326 / 15225 Results
  • October 25, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: P.M. Peres tells reporters in France he is ready for direct negotiations with Syria, reiterates refusal to meet with PLO [FT 10/26]....

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  • October 24, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Mayor Iliyas Furayj of Bethlehem and Hanna Siniora, editor of al-Fajr newspaper, leave separately for 'Amman for talks with "...

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  • October 1, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Order closing 5- month-old al-Darb newspaper takes effect. Attomey for the paper's publisher is able to schedule High Court hearing for...

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  • September 13, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Center of Dheisheh refugee camp, near Bethlehem, placed under siege for 3 hours [FJ 9/20]. Establishment of the Voice of America...

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  • July 11, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: The Daily Telegraph reports depleted uranium, potential material for making nuclear explosives, was exported to Israel last...

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  • February 10, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Israelis, al-Fara'a refugee camp residents protest outside al-Fara'a prison, demand release of Dheisheh residents detained there after 2...

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  • October 21, 1984

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: In Herut Executive mtg., FM Shamir says Reagan plan no longer exists.

    Arab World: To avoid Arab criticism that they are upgrading...

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  • September 3, 1984

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Gaza military court charges 2 Israeli officers with 5/1/84 attack & blinding of Gaza man M. H; Abu Amra.

    Arab World: 3...

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  • July 11, 1984

    Social/Economic/Political Occupied Palestine/Israel: Israel releases 2 more passengers of ferry boat hijacked 6/29, including school-boy Mazen Masri kidnapped by IDF while returning home from...

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  • April 26, 1984

    Social/Economic/Political:

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: 3 Tel Aviv policemen tried for beating up Palestinian man (8/81).

    Other Countries: US Pres. Reagan sends Congress 4 bills aimed...

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  • February 13, 1984

    SOCIAL/POLITICAL:

    Arab World: General strike called in Majd al-Shams (Golan) protesting Israeli occupation of Lebanon and US interference in Lebanese affairs.

    Other Countries:...

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  • December 20, 1983

    SOCIAL/POLITICAL:

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Dep. Knesset Speaker Cohen-Avidov justifies telling his son serving in West Bank to ignore IDF restriction on use of arms against stone-throwers...

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  • December 8, 1983

    SOCIAL/POLITICAL:

    Occupied Palestine/Israel:

    Jewish National Fund plans to transplant cedars of Lebanon fail due to war in Lebanon; in Galilee, 10-15,000 reported already...

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  • November 17, 1983

    Military Action:

    French jets from carrier Clemenceau attack positions of Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Islamic Amal militia, east of Baalbek; RPGs fired at French position in Beirut;...

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  • September 27, 1983

    Military Action:

    Cease-fire holds generally; sniper fire and fighting between LAF and Amal militia in southern suburbs of Beirut; LF and PSP militias exchange artillery fire near Baissour;...

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  • July 18, 1983

    Casualties:

    2 killed, 3 wounded in West Beirut shootout between Amal militia and gunmen firing at restaurant from passing car; guard in Baath party office in Tripoli killed when shell hits...

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  • March 18, 1983

    Military Action:

    IDF patrol attacked southeast of Beirut, Lebanese National Resistance Front reportedly responsible; 2 grenades thrown at French MNF position in Beirut; Israeli jets break...

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  • February 23, 1983

    Casualties:

    UNRWA Field Director in Sidon says Palestinians in Akbieh village near Sidon being harassed by armed men demanding that they leave.

    Political Responses:

    Israel/...

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  • February 20, 1983

    Casualties:

    Israelis reportedly releasing an average of 11 men a day from Ansar detention camp.

    Political Responses:

    Israel/ Occupied Territories: Cabinet votes at Begin's...

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  • February 16, 1983

    Military Action:

    IDF patrol confronts Lebanese Army at checkpoint east of Beirut; French and Italian soldiers take up positions in East Beirut alongside Lebanese Army; Foreign Minister...

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  • February 4, 1983

    Military Action:

    350 additional troops to be sent to reinforce 1600-man French contingent in Beirut; bomb explodes near car of Druze leader Faisal Arslan but he is not injured; heavy...

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  • January 18, 1983

    Military Action:

    Phalange and Druze militia exchange artillery and rocket fire during night and morning in Shweifat, Baabda, Aley and Bhamdoun; lDF sets up checkpoints on Beirut-Damascus...

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  • January 10, 1983

    Military Action:

    Druze-Phalange militia gunbattles in Maarufiye-Bsada region, near Baabda; Lebanese internal security forces deployed in areas of Tripoli to monitor cease-fire.

    ...

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  • December 20, 1982

    Military Action:

    Rocket, mortar and artillery battles in 11 Chouf villages; armed clashes continue in Tripoli.

    Casualties:

    Lebanese merchants in Aley and Bhamdoun strike to...

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  • December 4, 1982

    Military Action:

    US Marines expand Beirut role by adding heavy artillery, M-60 tanks to forces, widen patrol areas.

    Casualties:

    Lebanese Government frees all 14 Haddad...

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  • November 22, 1982

    Military Action:

    Several hundred Shiite militiamen attack Lebanese Army barracks in Baalbek for two hours before retreating, in first armed protest of Amin Gemayel's government; Lebanese...

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  • November 17, 1982

    Political Responses:

    Israel/ Occupied Territories: Major Haddad, in testimony before Commission of Inquiry, denies his militiamen were involved in massacre, says three militiamen caught in...

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  • October 21, 1982

    Military Action:

    Cease-fire continues to hold in Druze villages as Lebanese Army moves in; home rotation of Marines in Lebanon may be delayed.

    Casualties:

    Israel faults...

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  • October 8, 1982

    Militarv Action:

    Lebanese Army announces 200 tons of munitions uncovered in first 2 days of security sweep; Lebanese Army tanks accompany bulldozers into squatter neighborhood of Haret al-...

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  • October 7, 1982

    Military Action:

    Lebanese Army continues round-up of Palestinian and foreign residents without proper identification; Italian and French troops help Army cordon off southeast section of...

