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  • March 31, 2024

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assault 4 Palestinians during a raid in Arab ar-Rashaiyda. Israeli settlers also assault a Palestinian man near Dura, threatening to kill him if he continues to...

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  • December 13, 2023

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized several water tanks and a vehicle during a raid in Shaab al-Butum and Wadi Abu Jahish in the Masafer Yatta area. The Israeli raid in Jenin continued...

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  • May 16, 2021

    In the West Bank, 1 Palestinian minor, shot by Israeli forces on 5/12, succumbed to his wounds. Israeli settlers shot and injured 1 Palestinian while raiding Bani Na‘im. Israeli settlers with...

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  • May 15, 2021

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers raided Qarawat Bani Hassan before confronted by Palestinian residents. Israeli settlers attacked 1 Palestinian minor near Kisan, causing injuries. Elsewhere,...

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  • May 13, 2021

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attacked Palestinian shepherds and international activists using stones and batons near Yatta, damaging 1 vehicle. Israeli settlers also threw stones at...

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  • September 16, 2020

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces seized 1 bulldozer north of Tubas. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in and around Bethlehem, Nablus, Jenin, Ramallah, and Jericho. In East...

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  • September 15, 2020

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces clashed with Palestinians near Ramallah; 1 Palestinian minor was hit by shrapnel from a tear gas canister. Israeli forces also forced Palestinian workers to stop...

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  • November 12, 2018

    After Hamas fighters fire an anti-tank missile at an IDF bus near Kibbutz Kfar Aza, critically injuring an Israeli soldier, Israeli forces continue the assault on Gaza that began last night,...

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  • August 4, 2018

    In Gaza, Israeli drones bomb sites near Jabaliya refugee camp and near al-Bureij refugee camp allegedly being used as staging areas for incendiary kite and balloon attacks; there are no reported...

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  • July 29, 2018

    An Israeli drone bombs a group of Palestinians near Jabaliya refugee camp in Gaza, killing 2 and causing moderate damage. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine later claims the 2 men...

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  • July 10, 2018

    Off Gaza’s coast, Israeli naval forces open fire on a Palestinian fishing boat attempting to ferry 7 wounded Palestinians out of Gaza for medical attention. The Israeli forces tow the boat to the...

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  • January 5, 2017

    In the West Bank, IDF troops violently disperse tens of Palestinians protesting settlement expansion nr. Tubas; 1 Palestinian photojournalist is assaulted and injured. They also conduct raids in...

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  • September 29, 2015

    In Gaza, Sarayat al-Shaykh Umar Hadid fighters fire a long-range rocket into Israel, announcing on Twitter that the rocket attack was retaliation for the IDF’s killing of a Palestinian on 9/22 in...

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  • June 29, 2015

    In the West Bank, Palestinian assailants shoot and injure 4 Israeli settlers in a vehicle outside an Israeli settlement nr. Nablus; 1 will succumb to his injuries on 6/30. IDF troops impose a...

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  • May 26, 2015

    In Gaza, a group claiming affiliation with the Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) fires a rocket into Israel nr. Ashdod, causing no damage or injuries (the group will not take credit until 6...

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  • August 10, 2014

    Israeli attacks on the Gaza Strip continue, killing 24 Palestinians. Palestinians fire rockets into Israel, with 2 hitting Sderot and starting a small fire. There are no injuries. Iron Dome...

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  • August 4, 2014

    The IDF continues its assault on the Gaza Strip by air, land, and sea, killing 64 Palestinians with strikes on approximately 100 targets. Attacks occur before and after a humanitarian cease-fire...

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  • July 21, 2014

    The IDF continues its attacks on the Gaza Strip from land, sea and air, killing 78 Palestinians, including 25 people from a single family nr. the border with Egypt and 10 who die in Khan Yunis...

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  • July 16, 2014

    The IDF strikes over 50 targets across the Gaza Strip, including the Interior Ministry building and a hospital, killing 23 Palestinians. Among these are 4 children, who are killed when IDF troops...

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  • July 14, 2014

    The IDF conducts approximately 100 strikes on targets across the Gaza Strip, killing 14 Palestinians in Bayt Hanun, Rafah, Khan Yunis and Dayr al-Balah. Hospitals in Gaza report a serious shortage...

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  • July 11, 2014

    IDF air strikes and shelling of the Gaza Strip continues for a 4th day, killing 16 Palestinians as 230 targets are hit. The attacks cause widespread damage to houses, infrastructure, and public...

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  • July 10, 2014

    The IDF launches dozens of air strikes across the Gaza Strip, killing 28 Palestinians and wounding approximately 550. There are fatal strikes in Gaza City, Rafah, Dayr al-Balah, Jabaliya, Khan...

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  • March 31, 2013

    Dozens of right-wing Jewish activists visit the al-Aqsa Mosque compound in Jerusalem, prompting clashes with Palestinian worshippers, some of whom are arrested by Israeli police. In the West Bank...

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  • October 20, 2012

    Palestinians in the West Bank vote in local elections, the 1st elections in 6 yrs. Out of the 353 municipalities, the poll was held in only 92; 181 municipalities form councils without elections...

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  • November 4, 2011

    The Israeli navy halts and boards 2 boats (sailing as the “Freedom Waves Flotilla”) carrying 27 international activists and journalists (fr. Ireland, Canada, the U.S., and Australia) attempting to...

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  • August 20, 2011

    Cross-border violence in Gaza enters its 3d day. Israel conducts 3 drone air strikes and 7 artillery strikes on Gaza, injuring 6 Palestinians (3 militants and 3 bystanders, including a woman and ...

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  • March 15, 2011

    Uruguay recognizes an independent Palestinian state on the 1967 lines. (XIN 3/16)

    Egypt completes repairs to its natural gas pipeline damaged during the 2/2011 Egyptian unrest (see...

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  • February 19, 2011

    Israeli naval vessels intercept a Palestinian fishing boat off the n. Gaza coast, escort it to Ashdod, confiscate the boat, and release the fishermen. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 4...

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  • January 18, 2009

    Israel’s unilateral cease-fire goes into effect early in the morning as planned, marking the official end to OCL. The IDF begins withdrawing ground troops fr. Gaza early in the morning and...

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  • January 16, 2009

    In Washington, Livni and Rice sign the MOU on curbing arms smuggling, aimed at facilitating Israel’s acceptance of the EgyptHamas cease-fire offer (see 1/15). Anonymous Israeli military officials...

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In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assault 4 Palestinians during a raid in Arab ar-Rashaiyda. Israeli settlers also assault a Palestinian man near Dura, threatening to kill him if he continues to herd his sheep in the area. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers steal a tractor in Battir. Israeli settlers also throw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling between Huwwara and Qalqilya. Israeli forces raid Balata refugee camp, demolishing homes and razing a main street. Israeli forces also arrest 10 Palestinians during late-night raids in and around Nablus, Balata refugee camp, Qalqilya, Bethlehem, Hebron, and Jenin. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces arrest 5 Palestinians during raids in al-Tur and Shu’fat refugee camp. In Gaza, Israeli forces bomb Maghazi, Dayr al-Balah, Khan Yunis, and Gaza City, killing at least 77 people, including 4 at a tent for journalists outside of al-Aqsa Hospital in Dayr al-Balah where a WHO team is visiting to the assess needs of the hospital. Israeli forces also continue to raid and besiege al-Shifa Hospital. 4 Palestinians die of starvation at the Kamal Adwan Hospital, bringing the number of hunger-related deaths to at least 34. An Israeli soldier is killed in combat and another soldier succumbs to wounds sustained on 3/29. In Ashdod, Israeli forces shoot and kill a Palestinian man who allegedly stabbed and injured 3 Israelis in a shopping mall. In Beersheba, Israeli forces shoot and kill a Palestinian citizen of Israel who allegedly stabbed and injured an Israeli soldier at a bus station. In Jerusalem, tens of thousands of Israelis rally, calling for new elections. In Lebanon, Israeli forces bomb Kounine, killing Hezbollah commander Ismail al-Zin. Israeli forces also bomb Meiss Ej-Jabal, Blida, Markaba, and Kafr Kila. Hezbollah forces attack Israeli military sites in Metulla and al-Manara. In Syria, Israeli forces bomb Damascus, killing 2 people. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, HA, HA, NYT, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 3/31; AJ, HA, HA, NYT 4/1; UNOCHA 4/3)

More than 32,782 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces in Gaza, including at least 13,400 children and 8,900 women, and around 75,298 have been injured since 10/7/2023. At least 7,000 people are missing in rubble, including 1,700 children. 445 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7/2023, including 112 children. More than 4,700 people have been injured. Israel reports that 1,139 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed and 5,400 have been injured in Israel since 10/7/2023, including Israeli soldiers. In addition, 254 Israeli soldiers have been killed and 1,520 injured in Gaza since the ground invasion began on 10/27/2023. Over 1.93 million Palestinians, nearly 85% of the population of Gaza, have been displaced since 10/7/2023. There has been a complete electricity blackout in Gaza since 10/12/2023 due to the Israeli blockade. At least 70,000 housing units have been destroyed and 290,000 have been damaged in Israeli airstrikes since 10/7/2023, constituting over 60% of all housing units. 226 trucks carrying aid enter Gaza. U.S. forces airdrop 50,000 meals over northern Gaza. UK forces also airdrop aid over Gaza. (AJ, HA, WAFA, WAFA 3/31; UNOCHA 4/3)

