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  • September 12, 2021

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces raided Hebron, leading to a confrontation with Palestinian residents; tear-gas related injuries were reported. Palestinians protested in solidarity with the...

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  • June 9, 2017

    IDF troops violently disperse Palestinians, Israelis, and international activists at Friday protests against the Israeli occupation, separation wall, and settlements in 3 villages nr. Ramallah (...

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  • November 20, 2016

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces confiscate a Palestinian tractor from Ras al-Ahmar village nr. Tubas and deliver stop-work orders for 12 Palestinian projects under construction nr. Hebron. IDF...

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  • November 11, 2016

    IDF troops violently disperse Palestinians, Israelis, and international activists at Friday demonstrations against Israel’s separation wall, settlements, and occupation in 3 villages nr. Ramallah...

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  • May 16, 2016

    In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces return the bodies of 2 Palestinians killed in confrontations with Israeli forces on 3/8 and 10/17/2015. They also arrest 6 other Palestinians during raids in...

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  • March 23, 2016

    In the West Bank, hundreds of Jewish Israelis visit religious sites across the West Bank in the morning, including al-Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron, ahead of Purim on 3/24. When around 500 Israelis...

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  • January 31, 2016

    Outside the Beit El settlement nr. Ramallah, IDF troops shoot and kill a Palestinian driver at a checkpoint after he shoots and injures 3 Israeli soldiers (1 seriously). The Palestinian, later...

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  • February 22, 2015

    IDF troops on the Gaza border e. of Rafah fire warning shots at Palestinian farmers working nr. the border fence, causing no injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and raids...

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  • January 9, 2012

    Palestinian and Israeli peace teams hold a 2d very low-profile meeting in Amman. The sides downplay the meeting, calling them “exploratory sessions,” so as not to raise expectations of a...

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  • December 7, 2010

    The White House abandons efforts to persuade Israel to impose a 90-day settlement construction freeze and takes its generous package of diplomatic and security incentives off the table. The...

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  • April 26, 2008

    In Gaza, the IDF continues the incursion into Bayt Hanun begun on 4/25, demolishing the home of the Hamas mbr. targeted on 4/25, leveling surrounding land before withdrawing in the early morning....

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  • March 6, 2008

    Egyptian intelligence chief Omar Sulayman secures a pledge by Hamas, Islamic Jihad to suspend rocket fire fr. Gaza unilaterally while he works to obtain a more formal bilateral cease-fire agmt....

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  • September 8, 2005

    As the IDF completes the demolition of settler and IDF structures in Gaza, Israeli DM Mofaz announces that he, as a religious person, cannot order the demolition of synagogues in the Gaza...

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  • October 10, 2004

    In n. Gaza, the IDF conducts an air strike on a warehouse in Jabaliya r.c., destroying it and 3 adjacent Palestinian homes, killing a Palestinian bystander; shells a group of Palestinians in...

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  • July 22, 2003

    Israeli border police open fire on an Israeli Arab vehicle nr. the Green Line that they mistakenly believe to be a carload of “terrorists” infiltrating fr. the West Bank, killing 1 Israeli Arab,...

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  • July 18, 2003

    Israeli police acknowledge that they have begun letting obviously religious Jews (e.g., wearing kippas) join tours of the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif; say this is part of a gradual process to...

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  • June 11, 2003

    A Hamas suicide bomber dressed as an Orthodox Jew detonates a device on a bus in Jerusalem, killing 15 Israelis, 1 Eritrean, injuring more than 60. Israeli DM Shaul Mofaz immediately authorizes...

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  • January 8, 2001

    Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 2 Palestinians dead. When a bus of Jewish settlers, 2 IDF escort jeeps enter a Palestinian village nr. Jinin, students fr. a nearby...

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  • July 6, 2000

    In Israel, Orthodox Jews are suspected in the vandalism of the Hebrew Union College, which educates Reform rabbis, houses a Reform synagogue. (NYT 7/7; WJW 7/13) (see 6/25)

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  • January 20, 2000

    In Washington, Arafat meets with Pres. Clinton to discuss the stalled negotiations with Israel. Arafat announces that during his 1/17 mtg. with Barak, the PM agreed to carry out the 3d stage of...

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  • January 19, 2000

    Syrian FM Shara` says Damascus will not resume negotiations with Israel until Tel Aviv pledges to agree to withdraw fr. the Golan to the 6/4/67 borders. (MM 1/19; RL 1/19 in WNC 1/21; al-Safir...

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  • December 16, 1999

    Israeli PM Barak, Syrian FM Shara` close 2 days of "friendly" talks in Washington, agree that teams will hold their 1st round of intensive negotiations 1/3+n9 in Washington. (MM 12/16; MM, NYT, WP...

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  • February 1, 1999

    146 Israeli writers, artists, intellectuals issue appeal in support of a Palestinian state in all of the West Bank and Gaza, with Jerusalem as a shared capital. (MM, NYT 2/2; PR 2/5) (see Doc. C4...

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  • January 12, 1999

    In Tel Aviv, U.S. special envoy Ross says that the U.S. plans to play a much less active role in final status negotiations, thinks "permanent status is not something that should be mediated." (...

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  • November 19, 1998

    House of Representatives opens hearings on impeachment of Pres. Bill Clinton. (NYT, WP 11/20)

    Israeli cabinet approves 1st stage of FRD for 11/20. Maps are presented to the PA for the 1st...

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  • October 9, 1997

    U.S. Defense Secy. William Cohen receives official Israeli delegation. (NYT 10/10)

    In Damascus, Iran, Syria hold talks on agricultural, research cooperation. (IRNA 10/9 in WNC 10/14)

    ...
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  • August 11, 1997

    U.S. special envoy Ross continues shuttling btwn. Netanyahu, Arafat; says that as the 1st step toward salvaging the peace talks, Israel, the PA must work together to determine the identity of the...

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  • June 17, 1997

    In Amsterdam, a 2-day mtg. of EU leaders closes. Attendees issue statement for the 1st time urging Israel not to rule out the possibility of a Palestinian state. (MM 6/18)

    In Washington, U....

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  • June 11, 1997

    In Washington, Pres. Clinton urges Qatar's emir Shaykh Hamad to move ahead with plans to host the Middle East-North Africa economic summit in 11/97. The emir criticizes the 6/10 House decision,...