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Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: P.M. Peres tells reporters in France he is ready for direct negotiations with Syria, reiterates refusal to meet with PLO [FT 10/26]. Jewish Press reports 2 convicted Jewish underground defendants refuse to testify against 2 Israeli army officers on trial for their part in the attack on the heads of the National Guidance Committee in 1980 [JWP 10/25].

Other Countries: Israel and U.S. cast only votes against UN Gen. Assemb. resolution proposing strengthening ties between UN and Arab League UP 10/27]. P. M. Shimon Peres states France has offered to help Jews emigate from the Soviet Union by flying them directly to Israel if the Soviets were to permit expanded emigration [NYT 10/26]. Italian police arrest another Palestinian in connection with the Achille Lauro hijacking; 2 of the 4 hijackers are said to be cooperating with the police [NYT 10/26]. Two Arabs and 1 Briton are charged in Cyprus with murder of 3 Israelis last month [MG 10/26].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Israeli troops reportedly find guns and ammunition in Yatta village, south of Hebron; 2 houses are destroyed, curfew is imposed, house-tohouse searches are conducted. Houses belonged to 2 Palestinians arrested several weeks ago [JP 10/28].

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Mayor Iliyas Furayj of Bethlehem and Hanna Siniora, editor of al-Fajr newspaper, leave separately for 'Amman for talks with "very high up people"; Furayj says he will discuss "municipal matters," Siniora says he will discuss "how we can repair the damage between the Jordanians and the Palestinians" [LT 10/25]. Finance Min. Yitzhak Moda'i states plans for 6 new settlements in the W. Bank will not be implemented despite his earlier statements to that effect [JP 10/25]. Negev Bedouin refuse to elect delegation to represent them on Supreme Committee on Bedouin Affairs, chaired by advisor on Arab affairs Yosef Ganat [JP 10/25]. Ariel Sharon states in TV interview Jordan must remove PLO bases from its territory as condition for negotiating with Israel [MG 10/25].

Arab World: King Hussein meets with Pres. Mubarak in 'Amman to discuss Peres' proposals for direct talks. Hussein states at press conference that U.S. Congress will not force him to negotiate directly with Israel by delaying arms sales to Jordan [NYT, CSM 10/25]. Al-Quds newspaper in Jerusalem reports Jordan has ordered several PLO offices in 'Amman closed, ordered staff reductions at others, and has refused permission to enter to several PLO commanders, including the head of Fateh's Force 17, Abu Tayyib, and Muhammad Milham, PLO Executive Committee member who refused to sign statement prepared by Brit. For. Min. denouncing use of violence and recognizing Israel's right to exist. (Move follows Arafat's recent cancellation of trip to 'Amman, reported failure of Arafat's deputy Khaled al-Hasan to reach understanding during recent talks with King Hussein on breakdown in talks with British For. Min.). Jordanian army units are reportedly strengthened near PLO camps [JP, FJ 10/25; LT 10/271]. Reports indicate Bishop Iliyas Khuri, PLO Executive Committee member, has signaled his wish to resign over embarrassment due to recent cancellation of talks with British Foreign Ministry [JP 10/25].

Other Countries: State Dept. announces Asst. Sec. of State Richard Murphy made unpublicized trip to Jordan this week to give King Hussein private assurances from P.M. Peres about sincere desire for negotiations. Murphy then flies to New York for talks with Shultz, and later joins Shultz in talks with Peres [NYT 10/25]. U.S. Senate votes 97 to 1 to postpone Pres. Reagan's proposed $1.9 billion arms sale to Jordan until 1 March unless Jordan begins direct peace negotiations with Israel before then [WP, PI 10/25]. Hussein charges U.S. with "reneging" and "blackmail" [WP 10/25]. European Parliament votes to back "with all its available means" P.M. Shimon Peres' peace plan; resolution calls for recognition of the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people, calls for PLO participation in peace process. Resolution proposed by Socialist group, backed by Italian Communists [JTA 10/25]. French For. Min. Roland Dumas temporarily postpones upcoming visit to Israel to express "displeasure" over 10/1 Israeli air strike on PLO base in Tunis [JTA 10/25].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Shots are fired at Israeli motorist on Jerusalem-Jericho road as he changes a flat. Area is curfewed; no arrests made [JP 10/25]. 

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Order closing 5- month-old al-Darb newspaper takes effect. Attomey for the paper's publisher is able to schedule High Court hearing for case for 10/6 [FJ 10/4].

Arab World: King Hussein meets with key U.S. congressmen to discuss proposed U.S. arms sale to Jordan [WP 10/2].

Other Countries: Pentagon officials meet Israeli diplomats, ask for list of U.S. weapons used in Tunis air raid [DT 10/4]. EEC countries empower their president to meet a joint Palestinian-Jordanian delegation, following Britain's decision to invite the delegation, including 2 prominent PLO members, to London for talks [JP 10/2].

Military Action

Arab World: Israel bombs PLO headquarters in Tunis, claiming retaliation for Lamaca killings and W. Bank violence; 61 Palestinians and 12 Tunisians killed, over 100 injured. 8 U.S.-made F-15s and 8 F- 16s used in the attack, raising speculation Israel may have violated U.S. Arms Export Control Act. White House spokesman Larry Speakes describes attack as a "legitimate response" to "terrorist atacks" [NYT, JP 10/2]. Jordan and Egypt condemn raid, vow to continue peace process. Egypt suspends Taba discussions in protest [NYT 10/2]. Saudi Arabia calls for UN sanctions against Israel. England, Greece, Czechoslovakia, China, Rumania, France, Kuwait, UAE, Turkey, Jewish leaders condemn raid [NYT 10/2; MG, LT 10/3]. Washington claims no advance knowledge of the attack [NYT 10/2]. Three SLA soldiers killed by unidentified gunmen in the security zone [JP 10/2].

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Center of Dheisheh refugee camp, near Bethlehem, placed under siege for 3 hours [FJ 9/20]. Establishment of the Voice of America transmitter inIsrael will bring in at least $150 million in revenues, Davar reports [JWP 9/13]. Jewish Press reports secular and religious Jews have formed an international committee to mobilize resistance to construction of an extension of the Mormon Brigham Young University on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem [JWP 9/13].