Israeli military officials and soldiers tell Haaretz that Israel has designated “kill zones” in Gaza where all Palestinians entering the invisible zone are classified as terrorists and soldiers are ordered to kill all unarmed adult men. (HA 3/31)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas swears in the new PA government headed by prime minister Mohammad Mustafa, who also will be the new foreign minister. (HA 3/30; AJ, WAFA 3/31; WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/1)

A Hamas official tells Al-Aqsa TV that the PA has sent undercover security forces to Gaza using an Egyptian aid convoy and that 6 members of the security forces have been arrested. The PA denies the claim. (AJ, REU 3/31; HA 4/1)

Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu says in a speech that “the whole world is ganging up on us,” calling on Israelis to unite in defending Israel physically and morally. Netanyahu also says the invasion of Rafah is not delayed due to U.S. pressure and rejects calls for early elections. After the speech Netanyahu undergoes surgery for a hernia, leaving Justice Minister Yariv Levin as acting prime minister. Netanyahu will be released from the hospital on 4/2. (AJ, AP, HA, NYT, REU 3/31; HA, REU 4/1)

Israeli attorney general Gali Baharav-Miara sends letters to the ministers of defense and education, telling them that ultra-Orthodox yeshiva students must be drafted into the military starting on 4/1. (AJ, HA 3/31)

Pope Francis calls for an immediate ceasefire in Gaza and the release of captives during his Easter address. (AJ, AJ, HA, NYT, WAFA 3/31)

The Wall Street Journal reports that the U.S. is concerned that intelligence sharing with Israel is leading to civilian deaths. The Journal also says that the Biden administration wrote a memo after 10/7/2023 expanding the scope of intelligence sharing with Israel. (AJ, HA, WSJ 3/31)

UN sources tell the Guardian that Israeli military chief of staff Herzi Halavi presented to UN officials last week a plan to dismantle UNRWA, which would include the transfer of some UNRWA staff to a replacement agency that would focus on the delivery of aid in Gaza or expanding the World Food Programme’s operations in Gaza. (GDN 3/31; AJ 4/1)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized several water tanks and a vehicle during a raid in Shaab al-Butum and Wadi Abu Jahish in the Masafer Yatta area. The Israeli raid in Jenin continued from 12/12, 3 Palestinian were killed, 2 in a drone strike including a child, raising the number of Palestinians killed during the raid to 9. Israeli forces also injured 3 others, destroyed 4 homes and a barber shop with anti-tank missiles, and arrested several, including the Jenin Freedom Theatre director Ahmed Tobasi during the raid. Israeli soldiers filmed themselves singing a Hanukkah song using a mosque’s loudspeaker. 5 Israeli soldiers were injured in friendly fire during the raid. Elsewhere, Israeli forces assaulted 4 Palestinians after detaining them in al-‘Azza refugee camp. Israeli forces also demolished a Palestinian home in Susiya in the Masafer Yatta area. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities demolished 4 Palestinian homes in Silwan, Ras al-Amud, and Wadi Qaddum, displacing 36 people. In Gaza, Israeli forces bombed Khan Yunis, Nuseirat refugee camp, Dayr al-Balah, Gaza City, and Rafah, killing at least 194 Palestinians and injuring 499. Israeli forces also bombed 2 UNRWA shelters in Jabalia refugee camp and raided the Kamal Adwan Hospital for the second day in a row, arresting several people. Rockets fired from Gaza at Israel damaged a supermarket in Ashdod. In the Red Sea, 2 missiles were fired from Yemen at a commercial tanker, landing in the sea. (AJ, AP, AP, HA, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 12/13; HA, NYT, NYT, REU 12/14)

More than 18,682 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces in Gaza, including at least 7,729 children and 5,153 women, and around 50,594 have been injured since 10/7. At least 8,000 people were missing in rubble, including 1,700 children. 277 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7, including 71 children. More than 3,387 people have been injured. Israel reported that 1,200 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed and 5,400 have been injured since 10/7. 115 Israeli soldiers have been killed and 600 injured in Gaza since the ground invasion began on 10/27. Over 1.93 million Palestinians, nearly 85% of the population of Gaza, have been displaced since 10/7. There has been a complete electricity blackout in Gaza since 10/12 due to the Israeli blockade. As of 12/3, at least 52,000 housing units had been destroyed and 253,000 had been damaged in Israeli airstrikes since 10/7, constituting 60% of all housing units. Heavy rain worsened the situation for displaced Palestinians as several parts of Gaza flooded. 152 trucks carrying aid entered Gaza via the Rafah crossing. Aid was only distributed in Rafah. 268 dual nationals were evacuated to Egypt. (AJ, REU, UNOCHA, UNOCHA, WAFA 12/13)

Palestinian witnesses told Al Jazeera that Israeli forces brought Palestinians to the Shadia Abu Ghazala School in Faluja and executed them, including women, children, and babies. Footage from the building showed dead people lying on the floor of a classroom and hundreds of bullet casings. (AJ 12/13)

Senior Hamas official Mousa Abu Marzouk told Al-Monitor that Hamas could follow the PLO and recognize Israel as a step toward reconciliation with Fatah. Separately, Hamas political leader Ismail Haniyeh said in a speech that “[w]e are open to discuss any ideas or initiatives that could end the [Israeli] aggression and open the door for putting the Palestinian house in order in both the West Bank and the Gaza Strip,” calling any political arrangement in Gaza without the inclusion of Hamas a “delusion.” (ALM, HA 12/13; HA, HA 12/14)

CNN reported that a U.S. intelligence assessment said that about 40-45% of the 29,000 air-to-ground munitions Israel had used on Gaza have been unguided “dumb bombs.” (CNN 12/13)

The Israeli war cabinet blocked Mossad director David Barnea’s request to travel to Qatar to restart a ceasefire/prisoner negotiation. (HA, HA 12/13; HA 12/14)

A poll conducted by the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research showed that 42% of Palestinians in Gaza and 44% of Palestinians in the West Bank said they support Hamas, up from 12% in September, while 88% said they wanted PA president Mahmoud Abbas to resign. The poll also found that Palestinian prisoner Marwan Barghouti would win a presidential election. (AJ, AP, HA 12/13; REU 12/14)

Israeli ambassador to the UK Tzipi Holovely told Sky News that Israel rejects a 2-state solution. (AJ 12/13; HA 12/14)

U.S. officials told the Wall Street Journal that the Biden administration was withholding a shipment of 27,000 M4 and M16 assault rifles to Israel over concerns that they may be handed out to violent Israeli settlers in the West Bank. (AJ, AX, WSJ 12/13; HA 12/14)

U.S. national security advisor Jake Sullivan met with Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman in Saudi Arabia, discussing the situation in Gaza and in the Red Sea. National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby said he believes that the U.S. still can foster a normalization deal between Saudi Arabia and Israel. State Department spokesperson Matthew Miller said ending Israel’s war on Gaza does not “serve the long-term security interest of everyone in the region.” President Joe Biden met with families of Americans held captive by Hamas, saying he will continue to do everything possible to secure their release. (AJ, AP, HA, REU 12/13)

UK foreign secretary David Cameron said the UK will ban “those responsible for settler violence from entering the UK to make sure our country cannot be a home for people who commit these intimidating acts.” (AP, HA, REU 12/14)

Qatar pledged $50 million to Palestinian refugees in Gaza. (AJ 12/13)

In the West Bank, 1 Palestinian minor, shot by Israeli forces on 5/12, succumbed to his wounds. Israeli settlers shot and injured 1 Palestinian while raiding Bani Na‘im. Israeli settlers with military escort also raided Silat al-Harithiyya, leading to confrontations; no injuries were reported. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers also blocked a main road to al-Bireh and threw stones at Palestinian vehicles, causing damage. Israeli settlers also threw stones at Palestinian vehicles near Bayt Jala and al-Walaja. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian using live ammunition during a Nakba Day protest in Zeita, near Tulkarm. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Aida refugee camp, causing tear-gas related injuries. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Tura, injuring 1 with live ammunition. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters at a checkpoint near Huwwara, injuring 1 with a rubber-coated bullet; others suffered tear-gas related injuries. Separately, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Hebron, injuring 1 with live ammunition and 1 with rubber-coated bullets; others suffered tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Bayt Umar, leading to tear-gas related injuries. 7 Palestinians were arrested, including 2 during house raids in al-Khadir and Dura, and 5 during protests near Jenin. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers with military escort raided Bayt Hanina and Shu‘fat refugee camp, leading to confrontations; 2 Palestinians were injured by the Israeli forces in Bayt Hanina. Israeli settlers later raided Shu‘fat refugee camp again, injuring 2 Palestinians with live ammunition. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian, saying he had intentionally rammed 7 officers, who were lightly injured, in Shaykh Jarrah; 1 journalist was physically assaulted at the scene and others had stun grenades thrown at them. 25 Palestinians were arrested. In Gaza, 50 Palestinians were killed, including 19 children, and dozens were injured, raising the comprehensive death toll since 5/10 from 153 to 203, including 60 children and 2 pregnant women. The casualties included: 43, including 19 children, and dozens wounded in air strikes hitting residential buildings in Gaza City; 1, and 2 wounded in a drone strike in Jabaliya; 1, and 11 injured in air strikes on a residential buildings in Nuseirat; 3 in air strikes on Bayt Hanun; 2 in a drone strike on a house in Rafah. Israel also attacked and demolished the homes of Hamas leader in Gaza Yahya Sinwar and his brother in Khan Yunis; no injuries were reported in the air strikes. In Israel, rockets from Gaza hit 1 house in Ashdod and damaged 5 vehicles in Ashkelon; no injuries were reported. Israel’s defense minister Benny Gantz extended the state of emergency in Lydda for 48 hours. Israel arrested 1 Palestinian-Israeli imam Shaykh Kamal Khatib, the deputy leader of the northern faction of the Islamic Movement in Israel, saying he had made incendiary remarks about Israel’s attacks on al-Aqsa Mosque. 28 people were wounded in a subsequent protest in Kafr Kana where he was arrested, including many by Israeli live ammunition. 8 Palestinian-Israelis were arrested in Taiba and Qalansawe. 2 Jordanian citizens were arrested in Gilboa after having crossed from Jordan into Israel. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, CNN, HA, HA, NPR, NYT, PCHR, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/16; PCHR 5/17; ALM 5/19; HA, PCHR 5/20; MEE 5/21; HA 5/25; NYT 5/26; AP 6/2; NYT 6/24)