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  • April 1, 1997

    In Washington, Pres. Clinton, Jordan's King Hussein discuss ideas for restarting Israeli-PA talks, policy toward Iraq. (NYT, WP, WT 4/2; al-Dustur, al-Ra'i, RJ 4/2 in WNC 4/3; NYT,...

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In the West Bank, Israeli forces raided Hebron, leading to a confrontation with Palestinian residents; tear-gas related injuries were reported. Palestinians protested in solidarity with the Palestinian prisoners that escaped Gilboa prison on 9/6 in Tuqu‘, Fawwar refugee camp, and al-Arroub refugee camp. 6 Palestinians were arrested, including 2 during a late-night raid in Qarawat Bani Hassan and 4 minors leaving a school in Tuqu‘. In East Jerusalem, 1 Israeli settler rammed 1 Palestinian with their car in al-Tur, leading to a confrontation between Israeli forces and Palestinians; 1 was injured by a rubber-coated bullet and 3 were arrested. 1 other was arrested during a late-night raid in Silwan. In Gaza, for the 3d night in a row, 2 rockets were launched at Israel and intercepted, and Israel conducted air strikes, hitting 4 locations near Khan Yunis and Rafah, causing damage, including to a poultry farm. (HA, MEMO, TOI, WAFA, WAFA 9/12; AJ, AP, MEMO, MEMO, WAFA 9/13; PCHR 9/16)

Israeli defense minister Benny Gantz submitted a request to the Israeli high court of justice to delay the relocation of Israeli settlers from the Shilo settlement outpost to Israel, citing the religious shmita year restrictions on cultivating land. The settlers have made an agreement with Israel to leave the settlement voluntarily in exchange for receiving land within the Green Line. (HA 9/13)

In a speech at a university in Herzliya, Israeli foreign minister Yair Lapid said that the Israeli policy of blockading Gaza since the 2005 withdrawal had not been effective and proposed a plan to exchange economy for security. Foreign Minister Lapid said that Israel would not directly negotiate the terms with Hamas but would do so through international mediation. Lapid also said his proposal was backed by Israel’s prime minister Naftali Bennett and defense minister Benny Gantz, but that it was not a government plan. The 1st phase of Lapid’s plan is to update Gaza’s electricity, health, and transportation systems, of which water and electricity would be under Israeli control. The 2d phase entails creating a seaport in Gaza and connecting Gaza to the West Bank. In the 2d phase, the PA would gain control over Gaza. (HA, TOI 9/12; JP, MEMO 9/13)

IDF troops violently disperse Palestinians, Israelis, and international activists at Friday protests against the Israeli occupation, separation wall, and settlements in 3 villages nr. Ramallah (Bil‘in, Ni‘lin, and Nabi Salih), Kafr Qaddum nr. Qalqilya, and along Gaza’s border nr. Jabaliya r.c., Rafah, and al-Bureij r.c.; 1 is killed in Gaza and at least 18 other Palestinians are injured. IDF troops also arrest 6 Palestinians during late-night raids nr. Hebron and patrol nr. Qalqilya and Hebron during the day. Meanwhile, thousands of Palestinians visit Haram al-Sharif, marking the 2d Friday of Ramadan. A group of Jewish settlers disguised in religious Muslim garb visit the sanctuary in a reported attempt to pray at the holy site. Islamic Waqf guards escort them out when they respond to questions in Hebrew. Elsewhere in East Jerusalem, unidentified assailants slash the tires of 9 Palestinian cars and leave anti-Arab graffiti in Bayt Safafa overnight. (HA, MNA, WAFA 6/9; PCHR 6/16)

Turkish and Palestinian officials reveal that Ankara has sent a cargo ship full of humanitarian aid, which will arrive in Gaza by the end of Ramadan. It will be the 3d shipment of Turkish aid since the IsraeliTurkish rapprochement of 6/2016 (see JPS 46 [1]). (MNA 6/9)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces confiscate a Palestinian tractor from Ras al-Ahmar village nr. Tubas and deliver stop-work orders for 12 Palestinian projects under construction nr. Hebron. IDF troops arrest 5 Palestinians during late-night raids nr. Tulkarm, Jenin, and Nablus; and patrol nr. Nablus, Qalqilya, and Hebron. Unidentified assailants throw rocks at a bus nr. Bethlehem, breaking a windshield and injuring 3 IDF soldiers. In East Jerusalem, more than 60 Orthodox Jews tour Haram al-Sharif; Israeli forces arrest 5 who attempt to pray at the sanctuary. Israeli forces arrest a Palestinian at an entrance to the Old City, alleging that she was preparing to stab them. Off Gaza’s coast, Israeli naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishing boats nr. Bayt Lahiya and later nr. Rafah, causing no damage or injuries. In n. Israel, Israeli forces demolish a Palestinian’s home in Hurfish village on the grounds that it violated construction regulations. (MNA, WAFA 11/20; MNA 11/21; PCHR 11/24)

IDF troops violently disperse Palestinians, Israelis, and international activists at Friday demonstrations against Israel’s separation wall, settlements, and occupation in 3 villages nr. Ramallah (Bil‘in, Ni‘lin, and Nabi Salih), Kafr Qaddum nr. Qalqilya, and along Gaza’s border nr. Gaza City; at least 5 Palestinians are injured. Elsewhere in the West Bank, the IDF patrols nr. Nablus and Hebron during the day. Palestinian youths throw Molotov cocktails into the Beit El settlement nr. Ramallah overnight, causing 1 home to burn down completely. Dozens of Orthodox Jews attempt to visit Rachel’s Tomb nr. Bethlehem, sparking clashes with IDF troops; there are no serious injuries. Along Gaza’s border, the IDF fires several mortar shells at “suspicious” targets nr. Khan Yunis, according to an army spokesperson. There are no reports of injuries or serious damage. (MNA 11/11; MNA 11/12; PCHR 11/17)

In a wide-ranging interview with the Wall Street Journal, U.S. pres.-elect Trump says he will attempt to achieve the “ultimate deal” between Israel and the Palestinians, “for humanity’s sake.” (WSJ 11/11; HA 11/12)