Other Countries: U.S. vetoes a resolution in the UN Security Council which would have condemned "the repressive measures taken by Israel since 4 August 1985 against the civilian Palestinian population in the Israeli-occupied territories." The vote was 10 in favor, 1 opposed (the U.S.), and 4 abstentions (Australia, Denmark, France, and Britain) [JP 9/15]. New York Assembly man Dov Hikind holds a rally outside PLO offices in New York calling for the removal of the PLO from that city. Rally is sponsored by Americans for a Safe Israel [JWP 9/13].

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: The Daily Telegraph reports depleted uranium, potential material for making nuclear explosives, was exported to Israel last autumn after it was bought from Luxembourg, in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty [DT 7/12, JW 8/1]. EEC spokesman reports private Luxembourg metals trading company imported 40 tons of depleted uranium from Britain and 7 tons from France; 47 tons then exported to Israel without required notification to Euratom (EEC agency charged with keeping track of trade of nuclear materials by EEC member states) [VO 8/1]. Foreign Min. Shamir calls Jewish underground defendants "excellent people who made a mistake" [JP 7/12]; vows to work for their release. Four Gazans are convicted of plotting to attack the U.S. embassy [JP 7/12].

Other Countries: U. S. House of Rep. passes fiscal 1985 Foreign Aid Authorization Bill on voice vote. Bill includes $3 billion in regular economic and military assistance for Israel, plus $1.5 billion in emergency supplemental economic aid; $400 million of military assistance is allocated to Lavi aircraft project, $150 million of which must be spent in the U.S. [NER 7/15].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Bombs go off in Ashkelon and Hadera; no injuries are reported [JP 7/12]. 

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Israelis, al-Fara'a refugee camp residents protest outside al-Fara'a prison, demand release of Dheisheh residents detained there after 2/1 raid on camp [FJ 2/15]. Authorities ask 4 unnamed Palestinians to become mayors of cities whose mayors were previously expelled [BG 2/11]. IDF reopen al-Bireh high school [closed 2/7] [FJ 2/15]. Interior Ministry forbids hajj to Mecca for Palestinians inside "Green Line" who are under 35, or who made hajj in the past [FJ 2/22].

Other Countries: France agrees to US request not to sell 2 nuclear reactors to Israel [PM Peres indicated 12/9 Israel sought to buy such reactors] [LAT 2/11].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Gasoline bomb thrown at Israeli bus near al-Azariya; no injuries [JP 2/11].

Arab World: IDF jets attack DFLP base in Ta'lbaya, Lebanon; 2 injured [NYT 2/11]. IDF soldier injured 2/4 by roadside bomb near Tyre dies. 2 IDF soldiers killed by roadside bomb north of Israel-Lebanon border near Metulla. IDF convoy attacked north of Litani River, S. Lebanon; 1 killed, 3 wounded [WP 2/11]. RPG fired at IDF patrol near Burj al-Shemali camp, S. Lebanon; 1 wounded [JP 2/11]. IDF indicate prisoners held in Ansar prison will be transferred tonew site either in Israel or portion of S. Lebanon held by the SLA when IDF withdraws [JP 2/11].

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: In Herut Executive mtg., FM Shamir says Reagan plan no longer exists.

Arab World: To avoid Arab criticism that they are upgrading relations with Israel, Lebanese cabinet proposes direct talks with UN-sponsored Lebanese-Israeli Mixed Armistice Commission framework; Israel refuses. Popular Palestinian Committees of al-Yarmouk camp (Damascus) cable Syrian gov't. to protest arrest campaign of camp residents in past week. Morocco refuses entry to 2 Israelis invited to attend World Conference on Poetry in Marrakesh.

Other Countries: French chrmn. of World Jewish Congress named by France to its UN delegation.

Military Action

Arab World: 3 guerrillas reported killed, 1 captured by IDF near Bater al-Chouf, Lebanon.

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Gaza military court charges 2 Israeli officers with 5/1/84 attack & blinding of Gaza man M. H; Abu Amra.

Arab World: 3 Palestinian Nat'l. Action leaders in Jordan voice opposition to PNC mtg. before agreement between all PLO groups. Lebanese Pres. Gemayel meets Pres. Assad in Damascus for talks on security and political reforms. Palestine Higher Military Council meets in Tunis, endorses Aden-Algiers agreement (6/27). Chrmn. Arafat meets with Algerian (FLN) officials.

Other Countries: Nigerian gov't. sanctions chiefs Oba Sijuade II and Alhaji Ado Bayero for recent visit to Jerusalem for talks with Israeli officials. Israel Aircraft Industries recruits 10 engineers from Lear Fan plant in Belfast, N. Ireland to accelerate production of Lavi jets. France's Chief Rabbi Rene Sirat condemns Kahane as "contrary to all ideals of Judaism." Venezuelan Confederation of Jewish Associations denounces Pan American Gymnastics Federation support for Palestine's membership in International Gymnastics Federation. 

Social/Economic/Political Occupied Palestine/Israel: Israel releases 2 more passengers of ferry boat hijacked 6/29, including school-boy Mazen Masri kidnapped by IDF while returning home from school in Britain. Central Elections Com. censors Meir Kahane campaign broadcast.

Arab World: National Alliance [PFLPGC, Popular Struggle Front, Saiqa & the dissidents] issues statement criticizing Democratic Alliance for not publicizing ongoing dialogue. Lebanese cabinet appoints commission to investigate fate of missing persons. Other Countries: In Cairo, French and Egyptian presidents Mitterrand &Mubarak announce agreement that Reagan plan offers best chance for peace, but int'l. conference proposed by King Hussein is possible alternative. France authorizes assembly of Mirage 2000 warplanes in Egypt, and agrees in principle to their sale to other Arab states.

Social/Economic/Political:

Occupied Palestine/Israel: 3 Tel Aviv policemen tried for beating up Palestinian man (8/81).