Egypt opened the Rafah crossing 1 day earlier than planned to allow the passage of students and medical patients. 95 Palestinians were reported to have been evacuated to Egypt for treatment of injuries before the border officially reopened. (HA, REU 5/16)

2 Israeli settlers were killed and 150 were injured when a structurally unsound seating area collapsed in a synagogue in Givat Ze’ev. (AJ, AP, CNN, HA, REU 5/16)

The High Follow-Up Committee for Arab Citizens of Israel announced a general strike on 5/18 to protest attacks on members of its community. (HA 5/16)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke to Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte about the Israeli escalation of violence in the Palestinian territories. (WAFA 5/16)

Haaretz reported that Israeli senior officials did not consider a ceasefire option at its latest security cabinet meeting. (HA 5/16)

Israeli defense minister Benny Gantz met with U.S. deputy assistant secretary for Israel and Palestinian affairs Hady Amr. U.S. president Joe Biden said in an Eid holiday speech that his “administration is going to continue to engage Palestinians and Israelis and other regional partners to work toward sustained calm.” Later, secretary of state Antony Blinken said that “the violence must end immediately.” Earlier in the day, Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu had reiterated that his government has no plans for a ceasefire, saying the attacks on Gaza “will take time.” (AJ, HA 5/16; HA 5/17)

Jordanian king Abdullah II said that Jordan has been involved in intense diplomacy with its allies in Europe and the U.S. to put pressure on Israel to stop its attacks on Gaza. (HA, REU 5/16)

28 U.S. Democratic senators, led by Jon Ossoff (D-GA), called for an immediate ceasefire “[t]o prevent any further loss of civilian life and to prevent further escalation of conflict in Israel and the Palestinian territories.” (HA, NYT 5/17)

At a UN security council (UNSC) meeting on Israel-Palestine, UN secretary-general António Guterres said that the situation was “utterly appalling,” calling for an immediate ceasefire. He said the UN is actively involved in facilitating a ceasefire. This was the 3d time in a week that the UNSC met about the situation and the 3d time the U.S. stalled any joint statement. PA foreign minister Riyad al-Maliki said that “[e]ach time Israel hears a foreign leader speak of its right to defend itself it is further emboldened to continue murdering entire families in their sleep.” (AJ, AP, HA, WAFA, WAFA 5/16; TOI 5/17)

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation called for an immediate halt of Israeli attacks on Gaza and “systematic crimes” against Palestinians. Saudi Arabia also condemned Israel’s “fragrant violations” of Palestinian rights. PA foreign minister al-Maliki criticized the countries that had normalized relations with Israel, saying, “running towards this colonial Israeli system without achieving peace and ending the Israeli occupation of Arab and Palestinian lands represents support for the apartheid regime and participation in its crimes.” (AJ, AJ, AP, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA 5/16)

Pope Francis, for the 2d Sunday in a row, denounced the escalation of violence in Israel and Palestine, saying that the death of children was a “sign that they don’t want to build the future but want to destroy it.” (HA 5/16; WAFA 5/17)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers raided Qarawat Bani Hassan before confronted by Palestinian residents. Israeli settlers attacked 1 Palestinian minor near Kisan, causing injuries. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers set fire to agricultural lands planted with olive trees in Jalud, causing extensive damage. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters commemorating Nakba Day throughout the West Bank, killing 1 Palestinian in Hebron and injuring 450, including 27 in Hebron, 29 in Qalqilya, 12 in Ramallah, 18 in Nablus, 9 in Tulkarm, 6 in Jenin, 2 in Bethlehem, and 1 in Tubas using live ammunition. 13 Palestinians were arrested, including 4 during late-night raids in Tulkarm and 9 during protests near Jenin. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Shaykh Jarrah, injuring 1 journalist and arresting 1. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in al-Tur, causing tear-gas related injuries and 1 arrest. 13 others were arrested during raids in Issawiyya, al-Tur, Silwan, and Sur Bahir. In Gaza, 17 Palestinians were killed, including 8 children, and dozens were injured, raising the comprehensive death toll since 5/10 from 136 to 153, including 41 children and 2 pregnant women. The casualties included: 10 members of the same family in an Israeli air strike in al-Shati refugee camp, including 8 children; 1 infant was found in the rubble of the house and was the only survivor of the attack; 2 in an air strike on a market in Gaza City; 1 in an air strike while driving north of Gaza City; 1 in a drone strike on agricultural lands near al-Bureij; 1, and 1 injured in an air strike on al-Bureij; 1 in an air strike while riding a motorbike in al-Maghazi; 1 Palestinian succumbed to wounds sustained in an air strike on a car wash al-Zawaideh. Israel also demolished al-Jalaa tower, a 12-story building in Gaza City hosting the offices of AP, Al Jazeera, and other international media outlets along with residential apartments; Israel claimed that it also housed Hamas and Islamic Jihad in Palestine intelligence offices, saying that made it a legitimate target; residents and workers were given 1 hour to evacuate the building. AP said their reporting capabilities in Gaza were significantly reduced while Al Jazeera called it a war crime and an act to stop reporting. Air strikes also demolished the home of senior Hamas official Khalil al-Hayya and severely damaged the 14-story tower al-Qahira and the 12-story tower al-Andalus in Gaza City. Shelling from land and sea also caused significant damage and injuries in Khan Yunis and Bayt Hanun. Egypt sent 10 ambulances to Gaza to pick up injured Palestinians for treatment at Egyptian hospitals. In Israel, 1 Israeli was killed by a rocket fired from Gaza in Ramat Gan, raising the Israeli death toll to 10. 6 buildings were also damaged in Ramat Gan. Rockets were also fired at Beersheba, Ashkelon, and Ashdod from Gaza, causing damage in Beersheba and Ashdod. Hundreds of Palestinian-Israelis protested in Jaffa over the Israeli police’s inability to protect them as violence has been escalating in the neighborhood and 1 minor was seriously injured by a firebomb on 5/14. 67 Palestinian-Israelis were reported arrested, including 52 in ‘Akka and 15 in Lydda. In Lebanon, hundreds of protesters gathered along the Blue Line to show solidarity with Palestinians in Gaza and Shaykh Jarrah. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, HA, HA, HA, HA, MEE, MEE, PCHR, REU, REU, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/15; AP, AP, AP, AP, HA, MEE, PCHR, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/16; AP 5/17; HA 5/18; PCHR 5/20; MEE 5/21; NYT 5/26; GDN 7/28)

There were major demonstrations in many cities worldwide in commemoration of Nakba Day and in solidarity with Palestinians in Gaza and those threatened by eviction in Shaykh Jarrah. (DM, DW, NAT 5/15 BBC, GDN, WAFA 5/16)

U.S. president Joe Biden spoke with both Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu and PA president Mahmoud Abbas. It was the 1st time that President Biden and President Abbas have spoken since Biden took office in January. (HA, WAFA 5/15)

U.S. chair of the senate foreign relations committee Bob Menendez (D-NJ) said, after Israel demolished the building housing the offices of AP and Al Jazeera, that he was “deeply troubled by reports of Israeli military actions that resulted in the death of innocent civilians in Gaza as well as Israeli targeting of buildings housing international media outlets.” Menendez is known as 1 of the staunchest supports of Israel among the senate Democrats. Several House Democrats separately tweeted, “Apartheid states aren’t democracies,” in a reference to Israel. (AJ, AJ, HA, NYT 5/15)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attacked Palestinian shepherds and international activists using stones and batons near Yatta, damaging 1 vehicle. Israeli settlers also threw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling near Umm Safa and Ya‘bad. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers with military protection raided al-Twana; 1 Palestinian was shot by Israeli forces using live ammunition and 7 others were shot by rubber-coated bullets. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian who allegedly shot and injured 2 soldiers at a checkpoint near Madama. 6 Palestinians were arrested, including 5 during house raids in and around Bethlehem, Surayf, Abu Dis, and al-Khadir, and 1 at a checkpoint near Jenin. In East Jerusalem, 11 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Issawiyya and the Old City. In Gaza, 50 Palestinians were killed, including 11 children and 2 pregnant women, and dozens were injured, raising the comprehensive death toll since 5/10 from 64 to 114, including 27 children and 2 pregnant women. The casualties included: 6, including 2 children, and 25 wounded, including 7 children, in artillery fire at Um al-Nasar village near Bayt Lahiya; 10, including 4 children and 1 pregnant woman, and 52 wounded, in air strikes on apartment buildings in Bayt Lahiya; 2 in air strikes on al-Bureij refugee camp; 1 in al-Turkman in an airstrike; 1 child, and 8 others injured, in an air strike on an apartment building in Bayt Hanun; 2 in an air strike near a hospital in Bayt Hanun; 2 in air strikes on Tal al-Hawa; 4, including 2 children, and 5 wounded, in air strikes on a residential building in al-Bureij refugee camp; 6, including 2 children and 1 pregnant woman, and 22 wounded, including 10 children, in air strikes on 2 houses in Rafah; the bodies of 14 Palestinians were found at a military site; Hamas claimed that the 14 had died of toxic gases from Israeli weapons. Additionally, the headquarters of the interior ministry’s security division was destroyed near Bayt Lahiya and Khan Yunis, as well as 1 ministry of transportation building in Bayt Lahiya. In Israel, 1 Jewish-Israeli man was injured in a stabbing in Lydda. 1 Muslim cemetery and 1 synagogue were vandalized in Lydda. Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian-Israeli man with a rubber-coated bullet as he was filming the soldiers from the inside of his house in Jaffa. Israeli right-wingers attacked Palestinian-Israelis and Israeli journalists in the Hatikva neighborhood of Tel Aviv. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in ‘Akka and Israeli right-wingers attacked 1 Palestinian-owned grocery store. 3 rockets were fired at Israel from Lebanon; all 3 landed in the sea. Dozens of rockets were fired at Israel from Gaza, most of them intercepted. 1 Israeli woman died after falling while running to a shelter near Ashdod, raising the Israeli death toll to 8. Israel said it had sent 9,000 troops to the vicinity of Gaza (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, HA, HA, HA, HA, PCHR, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/13; AP, HA, PCHR, PCHR, WAFA, WAFA 5/14; GDN 5/15; TOI 5/16; PCHR 5/20; MEE 5/21; NYT 5/26)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke with French president Emmanuel Macron about the escalation of violence in Gaza and eviction of Palestinians in Shaykh Jarrah. (WAFA 5/13)