In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces return the bodies of 2 Palestinians killed in confrontations with Israeli forces on 3/8 and 10/17/2015. They also arrest 6 other Palestinians during raids in Issawiyya and Kafr ‘Aqab; detain a Palestinian youth nr. the Old City after he allegedly stabs and lightly injures an Orthodox Jew. Outside the city, Israeli forces disassemble 12 EUdonated mobile homes nr. al-‘Izzariya, displacing approximately 90 bedouin Palestinians. In the West Bank, Israel Defense Forces (IDF) troops conduct latenight house searches and raids in 1 village each nr. Hebron and Ramallah, arresting 3 Palestinians (including 1 mbr. of the Palestinian Legislative Council); and patrol during the day nr. Hebron, Jenin, Salfit, and Qalqilya. They also violently disperse Palestinian youths throwing stones nr. Ramallah, injuring 1. Along Gaza’s border, IDF troops open fire on Palestinian farmers working nr. Gaza City, causing no injuries. (HA, MNA, WAFA, YA 5/16; HA, MNA 5/17; PCHR 5/19)

In the West Bank, hundreds of Jewish Israelis visit religious sites across the West Bank in the morning, including al-Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron, ahead of Purim on 3/24. When around 500 Israelis arrive at Joseph’s Tomb outside Nablus under an IDF escort, clashes break out with stone-throwing Palestinians from nearby Balata r.c.; there are no serious injuries. Meanwhile, the Israeli authorities shut down all checkpoints leading out of the West Bank as well as the Erez and Kerem Shalom crossings along Gaza’s border overnight, barring all Palestinians from crossing, except for humanitarian cases. A COGAT spokesperson confirms that the closure of the West Bank is set to extend through 3/26; the Erez border crossing is set to stay closed through 3/25. Israeli forces also erect a number of flying checkpoints around Hebron and close the w. entrance to the city. IDF troops conduct late-night house searches and raids in Nablus and nr. Ramallah, Jenin, and Hebron, arresting 8 Palestinians, issuing arrest summons to 3, and confiscating some electronics. In East Jerusalem, right-wing Jewish activists tour Haram al-Sharif in the morning. Meanwhile, Palestinian men under the age of 50 continue to be barred from the sanctuary. Along Gaza’s n. border, Israeli forces conduct a limited incursion to level land. The Israeli authorities, meanwhile, return the engines of 59 previously confiscated fishing boats and release an injured Palestinian fisherman who has been detained for 4 mos. (MNA, WAFA 3/23; PCHR 3/24, 3/31)

The Israeli National Council for Planning and Building approves a plan proposed by the settler organization Elad to build a 16,000 m2 archaeological center in the City of David National Park adjacent to the Old City. This approval reverses an earlier ruling restricting the size of the proposed center to 10,000 m2 . (MNA 3/23; HA 3/25, 3/26)

Outside the Beit El settlement nr. Ramallah, IDF troops shoot and kill a Palestinian driver at a checkpoint after he shoots and injures 3 Israeli soldiers (1 seriously). The Palestinian, later identified as a police officer, opened fire when an Israeli soldier approached his driver’s side window to perform a security check. After the incident, the IDF imposes a partial closure on the Ramallah area, setting up mobile checkpoints, shutting down many roads, and barring nonresidents from entering the city (more restrictions will be implemented by 2/1). Later, IDF troops shoot and injure a Palestinian driver nr. Ramallah as he allegedly attempts to ram them (none of whom are injured); violently disperse Palestinian youths throwing stones and protesting the closure of a nearby checkpoint (1 Palestinian is arrested and there are no serious injuries). Meanwhile, IDF troops conduct raids and house searches in 1 village nr. Ramallah, Nablus and 1 nearby village, Hebron and 1 village nearby, and Tulkarm, arresting 11 Palestinians, assaulting 1, and issuing an arrest summons to 1; patrol in al-Fawar r.c. and 3 villages nr. Hebron, as well as 1 village nr. Salfit. Israeli forces confiscate construction materials and equipment from a site nr. Hebron. Israeli settlers shoot at and damage a Palestinian home nr. Salfit late at night. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces demolish a home in Sur al-Bahir late at night; assault a Palestinian in Ras al-Amud, moderately injuring him; arrest 5 Palestinians on raids and at checkpoints in alThawri, Wadi al-Juz, Silwan, Shaykh Jarrah, and in the Old City. Also, a 2d Palestinian youth turns himself in to the Israeli police in connection with the 1/30 stabbing outside the Old City. (HA, JP, MNA, WAFA, YA 1/31; PCHR 2/4)

The Israeli govt. approves a plan to create a new area at the Western Wall for genderdesegregated prayer, responding to years of complaints from Jewish feminists and other non-Orthodox Israelis about the discriminatory nature of the existing prayer spaces. (HA, NYT 1/31)

IDF troops on the Gaza border e. of Rafah fire warning shots at Palestinian farmers working nr. the border fence, causing no injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and raids in Hebron, 2 villages each nr. Qalqilya and Jenin, and 1 village nr. Tulkarm, arresting 3 Palestinians, and issuing summons to another; patrols in and around Hebron and Jenin, in 2 villages nr. Tulkarm, and in 1 nr. Qalqilya, sparking clashes with stone-throwing Palestinians nr. Jenin and Qalqilya. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces conduct house searches in Qalandia r.c., the Old City, Silwan, and Issawiyya, arresting 8 Palestinians and sparking clashes with stone-throwing Palestinian youths. They also arrest a Palestinian lawyer alleged to have passed sensitive information from prisoners to Hamas officials. A Palestinian teenager stabs an Orthodox Jewish man nr. the Old City. (MNA, WAFA 2/22, 2/23; PCHR 2/26; JP 3/12)

Israel’s Defense Ministry announces that it has signed a deal with the U.S. to buy 14 F-35 fighter jets, with the option of buying another 17 in the future. Each jet reportedly costs around $110 m. Israel’s cabinet approved the purchase on 12/1/2014. (AP, TOI 2/22)

Iranian FM Mohammad Javad Zarif and U.S. Secy. of State John Kerry meet in Geneva for the 1st of 2 days of negotiations over Iran’s disputed nuclear program. (AFP, YA 2/19; REU 2/20)