Other Countries: US Pres. Reagan sends Congress 4 bills aimed at detecting and prosecuting individuals who provide "support services" to nations or groups determined by Sec. of State to be involved in terrorism. Before group of French parliamentarians visiting Israel, PM Shamir blasts France for maintaining diplomatic ties with PLO.

SOCIAL/POLITICAL:

Arab World: General strike called in Majd al-Shams (Golan) protesting Israeli occupation of Lebanon and US interference in Lebanese affairs.

Other Countries: Hungarian state business representatives meet with Israeli businessmen in Jerusalem; in absence of diplomatic relations, talks remain on private level. Soviet delegation informs US Security Council that USSR will not approve UN peacekeeping force in Lebanon until US, British, French and Italian MNF withdraw permanently.

MILITARY ACTION:

Arab World: IDF soldiers wounded by mine explosion on road to Nabatiya.

Other Countries: 50 members of US Druze community demonstrate at State Dep't. against US policy in Lebanon. FM Kimche ends 4-day official visit to Singapore.

SOCIAL/POLITICAL:

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Dep. Knesset Speaker Cohen-Avidov justifies telling his son serving in West Bank to ignore IDF restriction on use of arms against stone-throwers. Student council elections held in Gaza Islamic U. and Bir Zeit U; Student Youth Movement wins all 9 seats in BZU council. Striking dock workers force business, gov't. and port authorities to create special fund to transport cargoes by air.

Arab World: Arafat and some 4,000 loyalists sail from Tripoli on 5 chartered Greek passenger ships escorted by French Navy.

Other Countries: Resolutions adopted in UN Gen. Assembly: denouncing new US-Israeli accord [87-29, 29 abstentions]; condemning increasing collaboration between Israel and S. Africa (especially in nuclear field) [101-18, 20 abst.]; calling for economic and military sanctions against Israel [84-24, 31 abst.]; declaring Israel's decision to impose jurisdiction over Jerusalem null and void [137-1, 3 abst.]; and condemning Israel's plundering of Palestinian cultural property during occupation of Lebanon [ 120-1, 20 abst.]. S. California Edison Co. buys $15 million solar plant from Israeli firm, Ormat.

MILITARY ACTION:

Occupied Palestine!Israel: Hand-grenade thrown at Border Patrol vehicle in Gaza. Israeli troops use teargas against about 100 students protesting occupation and attempts to put al-Najah National U. under military control; hours later, petrol bomb flung at Israeli foot patrol, no injuries. Greek Orthodox nun and Muslim muezzin injured when 2 IDF grenades explode in al-Eizariya (Bethany); "TNT" claims responsibility.

Arab World: 2 Israeli soldiers and 5 Lebanese civilians wounded by grenade hurled at Israeli patrol in Sidon; 2 Israeli soldiers wounded by land mine near Jib Jennin; explosive device wounds 1 Israeli in Ghaziyeh village in S. Lebanon; attacks on Israelis in Lebanon total 6 today.

SOCIAL/POLITICAL:

Occupied Palestine/Israel:

Jewish National Fund plans to transplant cedars of Lebanon fail due to war in Lebanon; in Galilee, 10-15,000 reported already transplanted from France where imported by Lebanese immigrants.

Arab World: Gemayel sends FM to Damascus for talks on withdrawal of foreign troops from Lebanon.

Other Countries: US, British, French and Italian FMs reaffirm commitment to MNF presence in Beirut. In General Assembly debate, Israeli UN ambassador Blum requests UN cancel arrangements to protect Arafat's departure from Tripoli in light of recent bomb explosion on Jerusalem bus.

MILITARY ACTION:

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Aisha Adnan Bahash, 11, shot dead, sister, Fida, 9, shot in face by Israeli settler in Nablus bakery. Israeli troops raid and vandalize Palestinian cultural exhibit at Nablus Labor Union office, detain 11 present, confiscate publications. Students and 2 teachers from Hashimiya Secondary School in al- Bira arrested after clashes with about 200 Israeli soldiers as students protest "civil administration" ceremony at school with military presence. Yatta farmers driven from their fields by Israeli settlers. Bus traveling to Kiryat Arba reportedly stoned outside Hebron. 

Military Action:

French jets from carrier Clemenceau attack positions of Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Islamic Amal militia, east of Baalbek; RPGs fired at French position in Beirut; fighting continues around Souq al-Gharb; pockets of Fateh loyalists continue to resist on fringes of Baddawi, shells fall in Tripoli; roadside bomb hits IDF patrol south of Sidon; US Marines begin 4 day rotation, 1400 new troops, veterans of Grenada invasion, to come ashore.

Casualties:

Lebanese police say 39 killed, 150 wounded in Baalbek air raid, several buildings destroyed; 1 IDF soldier killed, 5 wounded in Sidon explosion; Air France cancels Beirut flights until further notice; wave of arrests of civilians by IDF reported in South Lebanon.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: 2 students wounded by IDF during Gaza demonstration; 4000-6000 dunums confiscated from Beit Ula near Hebron.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Arafat says no one can liquidate the PLO, it is not a military base, his forces will fight to defend Tripoli against Syrian plan of conquest.

Arab Govements: Saudi, Kuwaiti and Qatari officials meet in Damascus with FM Khaddam, seek to mediate cease-fire in Tripoli.

US and Other Countries: France says air attacks are necessary to prevent new terrorist actions against French forces in Lebanon by intervening first; US says it had advance notice of French air raids.

Military Action:

Cease-fire holds generally; sniper fire and fighting between LAF and Amal militia in southern suburbs of Beirut; LF and PSP militias exchange artillery fire near Baissour; bomb explodes as IDF vehicle passes near Marjayoun; fighting breaks out in Baddawi refugee camp near Tripoli between Fateh and PFLP-GC factions, Arafat forces exchange artillery fire with Syrian troops.

Casualties:

17-19 guerrillas killed, 7 wounded in Tripoli fighting; 1 Italian soldier wounded in Beirut; 2 IDF soldiers wounded near Marjayoun; refugees return in large numbers to Beirut from the south.