Israeli defense minister Benny Gantz ordered 10 reserve border police companies to cities in Israel where violence has been rising. Several Israeli media outlets also reported that Israeli military officials were preparing to approve plans for a ground invasion of Gaza. Defense Minister Gantz also spoke with senior executives of social media companies Facebook and TikTok to convince them to prevent content critical of Israel on their platforms. (HA, JP, TOI 5/13; AS 5/14)

U.S. president Joe Biden said that he did not believe that the Israeli bombardment of Gaza is a “significant overreaction.” The Biden administration also rejected a publicly held UN security council (UNSC) meeting on 5/14 discussing the situation in Israel and Palestine. The U.S. has prevented any statements from the UN security council on the matter from 2 other UNSC meetings held in the past week. The Biden administration also notified Congress that it will be sending $10 million to Palestinian groups in the West Bank and Gaza to support exchange and reconciliation projects with Israelis. (HA, HA, REU 5/13; AP 5/14)

As pro-Palestine demonstrations were happening in many countries all over the world, the French interior ministry asked the French police to ban a pro-Palestine protest in Paris. (AJ 5/13)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces seized 1 bulldozer north of Tubas. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in and around Bethlehem, Nablus, Jenin, Ramallah, and Jericho. In East Jerusalem, the Islamic Waqf announced that the Haram al-Sharif compound will be closed for prayers for 3 weeks due to a rise in COVID-19 cases. In Gaza, Israeli forces fired missiles at Khan Yunis, Dayr al-Balah, and Bayt Lahiya, causing damage; no injuries were reported. According to Israeli authorities, 13 rockets were launched at Israel, 8 of which were intercepted; neither damage nor injuries were reported. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen west of Bayt Lahiya; no injuries were reported. In Israel, 1 Palestinian construction worker from the West Bank was stabbed by 1 Israeli at his workplace near Ashdod. (AJ, BBC, HA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 9/16; PCHR 9/17)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces clashed with Palestinians near Ramallah; 1 Palestinian minor was hit by shrapnel from a tear gas canister. Israeli forces also forced Palestinian workers to stop rehabilitating a road near Kisan, confiscating 1 bulldozer. 6 Palestinians were arrested during raids in and around Tulkarm, Hebron, Ramallah, and Salfit. In East Jerusalem, 1 Palestinian family started demolishing their own home in Jabal Mukabir. 15 Palestinians were arrested during raids in Issawiyya and al-Tur. In Gaza, rockets were fired at Israel as the UAE and Bahrain signed deals to normalize relations with Israel in Washington D.C (see below); 2 Israelis were lightly injured by debris in Ashdod. (REU, REU, WAFA, WAFA 9/15; HA, HA 9/16; PCHR 9/17)

At a signing ceremony in Washington D.C., Bahrain and the UAE formalized their deals to normalize relations with Israel, breaking with the stipulations of the Arab Peace Initiative. The text of the UAE-Israel agreement mentioned the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in 1 paragraph: “Recalling the reception held on January 28, 2020, at which President Trump presented his Vision for Peace, and committing to continuing their efforts to achieve a just, comprehensive, realistic and enduring solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.” The text did not mention halting Israeli annexation of parts of the West Bank nor halting settlement expansion, which has also been linked to the agreement between the UAE and Israel. PA president Mahmoud Abbas called for a Day of Rage and the establishment of a Palestinian state within the 1967 borders. President Abbas and Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh also discussed the situation in a phone call. Palestinians protested the signing ceremony in Ramallah, Nablus, Hebron, Jenin, Tulkarm, and Gaza City. (AJ, AJ, HA, REU, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 9/15; HA, HA, WAFA 9/16)

After Hamas fighters fire an anti-tank missile at an IDF bus near Kibbutz Kfar Aza, critically injuring an Israeli soldier, Israeli forces continue the assault on Gaza that began last night, striking approximately 100 Hamas and other armed groups’ sites across Gaza; 3 Palestinians are killed and at least 20 more are injured. The strikes destroy 4 residential buildings, 5 commercial buildings, 3 tunnels, 1 intelligence compound, and the headquarters of al-Aqsa TV in Gaza City. Meanwhile, armed groups in Gaza retaliate by launching more than 300 rockets and other projectiles into southern Israel, injuring approximately 70 Israelis and destroying several Israeli buildings. Initially reported as an Israeli civilian casualty, a West Bank Palestinian is killed when a rocket hits the building in Ashqelon where he was staying (2 women in the building are injured as well). Around mid-day, there are reports that the Israeli authorities have stopped working with Egyptian and UN mediators to de-escalate the violence. A Hamas military spokesperson threatens major Israeli cities like Beersheba and Ashdod with rocket fire if “Israel persists in its aggression.” (BBC, EI, HA, JP, MNA, MNA, TOI, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 11/12; EI, HA, HA, MNA, MNA, YA, YA 11/13; PCHR 11/15)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces demolish a Palestinian residential structure near Nablus. They also arrest 2 Palestinians during late-night raids near Ramallah and Bethlehem; and patrol near Ramallah, Tulkarm, and Hebron. (MNA 11/12; PCHR 11/15)

In Gaza, Israeli drones bomb sites near Jabaliya refugee camp and near al-Bureij refugee camp allegedly being used as staging areas for incendiary kite and balloon attacks; there are no reported injuries. On the other side of the border fence, Israeli firefighters put out 10 small fires allegedly sparked by such attacks. Meanwhile, IDF troops violently disperse dozens of Palestinians gathering near al-Bureij refugee camp to continue the Great March of Return; 1 Palestinian is injured. Off Gaza’s coast, Israeli naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishing boats near Rafah and Dayr al-Balah, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, Israeli forces level Palestinian lands near Bethlehem to make space for the expansion of settlements in the area. IDF troops arrest 9 Palestinians and issue 1 arrest summons during late-night raids near Bethlehem, Ramallah, and Hebron; and patrol near Tulkarm and Hebron. A raid near Ramallah sparks clashes with stone-throwing Palestinian minors; there are no reported injuries. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces arrest 1 Palestinian during a late-night raid in Silwan. (HA, MNA, TOI, WAFA, YA 8/4; PCHR 8/9)

A Palestinian minor succumbs to injuries sustained when Israeli soldiers opened fire on Palestinian protesters along Gaza’s border on 8/3, bringing the death toll stemming from the Great March of Return to 140. (MNA, WAFA 8/4)

Israeli naval forces intercept the second ship of a planned flotilla sailing toward Gaza in a symbolic effort to break the Israeli blockade. As they did with the flotilla’s lead ship on 7/29, Israeli naval forces commandeer the ship, escort it to the port at Ashdod, and detain all 12 activists on board. “The forces made it clear to the sailors that they were violating the blockade and that any humanitarian supplies can be delivered to Gaza through the port of Ashdod,” the IDF states. (HA, MNA, TOI, WAFA 8/4)

An Israeli drone bombs a group of Palestinians near Jabaliya refugee camp in Gaza, killing 2 and causing moderate damage. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine later claims the 2 men were members of its armed wing. Also along Gaza’s border fence, Israeli forces conduct a limited incursion to level land near Jabaliya refugee camp In the West Bank, IDF troops arrest 21 Palestinians during late-night raids in and around Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, and Tubas; and patrol near Tulkarm, Qalqilya, and Hebron. Israeli forces also demolish a small agricultural structure near Hebron. (MNA, TOI, WAFA, YA 7/29; PCHR 8/2)

Reuters reports that Saudi king Salman bin Abdulaziz recently informed U.S. officials that he won’t be able to support the Trump administration’s long-awaited peace plan unless it provides for a Palestinian capital in East Jerusalem. Jordanian and Egyptian officials have also reportedly encouraged the U.S. team to only circulate a finished plan that is fair to both sides. (HA, TOI, YA 7/29)

Israeli naval forces confront the first ship of a planned flotilla sailing toward Gaza in a symbolic effort to break the Israeli blockade. They commandeer the ship, escort it to the port at Ashdod, and detain all 22 activists on board. Some activists are reportedly assaulted during the confrontation. The IDF will report that they used “reasonable force.” (DPA, HA, MEE, MNA, WAFA, YA 7/29; MNA 7/31)