Palestinian and Israeli peace teams hold a 2d very low-profile meeting in Amman. The sides downplay the meeting, calling them “exploratory sessions,” so as not to raise expectations of a negotiating breakthrough. An anonymous Palestinian official says that the Israelis did not offer anything today that would move the peace process forward. Judeh does not issue a formal statement, and Israel refuses to comment. (NYT, WT 1/10)

The IDF conducts morning patrols in Qalqilya, 2 villages nr. Jenin, and 1 nr. Tulkarm; afternoon patrols in 2 villages nr Jenin (firing tear gas at stonethrowing youths in 1 incident), and 1 nr. Qalqilya; late-night patrols in Tulkarm and nearby Bayt Lid and in 1 village nr. Qalqilya. The IDF also enters ‘Azzoun village nr. Qalqilya in the afternoon to summon for interrogation 3 Palestinians released in the 10/2011 Shalit prisoner swap; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Hebron and nr. Nablus. (PCHR 1/12; OCHA 1/13)

On the day before the New Hampshire primaries, Republican presidential candidates Ron Paul and Rick Santorum both stress that the U.S. must maintain close ties with Israel. Paul, who opposes all foreign aid, says he is against continuing massive assistance to Israel, stating “I don’t believe that I should take money from anybody here and send money to them,” saying it sends the message “we own you.” Santorum stresses the threat from Iran, whereas Paul calls the danger of Iran achieving nuclear weapons “way overblown.” (WT 1/10)

The White House announces that Pres. Obama has tapped his dir. of the Office of Budget and Management, Jack Lew, as his new chief of staff, replacing outgoing chief of staff William Daley. American Jewish organizations praise the selection of Lew, an Orthodox Jew who is very involved in Jewish events in Washington, stating that since Dennis Ross’s departure as Obama’s chief adviser on the Middle East they had worried that there was no one “left to call in a White House that has hemorrhaged top Jews over the last year or so” that could directly weigh in with the pres. on issues of concern to Israel. (JTA 1/10; WJW 1/12, 1/19)

The White House abandons efforts to persuade Israel to impose a 90-day settlement construction freeze and takes its generous package of diplomatic and security incentives off the table. The message comes days before senior Israeli and Palestinian negotiators plan to meet in Washington for further talks on the peace process and before U.S. Secy. of State Hillary Clinton is scheduled to make a major Middle East policy statement on 12/10. (NYT, WP, WT 12/8)

The IDF makes a brief incursion e. of al-Bureij r.c. in c. Gaza to level lands along the border fence, firing on surrounding areas, causing no reported injuries. Unidentified Palestinians fire 2 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries. Late in the evening, the IDF responds with air strikes on a poultry farm nr. Khan Yunis (an alleged arms cache) and at a smuggling tunnel on the Rafah border, causing no injuries. In the West Bank, IDF escorts plain-clothed individuals into Rafat village nr. Salfit in the morning; the group pauses outside the local mosque, pointing at it and taking notes. The IDF also conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Hebron and nr. Nablus, and patrols in Anabta village nr. Tulkarm. In Israel, 47 state-employed Israeli rabbis issue an open letter distributed in synagogues and religious journals saying that it is prohibited by the Torah to sell or rent a house or a field in the land of Israel to non-Jews. Netanyahu denounces the letter. (JP 12/7; WT, YA 12/8; PCHR 12/9; OCHA 12/10; JPI 12/17)

In Gaza, the IDF continues the incursion into Bayt Hanun begun on 4/25, demolishing the home of the Hamas mbr. targeted on 4/25, leveling surrounding land before withdrawing in the early morning. The IDF also sends troops into Bayt Lahiya, to seize and take to Israel local Hamas leader Hasan Marouf, trading heavy gunfire with local Palestinians and firing on Marouf’s home, killing his 14-yr.-old daughter. In the West Bank, the IDF raids an orphanage for girls, a 2d sewing factory in Hebron owned by the ICA (see 4/11), reiterating its 2/26 decision to evict residents and seal the sites for 3 yrs. if they are not vacated and turned over to the IDF within 24 hrs. (the ICA ignores the orders); conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Bethlehem, Jenin, Qalqilya. In Jerusalem, Israeli police barricade gates into the Old City, forcibly bar Orthodox Palestinian worshipers fr. reaching the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the St. Jacob Cathedral to perform Holy Saturday services to mark Orthodox Easter (cf. 4/22), beating and arresting several worshipers, while allowing Jewish worshipers to enter the Old City for Pesach celebrations. (Arab Orthodox Institute in East Jerusalem press release, al-Quds, WP 4/27; OCHA, PCHR 4/30)

Egyptian intelligence chief Omar Sulayman secures a pledge by Hamas, Islamic Jihad to suspend rocket fire fr. Gaza unilaterally while he works to obtain a more formal bilateral cease-fire agmt. with Israel. In Jerusalem, an armed Palestinian enters the library of Mercaz Harav, Israel’s leading Zionist yeshiva and the ideological home of the far-right religious settler movement, and opens fire on students with an AK-47, killing 8 Israelis and wounding 9 before an IDF soldier and 2 undercover policemen enter the building and shoot him dead; Israeli security officials identify the attacker as a bus driver for the school and an East Jerusalem resident who apparently acted alone. Israeli police later raid Jabal Mukabir neighborhood, detaining 9 Palestinians for questioning. In Gaza, Islamic Jihad, Hamas mbrs. ambush an IDF patrol that enters Gaza through the Kissufim crossing, detonating a roadside bomb and firing on the vehicle, killing 1 IDF soldier, wounding at least 1. In response, the IDF shells an Islamic Jihad site nr. al-Qarara, killing 3 Islamic Jihad mbrs.; makes an air strike on an Islamic Jihad rocketlaunching site nr. Dayr al-Balah, killing 1 Islamic Jihad mbr. A 5th Islamic Jihad mbr. is killed when a rocket he is preparing to fire into Israel explodes prematurely. The IDF also bulldozes land inside the Gaza border fence e. of al-Qarara. The Israeli navy fires on Palestinian fishermen off the Rafah coast, heavily damaging 1 boat, causing no injuries. Palestinians fire 7 rockets fr. Gaza into Israel, damaging 2 houses, lightly injuring 1 Israeli. Egypt begins replacing some stretches of barbed wire along the Rafah border with a 10-ft.-high stone and concrete wall. In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes the Bethlehem home of a wanted Palestinian; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Tulkarm r.c., nr. Jenin (raiding and sealing al-Majd TV and al-Salam Press offices for allegedly aiding Islamic Jihad), Salfit. (HA, IFM 3/6; AP, HA, NYT, WP, WT 3/7; NYT, WP 3/8; OCHA 3/12; PCHR 3/13)

