106 / 14643 Results
  • March 21, 2019

    Along Gaza’s border, IDF troops open fire on a group of Palestinian minors congregating near al-Bureij refugee camp; 1 Palestinian is injured. The Israeli press reports that the Palestinians were...

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  • March 7, 2019

    Hundreds of Palestinians gather along Gaza’s border to set tires of fire, throw stones, and otherwise continue the Great March of Return late at night. IDF troops violently disperse them near Khan...

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  • October 18, 2018

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces demolish a 4-story building in al-Bireh near Ramallah; an agricultural structure in Khirbet al-Marajim near Nablus; and a makeshift residential structure, 3 tents...

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  • October 2, 2018

    Along Gaza’s border, IDF troops open fire on Palestinian homes near al-Maghazi; 1 elderly Palestinian is shot in the back and killed. Some reports say that the man was killed by fragments of an...

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  • May 16, 2018

    Along Gaza’s border fence, unidentified Palestinians open fire on Israel Defense Forces (IDF) patrols near Jabaliya refugee...

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  • October 8, 2017

    Unidentified parties fire a rocket from Gaza toward Israel. It lands in an open area short of the border, causing no damage or injuries. An IDF tank shells and destroys a Hamas observation post...

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  • August 27, 2014

    In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in 2 villages nr. Ramallah, Hebron and 1 nearby village, 1 village nr. Nablus, and in Tulkarm; patrols in 3 villages nr. Salfit,...

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  • August 9, 2014

    The IDF continues its assault on the Gaza Strip attacking over 30 targets with aircraft, tanks, and naval vessels, killing 17 Palestinians. Palestinians fire some 30 rockets into s. Israel,...

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  • July 4, 2014

    In the Gaza Strip, Palestinians fire approximately 20 projectiles into s. Israel, causing no injuries and minor damage to several buildings in 1 kibbutz. Two projectiles are intercepted by Iron...

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  • June 27, 2014

    In the Gaza Strip, Palestinians fire 6 rockets and 2 mortar shells into s. Israel, causing no damage or injuries. Two of the rockets are intercepted by Iron Dome batteries. In addition, an...

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  • November 15, 2012

    Israel’s military assault on the Gaza Strip (Operation Pillar of Defense) continues, and projectile fire from Palestinian factions into Israel intensifies. The IDF kills 9 Palestinians, bringing...

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  • November 11, 2012

    The IDF carries out air strikes on a number of targets in the Gaza Strip, killing 1 armed Palestinian and wounding a number of civilians. Palestinian groups fire around 100 rockets and mortars...

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  • November 7, 2012

    The IDF enters the c. Gaza Strip nr. al-Bureij r.c. with 6 bulldozers and 4 military vehicles; Israeli tank fire during the incursion injures 1 Palestinian man. In the West Bank, the IDF serves 40...

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  • March 19, 2011

    Palestinians fire 2 rockets (including 1 Grad) and 54 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel within 15 mins., lightly injuring 2 Israelis, damaging an empty kindergarten, and marking the largest barrage...

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  • January 18, 2011

    Israeli authorities indicate they intend to close the Qarni crossing into Gaza (used to import wheat, animal fodder, and construction aggregates) permanently within weeks and reroute these imports...

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  • March 26, 2010

    IDF troops on the s. Gaza border fire on armed Palestinians laying a roadside bomb nr. the border fence e. of Khan Yunis. When Palestinians return fire, the troops enter the Strip in pursuit,...

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  • March 22, 2010

    Clinton, Netanyahu both address the AIPAC conference in Washington and then hold an 80-min. meeting on the sidelines to discuss recent tensions. In the evening, Netanyahu holds a working dinner...

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  • July 2, 2009

    In Gaza, Palestinian gunmen and IDF troops exchange cross-border fire, including Palestinian mortars and IDF tank fire; tank shells hit 2 homes nearby, killing 1 Palestinian girl, wounding 2 men....

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  • January 17, 2009

    With the 1/16 MOU in hand, along with a letter from European heads of state pledging to support the U.S.-led efforts outlined therein and a private message from Mubarak to the Israeli security...

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  • January 10, 2009

    Israel warns of an expanded ground war in Gaza and begins moving more tanks and reservists to the Gaza border. The IDF drops leaflets and sends out automated phone messages across Gaza, warning of...