The Israeli authorities release 17-year-old Palestinian activist Ahed Tamimi from prison, marking the end of her eight-month sentence for kicking, slapping, and otherwise resisting an Israeli soldier during a raid in her hometown Nabi Salih. She was arrested on 12/19/17. (BBC, MNA, WAFA 7/29)

Off Gaza’s coast, Israeli naval forces open fire on a Palestinian fishing boat attempting to ferry 7 wounded Palestinians out of Gaza for medical attention. The Israeli forces tow the boat to the port at Ashdod and arrest all 9 people aboard. In the West Bank, IDF troops arrest 18 Palestinians during late-night raids near Nablus, Ramallah, Hebron, Bethlehem, and Tubas; and patrol near Hebron and Tulkarm. They also deliver stop-work orders to 3 Palestinian homes under construction near Hebron. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces arrest 2 Palestinians during raids in Silwan. In Israel, Israeli forces demolish 2 Palestinian homes in Qalansuwa, citing a lack of the proper permits. (JP, MNA, WAFA 7/10; PCHR 7/12)

UN special coordinator Nickolay Mladenov responds to the Israeli decision to temporarily shut down the Kerem Shalom border crossing: “I urge the [Israeli] authorities to reverse this decision,” he says, also calling on Hamas and the other armed groups in Gaza to “do their part” by “maintaining calm, stopping incendiary kites, and preventing other provocations.” (JP, MNA 7/10)

In the West Bank, IDF troops violently disperse tens of Palestinians protesting settlement expansion nr. Tubas; 1 Palestinian photojournalist is assaulted and injured. They also conduct raids in Bayt Umar village nr. Hebron, sparking minor clashes with stonethrowing Palestinians; there are no serious injuries. The IDF issues 1 Palestinian an arrest summons during a late-night raid nr. Hebron, and patrols nr. Hebron during the day. Israeli forces deliver stop-work orders to a Palestinian building a home nr. Hebron. Along Gaza’s border, IDF troops open fire on Palestinian farmers working nr. Gaza City, causing no damage or injuries. In Israel, an Israeli stabs and injures a bedouin shopkeeper on a street in Ashdod. (MNA, WAFA, YA 1/5; PCHR 1/12)

Hamas and Fatah officials meet in Doha to discuss Palestinian national reconciliation. They also discuss preparations for a follow-up meeting in Beirut on 1/10. (MNA 1/5)

In Gaza, Sarayat al-Shaykh Umar Hadid fighters fire a long-range rocket into Israel, announcing on Twitter that the rocket attack was retaliation for the IDF’s killing of a Palestinian on 9/22 in Hebron. The rocket is intercepted nr. Ashdod by an Iron Dome missile defense battery. IAF jets launch retaliatory air strikes on 4 Hamas military sites in Gaza City and n. Gaza, causing damage. Meanwhile, Israeli forces conduct a limited incursion e. of Khan Yunis to level land. (HA, MNA, WAFA, YA 9/29; PCHR 10/1)

Tensions and violence in East Jerusalem and the West Bank continue to escalate. Israeli forces close Hebron’s al-Ibrahimi Mosque to Muslim worshippers and continue to enforce the restrictions on Palestinian access at Haram al-Sharif that were announced on 9/27, additionally closing all but 3 entrances to the sanctuary. Meanwhile, around 140 right-wing Jewish activists tour Haram al-Sharif. In confrontations outside the sanctuary, Israeli MK Jamal Zahalka (Joint List) verbally confronts several Israeli police officers (the incident is caught on tape and dispersed on social media), and the Israeli police arrest 3 Palestinian women. Elsewhere, Israeli forces arrest 10 Palestinians on raids in al-Tur, Issawiyya, and al-Thawri. An Israeli settler assaults a Palestinian in the Old City, causing minor injuries. Palestinians throw stones at a taxi in al-Tur, injuring 1 international tourist and sparking minor clashes with Israeli police. Israeli forces arrest 2 Palestinian women after they assault an Israeli family in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City. Palestinians throughout the West Bank conduct solidarity actions, halting most commercial and civil activity in Nablus and Jenin and protesting in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Hebron, and Tulkarm. Israeli forces violently disperse the protesters, injuring 1 foreign tourist and 18 Palestinians, including 3 with live ammunition. In Hebron, Palestinians throw rocks at international tourists, injuring 1 Japanese woman. Israeli forces conduct house searches and raids nr. Hebron, Nablus, Ramallah, and Tulkarm, arresting 6 Palestinians; patrol nr. Qalqilya. (HA, JP, MNA, TOI, WAFA, YA 9/29; HA, JP, TOI, YA 9/30; PCHR 10/1)

In response to a petition filed by the Israeli nongovernmental organization Yesh Din, the Israeli govt. informs the High Court of Justice of its intention to authorize settlement outposts in the Shilo region nr. Ramallah, including Adi Ad and 3 other major outposts. Yesh Din’s petition called for the demolition of Adi Ad on the grounds that it was constructed without building permits on privately owned Palestinian land. (HA, TOI 9/30)

In the West Bank, Palestinian assailants shoot and injure 4 Israeli settlers in a vehicle outside an Israeli settlement nr. Nablus; 1 will succumb to his injuries on 6/30. IDF troops impose a curfew on a nearby village, search the area, and conduct a series of raids. Dozens of Israeli settlers throw stones at Palestinian vehicles on the Ramallah-Nablus road. Earlier, a Palestinian woman stabs an Israeli soldier at a military checkpoint in Bethlehem, moderately injuring her. Israeli forces arrest the Palestinian. The IDF conducts house searches and raids in 4 villages nr. Ramallah, confiscating surveillance and recording equipment; patrols in 2 villages nr. Hebron. In East Jerusalem, Israeli police arrest a Muslim worshipper at Haram al-Sharif after he throws rocks and shoes at Jewish visitors. (HA, JP, MNA, YA 6/29; AFP, HA, MNA, WAFA 6/30; PCHR 7/2; NYT 7/19)

Palestinian prisoner Adnan ends his hunger strike overnight after making an agreement with the Israeli authorities to release him on 7/12. An Israeli official says that the deal was made after Adnan withdrew his demand that Israel never again administratively detain him. Beginning on 5/5, Adnan’s hunger strike lasted 55 days. (AP, HA, MNA 6/29)

More than 100 mi. off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces board, search, and escort the Marianne of Gothenburg, the flagship of the Freedom Flotilla III, toward the port at Ashdod overnight. Prior to the boarding, the other 3 ships of the flotilla turned around, sailing away from Gaza and back to their ports of origin. (AFP, EI, HA, JP, NYT, YA 6/29; TOI 6/30)

Hamas calls for an emergency meeting of the various Palestinian factions, finding it “unacceptable” that the PLO Exec. Comm. appointed a comm. on 6/27 to consult with the various PLO factions about the composition of a new consensus govt. (MNA 6/29)

French FM Fabius proposes the formation of a new international group with a mandate of supporting peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. He describes the group as “a kind of Quartet plus,” referring to the Middle East Quartet, which has been relatively inactive since former Quartet rep. Blair’s resignation. Fabius’s comments are interpreted as a shift in French strategy away from the UNSC. (NYT, TOI 6/29)

U.S. pres. Obama signs the Defending Public Safety Employees’ Retirement Act into law, renewing his authority to “fast track” approval of trade agreements in Congress. The new law includes an American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC)-backed provision establishing a series of anti-BDS objectives to be pursued in all trade negotiations. (HA 6/30; PNN 7/1)

In Gaza, a group claiming affiliation with the Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) fires a rocket into Israel nr. Ashdod, causing no damage or injuries (the group will not take credit until 6/1). Holding Hamas responsible for any projectile fire from Gaza and asserting that Islamic Jihad was the culprit, Israeli Air Force (IAF) jets strike 4 Islamic Jihad, Popular Resistance Comms. (PRC), and Hamas training sites in Rafah, Khan Yunis, and Bayt Lahiya late at night, causing damage but no casualties. Off the coast nr. Khan Yunis and then nr. Gaza City, Israeli naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishing boats, injuring a fisherman in the later incident. Egyptian authorities open the Rafah border crossing for passage into Gaza only (they will keep it open through 5/28). In the West Bank, IDF troops chase down, shoot, and injure 4 Palestinian workers nr. Qalqilya. Separately, 4 Israeli soldiers detain and assault a Palestinian trying to cross over the separation wall nr. Qalqilya. Unidentified gunmen shoot and injure a Palestinian man in s. Hebron. The IDF conducts late-night raids and house searches late at night in and around Hebron, and in 1 village nr. Nablus, arresting 9 Palestinians; patrols during the day nr. Jericho and Hebron. Israeli forces photograph an electricity network nr. Hebron, then deliver a notice demanding its operations be suspended. They also deliver a stop-work notice for a water well under construction nr. Hebron. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces conduct a late-night raid in Jabal Mukabir, arresting 1 Palestinian. (AP, HA, MNA, WAFA 5/26; HA, JP, MNA, WAFA 5/27; PCHR 5/28; JP 6/10)

Israeli attacks on the Gaza Strip continue, killing 24 Palestinians. Palestinians fire rockets into Israel, with 2 hitting Sderot and starting a small fire. There are no injuries. Iron Dome intercepts 2 rockets over Ashdod. In the West Bank, IDF troops shoot and kill a Palestinian child in al-Fawar r.c. nr. Hebron. There are no significant clashes at the time, and the Military Police Corps announces it is opening an investigation. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU, YA 8/10; PCHR 8/11)