As the IDF completes the demolition of settler and IDF structures in Gaza, Israeli DM Mofaz announces that he, as a religious person, cannot order the demolition of synagogues in the Gaza settlements as Israel agreed with the PA. In Gaza, the IDF fatally shoots 1 Palestinian, wounds a 2d who cut through a perimeter fence of an evacuated settlement; blows up an underground military installation in the evacuated Ganei Tal settlement; dismantles a settler-only bridge linking 2 roads nr. the evacuated Gush Katif bloc; bulldozes land nr. Abasan and al-Qarara for construction of 2 roads, firing on nearby residential areas to keep Palestinians away; also fires on residential areas of Rafah. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts arrest raids, house searches, interrogations in Hebron. The PA negotiates the release of Manhal Arafat (kidnapped by the PRCs on 9/7). Meanwhile, the PRCs’ Salah al-Din Brigades issues a statement denying responsibility for the Musa Arafat assassination. (HA, IMEMC, Kuwait News Agency [KUNA] 9/8; NYT, WP 9/9; NYT 9/10; HA 9/13, 9/14; HA, PCHR 9/15)

In n. Gaza, the IDF conducts an air strike on a warehouse in Jabaliya r.c., destroying it and 3 adjacent Palestinian homes, killing a Palestinian bystander; shells a group of Palestinians in Jabaliya, killing 2 Palestinians, wounding 1; fires missiles into Bayt Hanun (killing 1 Palestinian), Bayt Lahiya (injuring 3). A Palestinian dies of injuries he received in Jabaliya on 10/1. Elsewhere in Gaza, the IDF raids Dayr al-Balah, fatally shooting 1 armed Palestinian, wounding 7 bystanders, bulldozing 40 d.; shells, directs heavy machine gun fire residential areas of Khan Yunis, wounding a student in his classroom, causing significant damage to (but no serious injuries in) the al-Nasser Hospital maternity ward, a home, a mosque. In the West Bank, the IDF arrests 3 armed Jewish settlers fr. Tapuach for setting fire to a Palestinian olive grove, firing guns in the air, attacking Palestinians who arrive to put out the blaze, lightly injuring several Palestinians. A Jewish settler attacks an Orthodox Armenian religious procession in Jerusalem’s Old City, spitting in the face of Deputy Arch Bishop Nurhan, tearing off his cap and cross (breaking the 17th century relic), making religious insults. (VOI, VOP 10/10 in WNC 10/12; AFP 10/10, VOP 10/11 in WNC 10/13; HA, MEZ 10/11; HA 10/12; PR 10/13; PCHR, WT 10/14; NYT 10/19)

Israeli border police open fire on an Israeli Arab vehicle nr. the Green Line that they mistakenly believe to be a carload of “terrorists” infiltrating fr. the West Bank, killing 1 Israeli Arab, wounding 1. The IDF conducts arrest raids in Jenin (targeting Islamic Jihad). Israel’s Jerusalem police arrest 200 Palestinians fr. Hebron, Nablus for being in Shu‘fat r.c., in East Jerusalem, without permits. A group of religious Jews on an Israeli police-escorted tour of the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif attempt to perform rituals there; Israeli police remove the group when Waqf guards attempt to intervene; Arafat calls the tours “provocative,” warns serious consequences may be unavoidable if Israel continues to permit such visits. (HA 7/22; HA, NYT, WP 7/23; PCHR 7/24)

Israeli police acknowledge that they have begun letting obviously religious Jews (e.g., wearing kippas) join tours of the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif; say this is part of a gradual process to reinstate the status quo before the 9/00 Sharon visit to the site that sparked the al-Aqsa intifada. (HA 7/18; HA, MM 7/22)

A Hamas suicide bomber dressed as an Orthodox Jew detonates a device on a bus in Jerusalem, killing 15 Israelis, 1 Eritrean, injuring more than 60. Israeli DM Shaul Mofaz immediately authorizes the IDF to use “whatever means necessary” to “completely wipe out Hamas,” saying Hamas spiritual leader Shaykh Yasin is a viable target. Half an hr. later, an IDF helicopter fires on a car stuck in a Gaza City traffic jam, assassinating senior Izzeddin al-Qassam mbrs. Titu Massud and Suhayl Abu Nahil, also killing 6 Palestinian bystanders, wounding 35 (including 14 children). In the evening, IDF helicopters strike another car in Gaza City, killing Hamas mbrs. Muhammad Daghmash and Rawi Abu Kumayl. The IDF also raids Hebron, imposing a curfew, building roads, blocking streets with sand barriers, concrete blocks; demolishes 3 Palestinian homes in Rafah (damaging another 11), 1 in Jaba; fires on a funeral procession outside Khan Yunis, wounding 1. (AP, BBC, HA 6/11; ITAR-TASS, MENA 6/11 in WNC 6/13; LAW, MM, NYT, PCHR, WP, WT 6/12; AFP, QA 6/12 in WNC 6/14; PR 6/18; LAW, PCHR 6/19; JPI 6/20; HA 6/25; MEI 6/27)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 2 Palestinians dead. When a bus of Jewish settlers, 2 IDF escort jeeps enter a Palestinian village nr. Jinin, students fr. a nearby school throw stones at the bus; settlers, soldiers open fire on the school and adjacent houses, killing 1 Palestinian. The 2d Palestinian is shot by Jewish settlers during clashes btwn. settlers, Palestinians in Kafr Haris. Palestinian snipers fire on at least 4 Jewish settler vehicles nr. Nablus and Ramallah, causing no injuries. The IDF shells residential areas of al-Bireh, Jinin, Khan Yunis (cutting telephone service), al-Maghrqa, Tal al-Sultan; razes 58 dunams of Palestinian agricultural land nr. Dugit settlement (destroying 1 storage building, 11 greenhouses, 4 wells, 1 irrigation network), 55 dunams nr. Netzarim settlement (demolishing 2 homes). (HP, LAW 1/9; PCHR 1/12; MM 1/16; AFP [Internet] 1/18)

