Israeli document called “Procedure for Entry and Residence for Foreigners in Judea and Samaria Area,” originally published in February, surfaced in the media. The document, which will replace a 4-page ordinance on entry to the West Bank on 5/22, further complicates travel to the West Bank, especially for Palestinians. Palestinians holding foreign citizenship must, according to the new ordinance, include names and ID numbers of all relatives and people they might stay with while traveling to the West Bank. Palestinians must also declare if they own property in the West Bank or stand to inherit. Foreigners visiting Palestinians in the West Bank must also be given prior permission while those visiting settlers do not have to. Israel will also limit the number of foreign students at West Bank universities to 150; this will not apply to settlement universities. (AJ 4/27; AP 5/5)

In Syria, 9 people were killed, including 5 Syrian soldiers, during an Israeli air attack near Damascus. The 4 other victims were described as soldiers of other nationalities. (AP 4/26; AJ, AP, HA, MEMO 4/27; MEMO 4/28)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas met with Jordanian king Abdullah II in Amman. The 2 discussed the recent events at the Haram al-Sharif compound. (WAFA 4/27)

In the West Bank, some 45 Israeli settlers attacked 3 Palestinians with stones, clubs, and pepper spray in Kisan; 1 of the Palestinian victims underwent surgery for his injuries to his head. Israeli settlers also assaulted 1 Palestinian shepherd near Yatta, causing bruises. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian and injured 3 others during a raid in Aqabat Jaber refugee camp. Israeli forces also shot and injured 1 Palestinian during a raid in Qabatiya. Elsewhere, Israeli forces confiscated 1 concrete mixer in Rujeib. (AJ, AP, HA, MEE, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/26; HA, PCHR 4/27; PCHR 4/28; UNOCHA 5/13)

Israel reopened the Erez crossing from Gaza to Israel after closing it on 4/23 as collective punishment for rockets launched from Gaza at Israel. (AP, HA 4/25)

Haaretz reported that Israel, on 4/21, turned away Palestinians who refused to hand over their ID cards to Israeli police at the Haram al-Sharif compound. The Palestinians who did hand over their ID cards had to collect them at Israeli police stations after leaving the compound. The Association for Civil Rights in Israel criticized the policy, saying it undermined the right of freedom of worship. (HA 4/26)

Haaretz also reported that the number of Palestinians held by Israel on administrative detention had reached a 5-year high at 579. Haaretz said that in March and April alone, 109 Palestinians were placed in administrative detention. (HA 4/26)

The U.S. state department spokesperson Ned Price said in a response to a question about Israel’s terrorist designation of 6 Palestinian rights organizations from October 2021 that the U.S. is reviewing the material provided by Israel. Spokesperson Price further stated that the U.S. has made clear to Israel that it is important “that independent civil society organizations in the West Bank and in Israel must be able to continue their important work.” (DOS 4/26; AA 4/27)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military protection raided Qaryut; no injuries were reported. Israeli settlers also razed 10 dunams (2.5 acres) of Palestinian-owned land in al-Farisiya. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers stole 35 olive tree saplings near Azmut. Israeli forces razed Palestinian-owned land in Burin. Israeli forces also shot and injured 1 Palestinian man trying to enter Israel for work by the separation barrier near Tulkarm. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 6 nautical miles northwest of Rafah; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/24; PCHR 4/28; UNOCHA 5/13)

The Israeli high court of justice denied a petition to reopen an investigation into the killing of 4 Palestinian children by Israeli forces in 2014. The justices said the petitioners did not point to sufficient flaws in the attorney general’s decision to close the investigation. The petition was filed by Adalah, Al Mezan, and the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights. (AP, HA, PCHR 4/24; WAFA 4/25; MDW 4/26; PCHR 4/27; AJ 4/30)

1 Palestinian man was sentenced to life in prison for the murder of 1 Israeli man in Israel in 2020. The Palestinian man was also ordered to pay $79,000 to the family of the Israeli man. (HA, TOI, WAFA 4/24)

Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett spoke to U.S. president Joe Biden, who said he would be visiting Israel in the coming months. The 2 also discussed potential U.S. plans to delist the Iranian Revolutionary Guard from its list of terrorist organizations—a move Israel opposes—and violence in Jerusalem. (ABC, AJ, AP, AX, HA, HILL, JP, MEE, REU, TOI 4/24)

Jordanian king Abdullah II, Egyptian president Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi, and UAE crown prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan met in Cairo, discussing trilateral ties and the situation at the Haram al-Sharif compound. (NAT, TOI 4/24)

In the West Bank, 1 Palestinian shot by Israeli forces in al-Yamun on 4/18 succumbed to his injuries. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 6 with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also raided Nabi Salih, injuring 1 Palestinian with a baton round. Elsewhere, Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian attempting to enter Israel for work at the separation wall west of Jenin. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians at the Haram al-Sharif compound, injuring 57, including 15 who were taken to hospitals for treatment; 2 were in serious condition; 1 of them fell into a coma after being hit in the head with a baton round. 1 Israeli police officer was injured by a rock to his face. For the 1st time, Israel used drones to fire tear gas at Palestinians at the compound. Some 150,000 worshippers prayed at the compound for the 3d Friday of the month of Ramadan. 9 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Isawiya, Jabel Mukaber, and Ras al-Amud. In Gaza, Israel said 2 rockets were launched at Israel but fell inside of Gaza. In Israel, Israeli police violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Umm al-Fahm; tear-gas related injuries were reported. (AJ, AJ, AP, HA, HA, HA, HA, MDW, MEMO, NPR, NYT, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/22; HA, MEMO, WAFA 4/23; AJ 4/24; PCHR 4/28; UNOCHA 5/13)

Israel closed all crossings from the West Bank and Gaza to East Jerusalem and Israel for the Jewish holiday of Passover. The closure will remain in effect until an unspecified time on 4/23. Exceptions were made for Palestinians from the West Bank who had been issued permits to pray at the Haram al-Sharif compound for the Friday prayers. (HA 4/21)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attacked Palestinians working their land near Sinjil. Israeli settlers also assaulted Palestinian shepherds near Kisan. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers blocked a road between Nablus and Qalqilya.

In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians protesting an incursion by Israeli settlers at the Haram al-Sharif compound; 30 were injured by baton rounds and tear gas.

In Gaza, 5 rockets were fired at Israel; 4 of them were intercepted and 1 caused damage to a house in Sderot. Israel subsequently conducted air strikes, causing damage to several homes in al-Bureij refugee camp, Gaza City, and Nusseirat refugee camp. (HA 4/20; AJ, AJ, AP, AP, CNN, HA, IN, JP, NPR, NYT, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/21; PCHR 4/28; UNOCHA 5/13)

Israel closed all crossings from the West Bank and Gaza to East Jerusalem and Israel at 5 P.M. for the Jewish holiday of Passover. The closure will remain in effect until an unspecified time on 4/23. (HA 4/21)

U.S. acting assistant secretary of state for Near East affairs Yael Lempert and deputy assistant secretary for Israeli and Palestinian affairs Hady Amr met with PA president Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli foreign minister Yair Lapid in separate meetings in an effort to calm the situation surrounding the Haram al-Sharif compound, where Israeli forces have attacked Palestinian worshippers for a week, including in al-Aqsa Mosque. (HA 4/21; WAFA 4/22)

The Arab league slammed Israel for interfering with Muslims’ rights to worship at the Haram al-Sharif compound and criticized the Israeli government for continuing to allow Jewish people to worship at the Holy site. The statement was released after a meeting of Arab League foreign ministers in Jordan from the UAE, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Egypt, Jordan, and the PA. (AJ, REU, WAFA 4/21)

Iran said it had arrested 3 people suspected of being Mossad agents. (HA 4/20; AP 4/21)