Political Responses:

US and Other Countries: Representatives of US, Britain, France, Italy meet in New York, agree on need to keep MNF in place, discuss formation of 600-man observer corps, affiliated to UN, monitor Lebanon cease-fire; Shultz says MNF mission in Lebanon should continue until or even after there is stability, including withdrawal of Israeli, Syrian and PLO forces; Reagan says he will seek Congressional authorization for any substantial expansion in size or role of Marine contingent, will consult if stay beyond 18 months is required.

Casualties:

2 killed, 3 wounded in West Beirut shootout between Amal militia and gunmen firing at restaurant from passing car; guard in Baath party office in Tripoli killed when shell hits building.

Political Responses:

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Gemayel in France en route to US, meets with King Hussein in Nice.

UN: Security Council extends mandate of UNIFIL peacekeeping force in South Lebanon to October 19.

Military Action:

IDF patrol attacked southeast of Beirut, Lebanese National Resistance Front reportedly responsible; 2 grenades thrown at French MNF position in Beirut; Israeli jets break sound barrier over Beirut, fly mock bombing runs in South Lebanon.

Casualties:

1 IDF wounded; IDF reportedly investigating deaths of 7 men whose bodies were found in Israeli detention center in Sidon soon after invasion; IDF arrests sheikh of Jibsheet, Shiite village in South Lebanon, on suspicion of aiding terrorist activity; prisoner in Ansar camp murdered by other prisoners; Committee of Prisoners' Families reports more than 200 Palestinian women arrested or kidnapped by Phalange in Beirut area between October and February.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Science and Development Minister Ne'eman says he will demand extension of Israeli law to West Bank and Gaza and massive Jewish settlement; IDF and Defense Ministry reply to US Marine Commandant's charges, accuse US of failing to honor agreement to delineate military patrol zones in Beirut; Arens tells Weinberger that IDF under strict instructions to avoid incidents with US Marines, proposes agreement on demarcation lines, liaison arrangements between forces.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Lebanese Army Commander Tannous says non-Lebanese parties are masterminding and staging attacks on MNF to drive it out of Lebanon.

Arab Governments: Arab League delegation, led by King Hussein, with Walid Khalidi representing Palestinians, meets PM Thatcher in London, who reaffirms commitment to self-determination for the Palestinian people.

US and Other Countries: Former President Carter meets President Gemayel in Beirut, calls for immediate withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon, says he hopes Israeli occupation of West Bank will not be repeated in Lebanon.

UN: UN officials say France has expressed concern over August Question of Palestine conference to be held at Paris UNESCO HQ will not take part in preparations or send delegation.

Casualties:

UNRWA Field Director in Sidon says Palestinians in Akbieh village near Sidon being harassed by armed men demanding that they leave.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Knesset confirms Arens as Defense Minister by 61 to 51 vote; Meir Rosenne, Israel's ambassador to France, leading candidate to replace Arens as ambassador to US; Begin tells war veterans Israel will not deviate from Camp David formula, which does not provide for an independent state or for self-determination, which means the same thing; Defense Ministry exhibits Israeli-built Python 3 air-to-air missile, tested effectively in Lebanon air war, and said to be equal to US Sidewinder 9L; a West Bank civil administrator sentenced to 9 months in prison for accepting bribes to carry out residents' requests; 4 Druze residents of Golan Heights convicted of spying for Syria; Air Force Commander Lapidot says Israel needs Lavi fighter, US is witholding technological assistance.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Rashad al-Shawa, deposed mayor of Gaza, says PNC indirectly delegated Jordan to proceed with talks with Israel.

US and Other Countries: Reagan says that resolution of the Palestinian issue will require providing something in the nature of a homeland for the Palestinians, but not creating a nation, that the greatest security for Israel is to create new Egypts, more nations, more neighbors that are willing to sign peace treaties with them.

Casualties:

Israelis reportedly releasing an average of 11 men a day from Ansar detention camp.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Cabinet votes at Begin's request to retain Sharon on steering committee for Lebanon negotiations and on larger of two ministerial defense panels; new Defense Minister Arens not expected to return from US for another two weeks; Shamir says Israel now prepared to accept lightly-manned observation posts to watch for guerrilla infiltration in South Lebanon; after 10 days of investigation, Israeli police do not have specific line of inquiry into grenade attack on Peace Now demonstration, question and release Rabbi Meir Kahane; Israel reported negotiating to purchase a fusion energy reactor using equipment supplied by France, US technology; Eliahu Lankin, Israeli Ambassador to South Africa and former Irgun commander, likely to be new ambassador to Britain; curfew imposed on old Nablus market to enable installation of metal gates intended to seal the warren-like market during times of unrest; curfew lifted on Dheisheh refugee camp.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Issam Sartawi resigns from PNC after his speech to full council session on Saturday night is blocked by Arafat; PNC spokesman Ahmad Abdel Rahman says Sartawi did not reflect position of Fateh leadership when he advocated recognition of Israel; dozens of Palestinians, visiting relatives in Israel, apparently disappear in Arab villages to avoid returning to Lebanon.

US and Other Countries: Shultz says he is optimistic that one of these fine days the conditions will be right for King Hussein to enter negotiations with Israel.

Military Action:

IDF patrol confronts Lebanese Army at checkpoint east of Beirut; French and Italian soldiers take up positions in East Beirut alongside Lebanese Army; Foreign Minister Salem says army under orders to. shoot anyone who tries to obstruct its operations in Beirut, announces army will be increased to 40,000 men from present 22,000 by summer; car bomb explodes in Antelias, Phalange controlled suburb of Beirut; Haddad forces move in Hasbaya region of Bekaa valley; IDF reports explosive device defused near roadside in Sidon.