CIA Dir. Tenet holds another round of talks with PA, Israeli, Egyptian security officials. The sides reportedly agree to an 8-point proposal, drafted by Tenet, for reducing tensions. (AFP [Internet], MM, REU 1/8; MENA 1/8 in WNC 1/9; SA 1/9 in WNC 1/10; MM 1/10; SA 1/10 in WNC 1/11; AYM, QA 1/10, AYM 1/11 in WNC 1/16; MENL 1/12)

100,000-250,000 Israelis, mostly right-wing, religious Jews, attend a rally at the Wailing Wall sponsored by MK Natan Sharansky's Yisrael Ba'Aliya party to "pledge allegiance" to a united capital of Jerusalem, to oppose Clinton's parameters for a peace agmt. (AFP [Internet] 1/8; AYM 1/8 in WNC 1/9; MM, NYT, WP 1/9; MM 1/10; WJW 1/11, 1/18; JP 1/19, 1/26; JP 2/2)

In Israel, Orthodox Jews are suspected in the vandalism of the Hebrew Union College, which educates Reform rabbis, houses a Reform synagogue. (NYT 7/7; WJW 7/13) (see 6/25)

In Washington, Arafat meets with Pres. Clinton to discuss the stalled negotiations with Israel. Arafat announces that during his 1/17 mtg. with Barak, the PM agreed to carry out the 3d stage of the 2d FRD within 2 wks. (WT 1/20; NYT, WP, WT 1/21; al-Quds 1/22, AYM 1/23 in WNC 1/27 WJW 1/27; MM 1/24; JP, MEI 1/28)

Israel's Atty. Gen. Elyakim Rubenstein orders police to open a criminal investigation of Pres. Weizman for accepting money fr. French textile magnate Saroussi. Weizman refuses to resign or take a leave of absence in the interim. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 1/21; NYT, WP 1/24; NYT 1/26; JP 1/21; MM 1/24; MEI 1/28; MM 1/31; MM 2/3; JP 2/4) (see 12/30)

The central bodies of U.S. Conservative and Orthodox Judaism condemn yesterday's petition by 316 U.S. rabbis (mostly representing Reform Judaism), emphasize Israel's right to decide its security matters. (WP 1/27)

Syrian FM Shara` says Damascus will not resume negotiations with Israel until Tel Aviv pledges to agree to withdraw fr. the Golan to the 6/4/67 borders. (MM 1/19; RL 1/19 in WNC 1/21; al-Safir 1/19 in WNC 1/24; WT 1/30)

Arafat stops in Cairo to meet with Pres. Mubarak before heading to Washington to meet with Pres. Clinton. (WT 1/19; MENA 1/19 in WNC 1/21; al-Quds 1/20 in WNC 1/24)

Fearing that the peace process could collapse, more than 300 U.S. rabbis associated with Peace Lobby issue a statement calling on Israel, the PA to share sovereignty over Jerusalem. (NYT 1/20; WJW, WP 1/27)

In Israel's 1st official recognition of non-Orthodox Judaism, the Education Min. agrees to finance Reform and Conservative Jewish educational programs. (NYT 1/20; JP 1/28)

Israeli PM Barak, Syrian FM Shara` close 2 days of "friendly" talks in Washington, agree that teams will hold their 1st round of intensive negotiations 1/3+n9 in Washington. (MM 12/16; MM, NYT, WP, WT 12/17; ITAR-TASS 12/17 in WNC 12/20; IRNA, al-Quds, SA 12/20 in WNC 12/21; JP, MEI 12/24)

In Washington, Orthodox Jews protest outside the White House, objecting to any return of the Golan Heights to Syria. (WT 12/17)

In Gaza, Russian dep. FM Sredin hands Arafat a message fr. Pres. Boris Yeltsin, discusses the peace process. (ITAR-TASS 12/16 in WNC 12/17)

In s. Lebanon, 3 IDF shells strike an elementary school, wounding 20 Lebanese children. Israel apologizes for the attack, which marks the 4th time the school has been hit by errant IDF shells over the yrs. Hizballah says it will not retaliate in light of the Syrian-Israeli negotiations ongoing in Washington. (AFP, RL 12/16 in WNC 12/17; CSM, MM, NYT, WP, WT 12/17; DUS, ITAR-TASS, RL 12/17 in WNC 12/20; NYT 12/18; MEI 12/24)

The PA General Intelligence Service mbrs. detain, severely beat PC mbr. `Abd al-Jawad Salih for participating in a sit-in protest outside Jericho prison where several signers of the Petition of the 20 are still being held. (LAW 12/16; AYM 12/20, al-Quds 12/22 in WNC 12/23; MEI 12/24)

Pakistan extradites to Jordan for questioning a suspected Bin Laden associate Khalil Deek, the 14th person arrested for plotting attacks on tourists. (WP 12/18; JT 12/18, The News [Islamabad] 12/18, 12/19 in WNC 12/20) (see 12/13)

Iraq resumes oil exports. (WT 12/17) (see 11/22)

146 Israeli writers, artists, intellectuals issue appeal in support of a Palestinian state in all of the West Bank and Gaza, with Jerusalem as a shared capital. (MM, NYT 2/2; PR 2/5) (see Doc. C4)

At the Western Wall, 100 Orthodox yeshiva students surround group of 33 American Reform rabbis, calling them "nothing but biological Jews," saying they should "go back to Germany" to be exterminated. (CSM, NYT 2/2) (see 1/26)

In Rafah, 1 PSF officer is killed in shootout with 3 wanted Hamas mbrs. he was surveilling. The fugitives escape in a car, hitting Palestinian boy and girl, who later die of their injuries. The 3 are arrested hrs. later in Shati refugee camp. (WT 2/2, 2/5)

U.S. Asst. Secy. of State Indyk, special rep. Ricciardone stop in Oman, UAE on last leg of their Gulf tour. Indyk claims Gulf states "broadly support" the U.S. position on Iraq. (MM 2/1, 2/3, 2/4) (see 1/31)

In Tel Aviv, U.S. special envoy Ross says that the U.S. plans to play a much less active role in final status negotiations, thinks "permanent status is not something that should be mediated." (USIS Washington File 1/12; NYT, WP 1/13; PR 1/15)