Via mediators, reps. of Israel and the Palestinian delegation agree to a new 72-hour cease-fire to begin at midnight local time.Israeli officials tell the media that a delegation will head to Cairo to discuss a long-term cease-fire if the 72-hour truce holds. Hamas leader Mish‘al reiterates Hamas’s demand that ending the blockade must be a part of any long-term deal and Hamas spokesperson Abu Zuhri says that the new talks will be the “last chance” for a deal. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU, YA 8/10)

The IDF continues its assault on the Gaza Strip by air, land, and sea, killing 64 Palestinians with strikes on approximately 100 targets. Attacks occur before and after a humanitarian cease-fire running from 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. local time. The cease-fire is not observed in areas of Rafah where IDF ground troops are targeting and destroying tunnels. Armed Palestinian groups fire rockets over Ashdod and Ashqelon, causing no injuries. Other rockets land nr. the Gaza border, also causing no injuries. In the West Bank, IDF troops shoot and injure a Palestinian nr. Tulkarm. The IDF patrols during the day in 2 villages nr. Jericho and al-Bireh. In East Jerusalem, a Palestinian man kills an Israeli when he drives an excavator into pedestrians on the sidewalk. Israeli police shoot and kill the driver on the spot and later describe the incident as a “terrorist attack.” In a separate incident, armed Palestinians open fire on an Israeli soldier nr. Hebrew University, injuring him. In Issawiyya, dozens of Palestinians clash with Israeli security forces, causing no serious injuries. At Haram al-Sharif, Israeli security forces enter to escort right-wing Jewish activists out of the area. Clashes break out with Palestinian worshippers, 10 of whom are injured by rubber-coated metal bullets and stun grenades. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU, YA 8/4; PCHR 8/5)

In Cairo, reps. of Israel and Hamas agree to a 72-hour humanitarian cease-fire to begin on 8/5 at 8:00 A.M. local time, with Egyptian officials urging reps. of all sides to attend further talks to negotiate a longer term cease-fire. Reps. of Hamas and Islamic Jihad meet with Egyptian intelligence officials to discuss a plan to end the violence. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, REU 8/4)

U.S. Pres. Obama signs into law a joint res. appropriating $225 m. in supplemental funding for Israel’s Iron Dome missile defense system. The Senate and House previously passed this res. on 8/1 in 2 of the final actions taken before the 2 chambers adjourned for a 1-mo. recess in 8/2014. (AP 8/4; REU 8/5)

The IDF continues its attacks on the Gaza Strip from land, sea and air, killing 78 Palestinians, including 25 people from a single family nr. the border with Egypt and 10 who die in Khan Yunis after shells hit their home repeatedly as they try to flee. An air strike on a tower in c. Gaza City kills 11, including 5 children. IDF troops shell al-Aqsa Hospital in c. Gaza, killing 4 and wounding 70. Palestinian fighters kill 9 Israeli soldiers during the fighting on the ground. Al-Qassam Brigades target Haifa, Tel Aviv, and Ashdod with rocket fire, with over 50 rockets fired into Israel, causing no injuries. In an al-Qassam Brigades operation, 12 Palestinian fighters enter Israel by a tunnel nr. Bayt Hanun and attack an IDF site, killing 4 and destroying a jeep with an RPG shell. Ten of the Palestinian fighters are killed in the operation and the other 2 return through the tunnel. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in Hebron, 1 nearby village and al-Fawar r.c., and 1 village nr. Qalqilya at night; patrols in 2 villages nr. Jericho and 1 village each nr. Hebron and Ramallah during the day. (AFP, AP, JP, MNA, REU, YA 7/21; PCHR 7/22)

Speaking in a televised address, former Hamas PM Haniyeh says that “Gaza has decided to end the blockade by its blood and its heroism,” adding, “We cannot go back to the silent death” of the siege. Israeli DM Ya’alon tells a parliamentary comm. that the operation will continue “as long as necessary until the completion of the task.” However, Ya’alon mentions that the Israeli govt. would welcome the PA unity govt. exercising authority in Gaza, in an apparent reversal of policy. In Doha, Hamas leader Mish‘al meets with Pres. Abbas for the 1st time since the war began. PA spokesperson Abu Rudayna reiterates the PA leadership’s call for an immediate cease-fire as a way of realizing “the national goals of the Palestinian people.” In Cairo, UN Secy.-Gen. Ban holds talks with Egyptian FM Shoukri aimed at pressing for an immediate truce. Secy. of State Kerry also arrives in Cairo to facilitate the cease-fire talks. Kerry announces that the U.S. will send $47 m. in humanitarian aid to Gaza. Meanwhile, the IDF requests access to the U.S. War Reserves Stockpile based in Israel to resupply its munitions. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU, YA 7/21)

The IDF strikes over 50 targets across the Gaza Strip, including the Interior Ministry building and a hospital, killing 23 Palestinians. Among these are 4 children, who are killed when IDF troops shell a beach nr. Gaza City, an attack witnessed by a number of international journalists. IDF troops also destroy the house of a high-ranking Hamas political figure. Palestinians fire more than 60 rockets into Israel, including rockets aimed at Ashqelon and Ashdod. Iron Dome batteries intercept 4 of the projectiles. Rockets cause damage in Ashdod and Tel Aviv, and 1 soldier is injured. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in Hebron and 1 nearby village at night. (AFP, AP, HA, MNA, NYT, REU 7/16; PCHR 7/17)

UNRWA says that the Gaza Strip’s health system is on the brink of collapse, with 600,000 people facing water shortages and 22,000 seeking refuge in school shelters. (AP, HA, MNA, NYT 7/16)

Israeli DM Ya’alon asks Netanyahu’s security cabinet to authorize the mobilization of another 8,000 reserve troops, adding to the approximately 30,000 that have already been called up since 7/8. (AP, HA, NYT, REU 7/16)

After Hamas rejected the Egyptian cease-fire proposal the previous day, Dep. Hamas leader Abu Marzuq meets Egyptian officials and offers terms Hamas seeks in a cease-fire deal, such as “fully lifting the blockade on Gaza, including opening all the crossings and releasing the rearrested prisoners.” (See the Quarterly Update in JPS 173 for more on Hamas’s terms.) Pres. Abbas meets with Abu Marzuq in Cairo, and separately with Egypt’s Pres. al-Sisi and FM Sameh Shoukri, as well as Arab League chief al-‘Arabi. He also speaks with Hamas leader Mish‘al by telephone. Meanwhile, Secy. of State Kerry says that the U.S. is doing “everything in our power” to end the violence, in remarks he makes on an official visit to Luxembourg. Kerry speaks with the FMs of Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Pres. Obama says that the U.S. supports Egypt’s efforts to secure a cease-fire and restoration of the 11/2012 agreement. (AFP, AP, HA, MNA, REU, YA 7/16)

The IDF conducts approximately 100 strikes on targets across the Gaza Strip, killing 14 Palestinians in Bayt Hanun, Rafah, Khan Yunis and Dayr al-Balah. Hospitals in Gaza report a serious shortage of medicines and equipment, particularly for trauma injuries. Palestinians fire around 100 rockets and mortar shells into Israel, causing damage and seriously wounding 2 children in the bedouin village of Lakia. Iron Dome batteries intercept 15 of the projectiles. In addition, al-Qassam Brigades fly a drone into s. Israel along the coast nr. Ashdod, and the Israeli Air Force (IAF) shoots it down. In the West Bank, IDF troops shoot and kill a 22-year-old Palestinian civilian in clashes nr. Hebron. In Bayt Umar nr. Hebron, IDF troops shoot and injure 2 Palestinians in another confrontation. Separately, IDF troops detain 11 Hamas parliamentarians in Nablus, Jenin, and Salfit. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU 7/14; PCHR 7/15)

Following a meeting of Arab League FMs in the evening, Egypt’s Foreign Ministry proposes a cease-fire to start the next day, followed by talks in Cairo. The Arab League welcomes the proposal. An Israeli official says that PM Netanyahu will discuss the proposal the following day with his security cabinet. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU 7/14)

A rocket launched from inside Lebanon hits n. Israel, causing no damage or injuries, the 4th such attack in recent days. IDF troops respond with artillery shells. (REU 7/14)

IDF air strikes and shelling of the Gaza Strip continues for a 4th day, killing 16 Palestinians as 230 targets are hit. The attacks cause widespread damage to houses, infrastructure, and public buildings. There are fatal strikes in al-Shuja‘iya, elsewhere in Gaza City, Jabaliya, and Rafah, among others. Palestinians fire 90 rockets into Israel, causing damage and injuring 10 in Beersheba and Ashdod, including 1 seriously. Iron Dome batteries intercept 25 of the rockets. Two IDF soldiers are lightly injured by an antitank missile nr. the Gaza border, damaging their jeep. In the West Bank, IDF troops shoot and injure 9 Palestinians with live fire and rubber-coated metal bullets during clashes nr. Rachel’s Tomb in n. Bethlehem. In Kafr Qaddum, Israeli soldiers shoot and injure 5 Palestinians with live ammunition during clashes, and there are less intense confrontations after Friday prayers in Hebron and nearby al-Fawar r.c. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities prevent Palestinian men under 50 years old from entering Haram al-Sharif, and 20 Palestinians are injured by stun grenades and rubber-coated metal bullets during clashes in Issawiyya. (AP, HA, MNA, REU, YA 7/11; PCHR 7/12)