Casualties:

2 killed, 1 injured by car bomb in Antelias; 2 IDF killed, 2 injured in ambush while on patrol near Ayn Zhalta, southeast of Beirut.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Begin government defeats no confidence motions brought by Labor, Communist and Shinui parties, in single vote, 64 to 56; 1,466 signatures collected on petition denouncing war in Lebanon by Yesh Gvul ("There's a Limit") organization; High Court issues temporary injunction to prevent eviction of 2,000 residents of refugee settlement near Rafah; fire bomb thrown at Israeli bus near village of Arabe in Jenin district, village placed under curfew.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: At PNC, PLO Political Department head Farouk Kaddoumi calls Reagan plan another Camp David; Jibril says PFLP-GC will quit PLO and PNC if Fez resolution is endorsed; PNC Chairman Khaled al-Fahoum tells press conference we do not want to destroy any state in the region, says Palestinian state will be established in West Bank and Gaza, with Jerusalem as its capital; in Lebanon negotiations Israel seeks five "twarning stations" manned by 150 soldiers each at Mount Baruk, Hasbaya, Nabatiyeh, Sidon, and south of Sidon; Phalangist militia leader Fadi Frem says that Israel is installing Haddad's forces as second option if negotiations fail; Lebanese Foreign Minister denies Israeli report that agreement reached on accepting Haddad into Lebanese army.

US and Other Countries: Reagan says he is willing to increase number of Marines in Lebanon if it were key to speeding foreign troop withdrawal; Reagan invites Defense Minister Arens to White House meeting prior to his departure for Israel.

Military Action:

350 additional troops to be sent to reinforce 1600-man French contingent in Beirut; bomb explodes near car of Druze leader Faisal Arslan but he is not injured; heavy shelling between Druze and Christian villages in Chouf; several Katyusha rockets land north of Israeli border near Metulla.

Casualties:

5 killed, 45 wounded by artillery shells falling in East Beirut residential areas; PLO prepared to release 8 Israeli soldiers in return for release of more than 5000 Palestinian and Lebanese detainees held by Israel, as well as 1000 prisoners arrested by Israel since 1967.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Israel, a major producer of goose liver, signs cartel agreement with Hungary for marketing in France; 21 Druze from Golan Heights receive Israeli citizenship, 99%o of Druze over 16 are reported to have accepted identity cards; 35,000 dunums of West Bank land seized by Israel in previous week, including 23,000 dunums at Yatta, 4,000 dunums at Taffuh, 3,000 dunums at Shayoukh, 5,000 dunums at Mukhmas; other land seizures reported at Battir and Dura.

Arab Governments: Syrian officials concerned that fresh outbreak of fighting with Israeli forces in Lebanon will take place in spring.

US and Other Countries: Senior US military officers concerned over duration of Marines' duty in Lebanon; Reagan expresses support for Marine action to stop Israeli tank patrol; Reagan Administration asks Congress for $2.49 billion in economic and military aid for Israel, $2.05 billion for Egypt; American-Israeli Public Affairs Committee holds meeting for aides of 50 prominent Senate and House members on Lebanon situation, Israeli government expert says troops may have to remain 5 to 10 years; Greek Prime Minister Papandreou denies his government is anti-Semitic but does oppose Israel's aggressive and expansionist policies; Austrian Chancellor Kreisky meets Reagan in Washington, calls Reagan plan a step forward.

Military Action:

Phalange and Druze militia exchange artillery and rocket fire during night and morning in Shweifat, Baabda, Aley and Bhamdoun; lDF sets up checkpoints on Beirut-Damascus highway to divert traffic from areas of fighting.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Chief of Staff Eitan tells Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee that 117 IDF were killed in western Lebanon, 8 in Beirut, that Begin denied Eitan's request during war for 2 more hours to cross Beirut-Damascus highway and destroy Syrian T-72 tank group, that critics such as Yossi Sarid and Shulamit Aloni harmed the war effort by talking about number of Palestinian homeless and refugees; Shamir and Kimche meet for 2'h4 hours with Habib and Draper; Sharon arrives in Zaire; 1DF spokeswoman confirms 10 Israeli Druze soldiers were jailed for defying orders in South Lebanon; Knesset votes 46-44 not to censure Kiryat Arba Council for destroying 4 of Hebron municipality's electricity pylons; Elias Freij and Rashad Shawa say they are willing to be members of a Palestinian-Jordanian delegation in peace talks with Israel.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: After 3 days of meetings in Damascus, PLO Executive Committee does not give Arafat support for alliance with Jordan; Lebanese Government insists end to state of war must be linked to complete Israeli withdrawal; Foreign Minister Elie Salem says another month or 2 of intensive discussion necessary to clear differences with Israel, he is confident Syrian and Palestinian forces will leave when Israelis leave, Lebanon is prepared to guarantee it will never again be base of operations against Israel, calls for multinational force and UNIFIL to double in size; Prime Minister Wazzan asks Justice Minister Roger Shikhani to investigate missing persons and to speed up interrogation of hundreds of detainees.

US and Other Countries: State Department says that Carter and Ford rightly focus on settlements as obstacle, but they are not the major obstacle to peace, and refuse to call settlements illegal; Weinberger and French Defense Minister Charles Hernu hold talks in Washington, Hernu says France will increase its contingent in Lebanon and take on more responsibility after the withdrawal of Syrian, Israeli and Palestinian forces, providing US and Italy do the same.

UN: Security Council votes to extend mandate of 5,800 UNIFIL troops for another 6 months; Israeli Ambassador Yehuda Blum says UNIFL has outlived its usefulness; US delegate says UNIFIL is a positive element in the negotiations.

Military Action:

Druze-Phalange militia gunbattles in Maarufiye-Bsada region, near Baabda; Lebanese internal security forces deployed in areas of Tripoli to monitor cease-fire.