After 4 yrs., Lebanon lifts travel restrictions on Palestinians, dropping requirement for Palestinians to obtain visas to return to Lebanon. (RL 1/12 in WNC 1/13; NYT 1/13; RL 1/16 in WNC 1/20)

Netanyahu's office warns the PA that Israel would bar Arafat, PA officials fr. leaving he autonomous enclaves should the PA unilaterally declare statehood. (MEI 1/15)

PM Netanyahu meets with U.S. millionaire Irving Moskovitz, who is in town to decided which right-wing candidate for PM he will support financially in the 5/17 elections. Netanyahu gives assurances that he will not halt Moskovitz's construction of 132 units in the Palestinian neighborhood of Ras al-Amud in East Jerusalem. Congressman Michael Forbes (R-NY) is accompanying Moskovitz. (MM, WP 1/14; MM 1/21; JP 1/22; PR 1/29)

In what police, FBI term a sophisticated operation, burglars break into offices of prominent Washington polling firm, Greenberg Quinlan Research, that is advising Israeli PM-candidate Barak. Firm says that its international work was targeted, but it is uncertain whether files on Barak were among those stolen. (MM, WP 1/13; YA 1/13 in WNC 1/14; WJW 1/14; MM 1/20)

Israeli Religious Affairs M Eli Suissa cuts the size of local religious councils to keep them all Orthodox. A recent High Court ruling ordered the powerful councils (which run marriage bureaus and burial societies, maintain synagogues and ritual baths, supervise kosher inspections for both religious and secular Jews) be expanded to include Reform, Conservative Jews. (WT 1/13)

IDF lifts closure on Hebron imposed 1/4. (MM 1/14, MEI 1/15)

Unidentified assailant stabs, wounds Palestinian in West Jerusalem. (MM 1/12; PR 1/15, JP 1/22)

IDF uproots Palestinian orchard nr. Jewish settlement in the West Bank. (AFP [Internet] 1/12)

In Cairo, FMs of Egypt, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen hold 2d mtg. to prepare agenda for 1/24 Arab League mtg. on Iraq. Jordan does not condemn mtg. but is upset at not being included, blames Syria, warns that "forming axes" only deepens Arab divisions. (MM 1/12; MENA, RE 1/12 in WNC 1/13; MM 1/13; al-Dustur, MENA 1/13 in WNC 1/14; MM 1/14; JT, MENA, RE 1/14 in WNC 1/16; MM 1/15) (see 1/3)

The U.S. secretly sends letters to Arab states urging them to support its position on Iraq at the 1/24 Arab League mtg. (MM 1/22)

U.S. planes fire on Iraqi missile battery in n. no-fly zone. Defense Dept. says that Iraq has sent planes into the no-fly zones 66 times in the past 2 wks., targeted U.S. and British planes 12 times, increased its number of missile sites fr. 9 to 17. (CSM, NYT, WP, WT 1/13)

House of Representatives opens hearings on impeachment of Pres. Bill Clinton. (NYT, WP 11/20)

Israeli cabinet approves 1st stage of FRD for 11/20. Maps are presented to the PA for the 1st time. (MM 11/19; IDF Radio, ITV 11/19 in WNC 11/20; CSM, MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/20; YA 11/20 in WNC 11/23; JP 11/30)

U.S. agrees to give Israel $1.2 b. to cover cost of FRD pending approval of Congress. The PA is also hoping for a $400-m. U.S. economic aid package. (YA 11/19 in WNC 11/20; HA [Internet] 11/20; WP 11/24)

PA rejects Israel's list, presented today, of 250 Palestinians to be freed in the 1st of 3 Israeli prisoner releases agreed to at Wye; says inclusion of 150 common criminals and only 100 political prisoners is a violation of the spirit of Wye. U.S. urges the parties to work the problem out btwn. themselves. (QY 11/19 in WNC 11/20; NYT, WP 11/20; WP 11/22; CSM, WT 11/23)

PA broadcasts a decree against anti-Israeli incitement. (MM 11/19; NYT, WP 11/20; LAW 11/24; MEI 11/27)

Israel tells the Christian community that a second entrance in the wall of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in East Jerusalem must be made to accommodate the many pilgrims expected to come to Jerusalem in 2000. Greek Orthodox Archbishop Christobulos all Christian groups must approve before work can begin. (MA 11/20 in WNC 11/23)

Israeli Shabtai Bloch, a mbr. of the Orthodox Chabad movement, is arrested on charges of plotting an attack on PM Netanyahu to protest the FRD. (NYT, WT 11/20; JP 11/30)

1 Hizballah mbr. is killed in clash with IDF in s. Lebanon. (VOL 11/23 in WNC 11/24)

U.S. Defense Secy. William Cohen receives official Israeli delegation. (NYT 10/10)

In Damascus, Iran, Syria hold talks on agricultural, research cooperation. (IRNA 10/9 in WNC 10/14)

In Halhul, IDF arrests 10s of Palestinians after clash, which began when IDF troops demolished 10s of "illegal" vegetable stands along the main roads. (PR 10/17)

 U.S. Amb. to Tel Aviv Martin Indyk is confirmed as asst. secy. of state for Near Eastern affairs. He will be replaced by Amb. to Cairo Edward Walker Jr., who will be replaced by Daniel Kurtzer. (Near East Report 10/20)

Results of the vote by American Jews for U.S. delegates to the World Zionist Congress are released: Reform and Conservative slate pulls 72.7%, Orthodox 10.8%, Labor 3.4%, Likud 1.9%. (NYT 10/10)

U.S. special envoy Ross continues shuttling btwn. Netanyahu, Arafat; says that as the 1st step toward salvaging the peace talks, Israel, the PA must work together to determine the identity of the 2 men responsible for the 7/30 bombings; says some progress has been made toward this end. In the evening, U.S., PA, Israeli security officials meet. (MM 8/11; ITV 8/11 in WNC 8/12; CSM, NYT, WP 8/12; MA 8/12 in WNC 8/12; JP 8/16)

During a brief confrontation, Palestinian youths angry over the closure clash with IDF troops at a checkpoint in Ramallah. (NYT 8/12)

1 Israeli injured in the 7/30 bombing dies, bringing death toll to 16, including the 2 bombers. (WP 8/12)

In Jerusalem, 150 Conservative, Reform Jewish men, women attempt to pray together at the Western Wall. They are jeered by Orthodox Jews, who call them "terrorists," "Hamas," "Christians"; are forcibly removed fr. the wall by Israeli police. (NYT 8/12)