Israeli PM Netanyahu says that “no amount of international pressure will prevent Israel from continuing its operation in the Gaza Strip,” and that he has held phone calls with leaders of the U.S., Germany, Britain, France, Canada, and Russia. Israeli DM Ya’alon speaks with U.S. Defense Secy. Hagel, with the latter expressing concern about the risk of further escalation. The U.S. House of Reps. agrees to a nonbinding res. in support of Israel’s right to defend itself against rocket fire from the Gaza Strip. Meanwhile, Egyptian authorities close the Rafah crossing after opening it briefly to allow 11 wounded Palestinians to leave for treatment. (AP, HA, MNA, REU, YA 7/11)

Unknown persons fire 2 rockets into n. Israel from Lebanon, causing no damage or injuries. IDF troops respond with artillery fire, also causing no reported casualties. (REU 7/11)

The IDF launches dozens of air strikes across the Gaza Strip, killing 28 Palestinians and wounding approximately 550. There are fatal strikes in Gaza City, Rafah, Dayr al-Balah, Jabaliya, Khan Yunis, and Bayt Lahiya, among others. Palestinians fire dozens of projectiles into Israel, with 1 rocket hitting a house in Ashdod, causing damage. Other targeted towns include Beersheba, Ashqelon, and Sdot Negev in the s., and Rehovot, Yavne, Lod, Ramle, and Gadera in the c. Iron Dome batteries intercept 2 rockets fired at the Jerusalem area and 2 others fall in open areas. A mortar shell injures 2 Israeli soldiers close to the border. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU 7/10; PCHR 7/11)

Israeli PM Netanyahu says that attacks will continue to “expand and continue until the fire on our communities is over and the quiet returns.” The PM also tells mbrs. of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Comms. that a cease-fire with Hamas is not on the agenda. Islamic Jihad spokesperson Abu Ahmad says the “factions in Gaza are not going to surrender.” At an emergency meeting of the UNSC in New York, UN Secy.-Gen. Ban says that “it is now more urgent than ever to try to find common ground for a return to calm and a cease-fire understanding,” and that he has been in contact with Israel, the PA, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Egypt, the Arab League, the U.S., and the EU. Palestinian UN amb. Riyad Mansour tells the meeting that the international community is obliged to ensure protection of Palestinian civilians, and accuses Israel of violating its responsibility as an occupying power. Israeli UN amb. Ron Prosor says Hamas is “committing a double war crime: targeting Israeli civilians while hiding behind Palestinian civilians.” Pres. Obama telephones PM Netanyahu and tells him that the U.S. is willing to help negotiate a cease-fire. State Dept. spokesperson Psaki says that Kerry has been “reaching out to countries in the region” including Qatar and Egypt, which “can play a role in bringing an end to the rocket fire from Hamas.” (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU 7/10)

Dozens of right-wing Jewish activists visit the al-Aqsa Mosque compound in Jerusalem, prompting clashes with Palestinian worshippers, some of whom are arrested by Israeli police. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 3 villages nr. Tulkarm, 2 nr. Hebron, and 1 each nr. Qalqilya and Ramallah at night. (MNA 3/31; PCHR 4/4)

Palestinian pres. Mahmud Abbas and Jordan’s King Abdullah II sign an agreement in Amman to defend Jerusalem and its Islamic and Christian holy sites, though no specific details are given beyond general ‘‘coordination’’ of efforts. (MNA 3/31)

Natural gas from the Tamar reservoir in the Mediterranean Sea begins to flow into Israel via Ashdod. Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu welcomes this as a step towards ‘‘energy independence.’’ (NYT 3/31)

Egyptian media report that Hamas PM Ismail Haniyeh meets with Egyptian intelligence chief Rafaat Shehata to discuss Palestinian reconciliation and the cease-fire with Israel. (AP 3/31)

Palestinians in the West Bank vote in local elections, the 1st elections in 6 yrs. Out of the 353 municipalities, the poll was held in only 92; 181 municipalities form councils without elections due to a lack of candidates. Hamas boycotts the elections. The Central Elections Commission reports that around 515,000 Palestinians were registered to vote, of which 55% turned out to vote (by comparison, three-quarters cast ballots in the 2006 parliamentary elections and twothirds in the 2004 and 2005 municipal elections). Fatah has mixed results, partly due to the fact that its own mbrs. ran against each other, some as independents (27 Fatah mbrs. were subsequently expelled from the party for running in non-Fatah lists). (AP, BBC, NYT 10/20; AP, MNA 10/21; see also MNA 10/18; AP 10/19)

Israeli FM Avigdor Lieberman criticizes European countries for their 10/19 opposition to plans for 100s of new homes in Gilo settlement, and PM Netanyahu vows to continue construction in East Jerusalem. Meanwhile, the Israeli NGO Peace Now reveals government plans to build a military academy on the Mount of Olives in occupied East Jerusalem. (AFP, ToI 10/20; JP 10/21)

The Israeli navy intercepts a boat (Estelle) of pro-Palestinian activists en route to the Gaza Strip. The IDF boards the vessel 30 naut. mi. off the Gaza coast and tows it to Ashdod. Separately, Israeli naval vessels open fire on Palestinian fishermen, causing no injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 2 villages nr. Ramallah and 1 village nr. Tulkarm in the morning, and in 1 village nr. Jenin and 1 village nr. Ramallah at night. (BBC 10/21;  PCHR 10/24)

The Israeli navy halts and boards 2 boats (sailing as the “Freedom Waves Flotilla”) carrying 27 international activists and journalists (fr. Ireland, Canada, the U.S., and Australia) attempting to run the Gaza blockade, taking them from international waters off the Gaza coast to Ashdod, where the boats are confiscated and the activists detained; an organizer on 1 boat is tasered by a soldier when he resists orders to leave his cabin and join the other activists being rounded up. Unidentified Palestinians fire a rocket fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in Jericho and 2 villages nr. Ramallah in the morning, and in Tulkarm and 1 village nr. Jericho late at night. The weekly demonstrations by Palestinians and international activists in Bil‘in and al-Nabi Salih support the Palestinian statehood bid at the UN and oppose Israeli occupation and land seizures. Palestinians and international activists demonstrating in Ni‘lin express solidarity with Palestinian prisoners and call for national reconciliation. In all 3 cases, IDF soldiers fire rubber-coated steel bullets, tear gas, and stun grenades at the protesters, causing no serious injuries; 1 Palestinian in al-Nabi Salih is arrested. (NYT, REU, WP 11/5; Democracy Now 11/8; PCHR 11/17; OCHA 11/18)

Cross-border violence in Gaza enters its 3d day. Israel conducts 3 drone air strikes and 7 artillery strikes on Gaza, injuring 6 Palestinians (3 militants and 3 bystanders, including a woman and child). The PRCs, Islamic Jihad, and Hamas fire as many as 64 rockets (including at least 7 Grads) and 18 mortars, killing 1 Israeli and wounding 6 in Beersheba, lightly injuring 3 Israelis in Ofakim when a rocket hits a house, and injuring 3 Palestinian laborers in Ashdod (2 seriously). Israeli naval vessels fire 3 times on Palestinian fishing boats off the Gaza coast, forcing them to return to shore. IDF soldiers on the n. Gaza border nr. Bayt Hanun fire warning shots at Palestinian fishermen on the beach nr. the no-go zone, causing no injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF carries out a major late-night raid on Hebron, sending 100 military vehicles into the area fr. 3 directions and rounding up some 120 Palestinians, mostly Hamas members and supporters, marking the largest West Bank arrest operation since 2003; those arrested include Hamas-affiliated Palestinian Council (PC) mbr. Muhammad Abu Jheisha and leading figures of several Hamas-affiliated charities. Jewish settlers fr. Migron outpost nr. Ramallah beat a 12-yr.-old Palestinian boy tending sheep nearby. (JP, YA 8/20; JAZ, JP, NYT, WP 8/21; MNA 8/22; IFM, PCHR 8/25; OCHA 8/26)

In Cairo, crowds outside the Israeli emb. grow steadily into the 1,000s overnight and throughout the day. Israel issues a formal expression of regret for the deaths of the Egyptian soldiers, but Egyptian leaders say it is inadequate. Egypt briefly threatens to recall its amb. fr. Israel, but backs down following international intervention to calm tensions. Israel shelves discussions of a major military strike on Gaza given the crisis with Egypt. (WP 8/20; NYT, WP 8/21; NYT 8/27; WP 8/28)

Uruguay recognizes an independent Palestinian state on the 1967 lines. (XIN 3/16)

Egypt completes repairs to its natural gas pipeline damaged during the 2/2011 Egyptian unrest (see Quarterly Update in JPS 159) and resumes sending natural gas to Israel. The Israeli navy detains a ship, the German-owned and Liberian flagged Victoria, en route fr. Syria to Egypt, 200 mi. off the Israeli coast that Israel claims was attempting to deliver arms to Gaza fr. Iran, taking it to Ashdod for further inspection; Israeli authorities said the ship carried 4 crates holding some 70,000 rounds of ammunition for Kalashnikov rifles, 1,000s of mortars, 6 Chinese C-704 antiship missiles, and 2 radar systems. Iran denies smuggling arms. The IDF makes a brief incursion into c. Gaza to level lands e. of al-Bureij r.c. to clear lines of sight. On the Rafah border, 2 Palestinians are killed, 4 are injured in an explosion in a smuggling tunnel. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reports that another 4 Palestinians have been killed in tunnel accidents since 3/2. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night patrols in Jenin and surrounding villages; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Hebron. Jewish settlers attempt to enter Kafr Laqif village nr. Qalqilya but are prevented by the IDF and stone nearby Palestinian homes instead. In separate instances, Jewish settlers fr. Karnei Shomron and Keddumim settlements, both nr. Nablus, stone passing Palestinian vehicles. Across the West Bank and Gaza, 1,000s of Palestinians turn out for candlelight vigils calling for national reconciliation. Hamas security forces violently break up the biggest rally (as many as 100,000) in Gaza City, injuring 5 protesters. In the West Bank, PA security forces (PASF) fire tear gas at some 8,000 protesters in Ramallah, briefly dispersing them and injuring 20; some protesters return, vowing to stay in Ramallah’s Manara Square until the West Bank and Gaza are reunited (they stay until 4/17). Meanwhile, Hamas’s acting PM in Gaza Ismail Haniyeh invites Abbas to Gaza for reconciliation talks; Abbas responds favorably. Inside Israel, 2 cars owned by Israeli Palestinian students at Safad Academic College were torched during a campus event to promote Arab-Jewish dialogue. Anti-Arab graffiti also was sprayed on the wall of the college, saying: “Arabs get out,” “Death to Arabs,” and “Kahane was right.” (General Delegation of the PLO to the United States letter, IFM, National Public Radio 3/15; JAZ, JP, JTA, MNA, NYT, WP, WT 3/16; PCHR 3/17; OCHA 3/18; JPI 4/1)