Casualties:

Government offices, banks, shops and many schools reopen in Tripoli.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Israeli officials say Government is prepared to allow UNIFIL a 2 month extension, to operate around Palestinian refugee camps above 25 mile security zone, do not want UNIFIL within security zone; MK Yitzhak Rabin says war in Lebanon was illegal use of IDF for far-reaching political goals; Defense Ministry informs Umm al-Fahm residents that 15,000 dunums of their land is declared a military zone and cultivation must cease; troops raid Najah University, remove Palestinian posters and flags; military authorities close Kadri Tukan high school after border police injured by stones following celebration of 18th anniversary of Fateh in Nablus; all Nablus and neighboring Balata camp under undeclared curfew; Israeli traffic stoned in Ramallah and Bethlehem, with total of 5 settlers injured during week; Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs spokesman Avraham Hoffmann says $150,000 promotion campaign will encourage Israelis to settle in West Bank, and provide clearing house for information on available housing, World Zionist Organization goal is 100,000 settlers by 1985, current number is 25,000.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Arafat meets with Jordanian Prime Minister Mudar Badran, holds press conference in Amman in which he praises the Reagan plan for calling for a settlement freeze, and criticizes plan for denying Palestinian right to independent state; Abu lyad says meeting of Fateh Central Committee in Kuwait on 6 January rejected the Reagan plan; Lebanese-Israeli-US talks held in Khalde deadlocked over agenda as US compromise proposals are unacceptable, but new proposals submitted.

US and Other Countries: US State Department confirms several encounters between IDF and Marines in Beirut; Special Envoy Habib confers with Reagan, Shultz and Bush before leaving for Middle East, amid growing Administration frustration that delay in Israeli and Syrian troop withdrawals impede Jordan's involvement in peace negotiations as proposed in Reagan Plan; B'nai B'rith Anti-Defamation League releases report that anti-Semitic violence in US decreased by 15% in 1982, to 829 incidents, mostly in New York, California, New Jersey and Massachusetts; New York City Mayor Koch presents key to city to President Navon, pledges support of Israel, Navon tells Yeshiva University students to settle in Israel; Italian Defense Minister Lelio Lagorio, in Beirut, announces Italy considering sending another battalion to Lebanon, bringing total troops to 4,000.

UN: Senegal, Fiji, Norway, Ireland, Holland, Ghana, Finland, France, Sweden and Italy will keep troops in UNIFIL; Nigeria will remove troops from UNIFIL.

Military Action:

Rocket, mortar and artillery battles in 11 Chouf villages; armed clashes continue in Tripoli.

Casualties:

Lebanese merchants in Aley and Bhamdoun strike to protest renewed fighting; 20 killed, 4 injured in Chouf.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Commission of Inquiry recalls Sharon to submit to cross-examination; Sharon tells Knesset committee Israel is opposed to stationing any international forces in proposed security zone in South Lebanon; senior Israeli officials outline proposed Lebanon security zone, where it would set up monitoring posts manned by Israelis; ban all but small arms, carry out surveillance overflights; curfews briefly lifted, then reimposed on Nablus market and Balata camp; West Bank Palestinians upset at Christmas pilgrimages of Maronite Christians to Holy Places.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Gemayel meets with envoys of US, France and Italy to brief them on deteriorating situation in Chouf and Tripoli; Gemayel rejects Israeli demands for security zone as gross infringements on national sovereignty.

Arab Governments: King Hussein meets with Shultz in Washington.

US and Other Countries: Weinberger says US may send more troops once progress on pull-out is shown; Habib stops in France for talks with foreign ministry; British announce willingness to join multinational peacekeeping force in Beirut, will send armored unit with 80 men for three months.

Military Action:

US Marines expand Beirut role by adding heavy artillery, M-60 tanks to forces, widen patrol areas.

Casualties:

Lebanese Government frees all 14 Haddad militiamen suspected of involvement in massacre after two-month interrogation, claiming lack of evidence.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: 5 Israeli Palestinians arrested after tires burned in West Galilee, walls painted with pro-PLO slogans; Sharon denies Israel has sold captured PLO weapons.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: New reports of killings and torture of Palestinian detainees by Lebanese, as Ambassadors of US, France and Italy reportedly exerting intense pressure on Gemayel to reveal status and condition of prisoners.

US and Other Countries: State Department announces Habib and Draper are being recalled to Washington for consultations, as Administration is concerned at lack of progress in negotiations, and holds Israel responsible; EEC warns Israel that continued West Bank settlement may lead to stronger EEC sanctions.

Military Action:

Several hundred Shiite militiamen attack Lebanese Army barracks in Baalbek for two hours before retreating, in first armed protest of Amin Gemayel's government; Lebanese Army fortifies position around barracks.

Casualties:

Three militiamen killed in Baalbek fighting, several wounded, two Lebanese soldiers wounded; Maariv estimates 1,200 Palestinians have been killed in Lebanese Army sweeps through West Beirut, another 60,000 may have been sent to Syrian-controlled Lebanese territory and their homes destroyed; UNRWA officially decides to stop preparing cement floors for tents and giving out tents and to use money for refugees in other ways.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Israeli defense ministry reportedly amending old work permit forms to include almost identical wording of loyalty pledge and note that permit can be withdrawn if holder helps the PLO; Israeli authorities order deportation of 9 lecturers at Islamic University in Gaza for "invalid" visas; curfew imposed on Nablus market and Askar refugee camp following attack on two Jewish settlers from Elon Moreh; Israeli authorities report 3-4,000 Lebanese visit Israel in last week since restrictions eased (Palestinians excluded); Israeli official says goods worth $20 m. arrived in Lebanon from Israel last month; Sharon and Zipori clash at Cabinet meeting; Sharon asks Cabinet to schedule full debate on state of PLO following invasion of Lebanon; Commission of Inquiry slates inquiry into discovery of IDF identity tag and card of IDF sergeant found inside Sabra camp, as Sergeant Benny Chaim twice fails to appear to testify; Israel accuses France of freezing economic relations since June invasion.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Lebanese Army celebrates Independence Day for first time in eight years; Habib meets with Druze leader Majid Arslan and Pierre Gemayel in bid to ease Chouf tensions.