Israel encourages Germany to take action against Hamas supporters suspected of operating in Berlin, Aachen. Israel charges that some 70 Hamas supporters have been fundraising in Germany since 1994. (Der Spiegel 8/11 in WNC 8/12)

Fmr. Jordanian FMin. official Muhammad al-Khalili announces the founding of Voice of Peace, a new newspaper to be published in Arabic, English, Hebrew. Israeli authors will be among the contributors. (al-Quds 8/11 in WNC 8/14)

IDF prevents an Amnesty International team fr. visiting al-Khiyam prison in s. Lebanon. (RL, VOL 8/11 in WNC 8/12)

After 40 hrs. of talks, ILMG recesses without taking a decision, plans to resume discussions 8/12. (RL 8/12 in WNC 8/13)

In Amsterdam, a 2-day mtg. of EU leaders closes. Attendees issue statement for the 1st time urging Israel not to rule out the possibility of a Palestinian state. (MM 6/18)

In Washington, U.S. secy. of state Albright informs visiting Crown Prince Hassan of U.S. plans to give Jordan $100 m./yr. in aid for the next 5 yrs. (al-Aswaq, al-Dustur, JT 6/17, RJ 6/18 in WNC 6/19; MM, WT 6/18; WJW 6/19; JT 6/19 in WNC 6/20; al-Dustur 6/20 in WNC 6/23; MEI 6/27)

The Senate passes a version of House Res. 1757 that contains a section prohibiting most financial transactions with "state sponsors of terrorism," including Syria. A conference comm. must now work out the differences btwn. the bills. (WJW 7/24; MEI 7/25) (see 6/11)

6 wks. after the IDF forcibly evacuated settlers fr. their outpost nr. Yitzhar settlement nr. Nablus (5/6), several settler families are living on the disputed site, guarded by IDF reservists, while IDF bulldozers break ground to expand the settlement and build a permanent IDF lookout. (YA 6/17 in WNC 6/19) (see 5/7)

Hani `Abd al-Rahim Sayigh, the Saudi accused of participating in the 6/25/96 al-Khobar barracks bombing, is extradited to the U.S. from Canada to provide testimony that could link Iran, Syria to the attack. Under his deal with the FBI, Sayigh will plead guilty to plotting a different attack that never took place in exchange for telling all he knows about the al-Khobar incident. (WP, WT 6/18; MM, NYT, WP, WT 6/19; MM 6/24) (see 3/30)

Iraq announces that it will begin rebuilding, expanding the al-Tanf border post with Syria in the next wk. (MEI 6/13; WT 6/18; MM 6/30) (see 6/2, 6/4, 6/14)

In Hebron, IDF troops clash with Palestinian demonstrators for the 4th day, wounding 17 Palestinian. An AP photographer is attacked, kicked in the head by a Jewish settler; IDF soldiers do not intervene. (WP, WT 6/18; MEI 6/27)

Visiting delegation of American Reform and Conservative Jewish leaders convinces PM Netanyahu to shelve the legislation that would give Orthodox rabbinical courts exclusive jurisdiction over government recognition of conversions to Judaism (see 4/1), form 7-mbr. comm. (comprising 5 Orthodox, 1 Reform, 1 Conservative) to investigate the issue. (WT 6/20)

In Washington, Pres. Clinton urges Qatar's emir Shaykh Hamad to move ahead with plans to host the Middle East-North Africa economic summit in 11/97. The emir criticizes the 6/10 House decision, calls on the U.S. to review its dual containment policy. (MM 6/11; al-Rayah [Doha] 6/17 in WNC 6/19; al-Ahram 6/18 in WNC 6/24; Intelligence Newsletter 6/26)

House passes Res. 1757, a version of the State Dept. Authorization Bill that earmarks $100 m. for the transfer of the U.S. embassy in Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. (Near East Report 6/12)

At the close of a 2-day mtg., donor, host governments pledge $4.1 m. to the UNRWA general fund for 1997. (UNRWA press release 6/12, 6/19) (see 5/26)

Jordan, Saudi Arabia open new border post at Aqaba+nal-Dirri+nHaql area. (RJ 6/10 in WNC 6/11)

At the Western Wall, Orthodox Jews, angered by men and women praying together, attack Conservative Jews, then attack Palestinians nr. the Old City, spray tear gas at Israeli police who try to stop them. (NYT 6/13; WT 6/16; JP 6/21)

In Washington, Pres. Clinton, Jordan's King Hussein discuss ideas for restarting Israeli-PA talks, policy toward Iraq. (NYT, WP, WT 4/2; al-Dustur, al-Ra'i, RJ 4/2 in WNC 4/3; NYT, WP 4/3; WT 4/8; RJ 4/12 in WNC 4/15; MEI 4/18) (see 3/19)

2 bombs explode nr. Jewish settlements in Gaza, killing 2, wounding 7 Palestinians. A wing of Islamic Jihad claims responsibility. (WP 4/1; AFP 4/1 in WNC 4/2; NYT, WP, WT 4/2; RMC 4/2 in WNC 4/3; PR 4/4; JP 4/12)

IDF troops shoot, kill 2 Palestinians in separate incidents: 1 during a demonstration; the other, an undercover PA policeman, as he approached an IDF checkpoint in an attempt to block other Palestinian protesters fr. advancing on the roadblock. (NYT, WP, WT 4/1; IDF Radio 4/1 in WNC 4/2)

The Knesset approves 1st reading of a bill that would grant the Orthodox rabbinical courts exclusive jurisdiction over those seeking to convert to Judaism, meaning that Jews converted by Reform or Conservative Jewish denominations would not be officially recognized as Jewish. Senior leaders of the Reform and Conservative movements in the U.S. (which represent 3 m. of the 3.5 m. U.S. Jews) threaten to withhold lobbying support, divert contributions to Israel away fr. the government if the bill is made law. (NYT, WP, WT 4/2; WP 4/3; WJW 4/10; NYT 4/17; Globes [Internet] 4/21 in WNC 4/24)

Hizballah attacks an SLA patrol in s. Lebanon, killing 1 SLA mbr., wounding 5. (RL 4/1 in WNC 4/2; WT 4/2)