In Bahrain, protesters ramp up demonstrations in response to Saudi Arabia’s incursion, while the king imposes a 3-mo. state of emergency, deploys the military, and closes schools and govt. offices. (NYT 3/16)

Israeli naval vessels intercept a Palestinian fishing boat off the n. Gaza coast, escort it to Ashdod, confiscate the boat, and release the fishermen. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 4 villages nr. Jericho, Qalqilya, Salfit, and Tulkarm in the afternoon, and 1 village nr. Tulkarm late at night. From Ramallah, FCC mbr. Tawfik Tirawi calls for a “day of rage” against the 2/18 U.S. veto; protests denouncing the U.S. are held in Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Nablus, and Tulkarm. For safety, the U.S. consulate in East Jerusalem restricts staff movement for 3 days. (HA, Oxfam International, WP 2/20; PCHR 2/24; OCHA 2/25)

In Libya, security forces in Benghazi open fire on some 20,000 mourners leaving funerals of antigovernment protesters killed in recent clashes, leaving at least 84 dead and scores injured and bringing the death toll in 3 days of clashes to as many as 200 dead and nearly 850 wounded in Benghazi alone. British embassy officials say they have received reports of govt. forces using heavy weapons and snipers against protesters. From this point, antigovernment demonstrations and fierce military repression escalate sharply, and opposition groups take up arms. (NYT, WP 2/20; NYT, WP, WT 2/21)

Israel’s unilateral cease-fire goes into effect early in the morning as planned, marking the official end to OCL. The IDF begins withdrawing ground troops fr. Gaza early in the morning and releases reservists from call-up later in the day, with Olmert stating that Israel intends to pull out of Gaza as quickly as possible. Israel generally observes its cease-fire during the day, but maintains a policy of firing on Palestinians who stray close to the Gaza border fence or approach withdrawing troops. After firing 15 rockets into Israel early in the day (lightly injuring 2 Israelis in Ashdod), Hamas and other Palestinian factions declare their own Gaza cease-fire but warn that they would resume fighting if Israel does not withdraw quickly. (Unidentified factions fire 4 rockets after Hamas’s announcement, causing no injuries.) Egypt, France, the EU, and the Arab states shift their mediation efforts to securing a lasting truce and securing donor aid to fund Gaza reconstruction. 

Combat notes: The IDF carries out 3 air strikes against 1 group of armed Palestinians that fires on IDF ground forces nr. Wadi al-Silqa and 2 rocket-launching sites nr. Bayt Hanun; no injuries are reported. IDF troops on the s. Gaza border fire on a group of Palestinians inspecting damage to agricultural land nr. the border, killing 1 Palestinian civilian. The Israeli navy fires a missile at the PA General Intelligence compound in n. Gaza. Israeli warplanes continue low-level overflights of the Strip throughout the day, keeping many Palestinians off the streets. By day’s end, the IDF pulls troops in n. Gaza back into the buffer zone along the n. Gaza border; redeploys outside Gaza City’s al-Dahadih, al-Sha’af, Tal al-Hawa, and al-Zaytun neighborhoods; pulls troops out of al-Zahra’ in c. Gaza; withdraws from the al-Fukhari area and al-Mughraqa in the south.

Palestinians attempting to return to their homes in Gaza City’s northwestern neighborhoods find widespread devastation (especially in Twam, used as a staging area for the IDF’s tank corps), prompting 100s to return to UNRWA shelters. Residents of al-Atatra and al-Salatin areas on the northern outskirts of Gaza City similarly report 10s of homes and 3 schools destroyed, large tracks of agricultural land razed, significant damage to infrastructure. In s. Gaza, residents of the al-Fukhari area report at least 30 homes demolished, large areas of agricultural land razed since troops occupied the area on 1/14. Rescue workers combing the rubble in heavily damaged areas in and around Gaza City report finding at least 35 bodies in the Twam area, 95 bodies in al-Zaytun neighborhood, 24 bodies in Atatra and Izbat ‘Abid Rabbuh, 5 in Jabaliya. Palestinian workers begin repairing water and electricity lines in various areas. Israel allows 150 truckloads of humanitarian goods into Gaza. (AFP, IDF, IFM, NYT, WP, WT 1/18; HA, IDF Radio, MM, NYT, WP, WT 1/19; NYT 1/20; PCHR 1/22; FT 1/28; PCHR 1/29)

The IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin. (PCHR 1/22)

In Washington, Livni and Rice sign the MOU on curbing arms smuggling, aimed at facilitating Israel’s acceptance of the EgyptHamas cease-fire offer (see 1/15). Anonymous Israeli military officials state that OCL is “in its final act.”

Combat notes: Early in the day, the IDF pulls back to the outskirts of Gaza City (with reports indicating that Tal al-Hawa has been devastated), but fighting intensifies again in the evening. Intensified IDF ground operations under cover of air strikes and heavy shelling are reported on the outskirts of Khan Yunis. The IDF reports hitting more than 50 targets during the day, including 15 rocket-launching sites, 13 groups of armed men, 4 suspected weapons depots, 2 smuggling tunnels, at least 1 mosque, Hamas’s Asda’ media center outside Khan Yunis (previously hit on 12/27). Air strike target areas include Bani Suhayla, Bayt Lahiya, alBureij r.c., the al-Fukhari area, Gaza City (al-Shuja‘iyya, Tal al-Hawa; al-Tuffah), Izbat ‘Abid Rabbuh, Jabaliya town and r.c., Khan Yunis (white phosphorous suspected), alNasser (n. of Rafah), Rafah, the al-Satar al-Gharbi area (nr. Khan Yunis), and the alTannour area (e. of Rafah). Artillery and tank fire are reported in Bayt Hanun, Bayt Lahiya, al-Bureij r.c., Dayr al-Balah (white phosphorous suspected), Gaza City (city center and al-Sudaniyya, al-Zaytun), Jabaliya town, Khan Yunis, al-Qarara, al-Shuka, Twam, Wadi alSilqa (white phosphorous suspected). Naval bombardments center on open areas w. of Khan Yunis and in the al-Mawasi area, and in s. Rafah. Ground engagements are reported in Bayt Hanun, Bayt Lahiya, the al-Fukhari area and nearby Ma’an, Gaza City, al-Mughraqa, al-Zahra’. At least 3 ambulances are hit trying to evacuate the dead and wounded in clashes in central Gaza nr. Shuhada junction and in al-Mughraqa.

In a highly publicized incident, IDF tank shells hit a Gaza City home, killing 4 young girls (3 sisters, 1 cousin). Father of the 3 sisters, Izzeddin Abu al-Aish, a prominent Gazan doctor who appears regularly as a commentator on Israeli TV, phones ITV channel 10’s live broadcast to beg for medical assistance for his injured family, reports that his daughters are dead. In addition, an IDF air strike targets a home receiving condolence visits in Gaza City’s al-Shuja‘iyya neighborhood, killing 10 Palestinians, wounding 7. Another air strike on a home in al-Bureij r.c. kills a mother and her 5 children, ages 7–15. Gazan medical officials put the Palestinian toll at 1,140 dead, more than 5,100 wounded (470 in serious condition).

Palestinians fire 22 rockets and 5 mortars into Israel. Areas hit include Ashdod and Kiryat Gat (where at least 3 Israelis are injured, 1 seriously).

Humanitarian notes: The IDF allows up to 109 trucks of humanitarian aid entry to Gaza during the 4-hr. lull. (AFP, AP, IDF, IFM, ITV, MA, MM, REU, XIN, Zaman 1/16; IFM, NYT, WP, WT, XIN 1/17; NYT 1/18; AY, DUS, ITIC, MM 1/19; PCHR, WT 1/22; PCHR 1/29; ITV, MM 2/4; NYT 2/5)

The IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Jenin, Nablus; fires rubber-coated steel bullets at Palestinians who attend nonviolent demonstrations against OCL following Friday prayers in Hebron (injuring 4) and neighboring Bayt Umar (injuring 3), Issawiyya (injuring 4); fires live ammunition, rubber-coated steel bullets, percussion grenades, tear gas at Palestinian, Israeli, and international activists taking part in weekly nonviolent protests against the separation wall in Bil‘in (injuring 5 Palestinians, 4 with live ammunition); fires rubber-coated steel bullets, percussion grenades, tear gas at Palestinian, Israeli, and international activists taking part in weekly nonviolent protests against the separation wall in Ni‘lin (injuring 12 Palestinians, including 7 children). In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces beat and fire rubber-coated steel bullets at Palestinians protesting against OCL nr. al-Aqsa Mosque (injuring 1) and in Ras al-Amud neighborhood (injuring 1). (PCHR 1/22)