US and Other Countries: US State Department officials welcome Israeli decision to modify loyalty pledge requirements; Reagan Administration considering asking Congress for $500 million in aid for Lebanese reconstruction; Henry Kissinger says Jordanian participation in negotiations over West Bank essential.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Major Haddad, in testimony before Commission of Inquiry, denies his militiamen were involved in massacre, says three militiamen caught in fight involving IDF and Druze forces near Beirut at time were far from camps and in Beirut on private visit, says on Friday, September 17, he flew to Beirut on IDF aircraft to offer condolences to Gemayel family, visited Jounieh, then returned by car to Marjayoun, accuses Saeb Salam of covering up for Phalangists on orders from Saudi Arabia by blaming Haddad forces; Foreign Ministry official Hana Bar-On testifies he relayed US official's report on "irregularities" in Beirut camps to Begin's military secretary, Colonal Azriel Nevo, Friday evening, September 17; political storm rages over New York Times opinion piece that implies Labor Party leaders want US to reduce aid to Israel as means to pressure Begin but Peres denies Labor Party supports cut in US aid; two leaders of Gush Emunim settlement of Qiryat Arba charged with destroying possible clues to unsolved bombings that crippled two Palestinian Mayors in 1980, trial is set for December 9; 25,000 Israeli settlers now estimated living in occupied territories, is twice as many as in 1980, five times as many as in 1977; Knesset finance committee defers decision on funding 9 new settlements (Labor Party criticizes 8 planned for West Bank, and IDF outposts in territories being turned over to right-wing Kach).

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Walid Jumblatt, in interview, accuses Phalange of planning massacres of Druze and says talks are useless; Phalange spokesman Hayek denies charge, says Phalange militiamen only seeking to return to their former villages in Chouf.

Arab Governments: King Hussein, ending Arab League delegation visit to France, accuses Israel of holding up peace process through continued West Bank settlements, refusal to consider Reagan peace proposals, says question of Israel's eventual borders remains major obstacle to peace; Syrian President Assad tells visiting US Congressional delegation that Reagan plan is "incomplete" solution.

US and Other Countries: Habib leaves several days early for Mideast in wake of cancellation of Begin-Reagan meeting, as State Department expresses concern at lack of progress on troop withdrawals; Shultz meets with Habib, Veliotes, Fairbanks, M. Charles Hill and Samuel W. Lewis to review lack of progress on peace plan; Britain announces Arab League mission planned to arrive next week has been postponed to December, and it will continue to refuse inclusion of PLO representative in delegation; West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, in New York, tells US Jewish leaders he intends to strengthen West German relations with Israel, and supports Camp David process.

Military Action:

Cease-fire continues to hold in Druze villages as Lebanese Army moves in; home rotation of Marines in Lebanon may be delayed.

Casualties:

Israel faults Lebanese government in delaying erection of tents for refugees.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Najah University President Munzer Salah expelled from West Bank after refusing to sign anti-PLO pledge; Israeli Electricity Co. to cut power to Hebron claiming municipality has not paid bill, but Acting Major Mustafa Natshe claims Israeli authorities created deficit by withholding revenues and not paying bills owed Hebron by Israeli-run municipalities.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: PLO delegate will not attend Arab Foreign Ministers' meeting with Reagan; in Italy, Gemayel meets the Pope who endorses call for withdrawal of all foreign troops; Gemayel asks Italian President Pertini to strengthen peacekeeping force in Lebanon.

US and Other Countries: US insists Arabs must join Israel for direct talks in statement as Arab League delegation arrives in Washington; France announces delegation charged with coordinating French reconstruction work to visit Lebanon starting Nov. 2.

UN: France expresses opposition to explusion of Israel.

Militarv Action:

Lebanese Army announces 200 tons of munitions uncovered in first 2 days of security sweep; Lebanese Army tanks accompany bulldozers into squatter neighborhood of Haret al-Gharwami on edge of Burj al-Barajneh camp, encounter resistance from Shiite Muslim residents.

Casualties:

2 wounded in Army-Shiite confrontation in Haret al-Gharwami; Shiite group Amal charges that Lebanese government plans to remove as many as 300,000 squatters in West Beirut area, forcing them to return to south Lebanon and Bekaa; Israeli Government figures indicate $20 m. worth of Israeli goods exported to Lebanon.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Sharon blames US for failure of Lebanon and Israel to work out treaty; reports that Israel has asked US for $3 billion in economic and military aid for FY 1983-4 (equals $770 for every Israeli; officials deny they are asking US to share war costs); Israel reaffirms that PLO must leave Lebanon before IDF will withdraw (contradicts Shamir statement at UN on willingness to consider simultaneous withdrawal of all forces); Israeli sentenced to 3 1/2 years in jail for looting in Lebanon.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Draper returns to Beirut from Israel for talks with government on troop withdrawals; Amal leader Nabih Berri meets Gemayel to discuss squatter evictions, seeks government help to resettle them in areas not controlled by Phalange; Wazzan holds first cabinet meeting; Arafat accuses Lebanese Army of "campaign of annihilation" against Palestinians, asks intervention of Arab governments, condemns peacekeeping force for failing to condemn violence against Palestinians in Beirut.

US and Other Countries: Italy asks US, France to join in demanding strengthening of peace-keeping authority in Beirut, expresses concern over round-up of Palestinians, seeks guarantees of due process, fuller information from Lebanese authorities.

Military Action:

Lebanese Army continues round-up of Palestinian and foreign residents without proper identification; Italian and French troops help Army cordon off southeast section of Beirut, but avoid Sabra and Shatila camps; Israel expanding size of al-Ansar detention center.

Casualties:

Number of those detained in past 72 hours estimated at 300 to several thousand; Gemayel promises list of detainees to US, France and Italy; EEC gives UNDRO program $9 m. in emergency relief for Lebanese and Palestinians; 1,500 Palestinians in South Lebanon submit petition to IDF asking it not to withdraw until complete law and order restored and detentions of "illegals" by Lebanese Army halted.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Sharon says US blocks path to peace in Lebanon, that signed pact necessary before Israel will relinquish control of South Lebanon; Sharon, Drori visit Haddad; officials prevent press from meeting Bassam Shakaa; Begin gets message from Mubarak stressing Egypt's commitment to peace treaty.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Amin Gemayel plans to disarm Phalange, dismantle Phalange road-blocks, replace Phalange forces in East Beirut with Lebanese Army once sweep of West Beirut is completed; Wazzan forms interim Cabinet (5 Christians, 4 Muslims are all new-comers, including lawyers, engineers, a doctor, a professor, and a businessman); Wazzan retains Interior Ministry.