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  • January 5, 2009

    As OCL enters day 10, IDF ground forces tighten the circle around Gaza City and continue to operate against Palestinian rocketlaunching units across n. Gaza, still avoiding entering densely...

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  • November 18, 2008

    Israel reseals crossings into Gaza, citing continued Palestinian mortar and rocket fire. Palestinian rocket fire immediately falls to near zero. The IDF sends tanks into s. Gaza to disable...

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  • July 26, 2008

    In the West Bank, the IDF makes a major daytime raid into Hebron, surrounding 4 Palestinian homes, bulldozing surrounding areas, directing tank shells and heavy machine gun fire on the buildings,...

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  • June 7, 2008

    IDF troops on the s. Gaza border fire on a Palestinian farmer fixing a water pipeline nr. the border, wounding him. IDF troops on the c. Gaza border e. of Gaza City fire a tank shell at a group of...

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  • May 1, 2008

    Overnight, the IDF sends tanks and troops into Abasan to search homes (reportedly using some Palestinians as human shields), exchanging fire (including tank shells) with local gunmen (killing 1...

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  • April 16, 2008

    Israel resumes shipments (suspended 4/9) of industrial gasoline for Gaza’s power plant but continues to suspend gasoline and diesel for cars and generators. The UNOCHA calls the fuel supplies for...

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  • December 2, 2007

    As gestures to Abbas before the Annapolis summit, Israel allows 250 Palestinians students (out of more than 600) with valid foreign student visas to leave Gaza for Egypt via the Erez crossing to...

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  • November 25, 2007

    IDF troops encamped in the Erez industrial zone since 11/23 fire on local Palestinians who stray nr. the zone, wounding 1. Palestinians fire 4 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or...

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  • November 1, 2007

    In Gaza, the IDF withdraws fr. al-Shuka, ending a 3-day arrest and bulldozing operation, having wounded 2 Palestinians, demolished 2 Palestinian homes; fires a tank shell at Palestinians...

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  • September 16, 2007

    In Gaza, the IDF withdraws troops fr. al-Fakhari, ending an arrest campaign that began on 9/15, temporarily detaining 4 Palestinians, arresting 3 others. An IDF tank operating inside Gaza nr. the...

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Along Gaza’s border, IDF troops open fire on a group of Palestinian minors congregating near al-Bureij refugee camp; 1 Palestinian is injured. The Israeli press reports that the Palestinians were launching incendiary balloons into southern Israel. Later in the day, an Israeli tank shells a Hamas post in southern Gaza, injuring 7 Palestinians. The IDF says that the strike was retaliation for the launching of incendiary balloons into Gaza earlier in the day. In the West Bank, an Israeli settler driver rams and moderately injures a Palestinian in central Hebron. The settler then flees the scene. Separately, settlers throw stones at Palestinian homes in Urif near Nablus, causing damage and sparking a minor confrontation with residents of the village. Unidentified assailants throw a firebomb at an Israeli vehicle near Nablus, lightly injuring the 2 settler occupants and damaging the vehicle. Meanwhile, IDF troops patrol near Nablus, Hebron, and Ramallah. Israeli forces shut down a number of streets in central Hebron to make room for Israeli settlers to celebrate Purim. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces disperse an event at the French Cultural Center on the grounds that it was co-sponsored by the PA. They also arrest 2 Palestinians during late-night raids in Ras al-Amud. (HA, MNA, MNA, TOI, WAFA, WAFA 3/21; MNA 3/22; PCHR 3/28)

U.S. president Donald Trump tweets, “After 52 years it is time for the United States to fully recognize Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights, which is of critical strategic and security importance to the State of Israel and Regional Stability!” His tweet reverses decades of U.S. policy and runs counter to several UN Security Council resolutions and international law. It comes in response to Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s call for the international community to recognize Israeli control over the Golan Heights, and it is widely seen as a boon for Netanyahu’s chances the upcoming Israeli election on 4/9. Trump later says, in an interview with Fox Business Network, that his tweet was not an effort to support Netanyahu’s re-election campaign. “I hear [Netanyahu] is doing okay,” he says. “Whoever’s against him is also in favor of what I just did.” In response to Trump’s tweet, an EU spokesperson says that the EU has no plans to change its position on the Golan Heights. “The EU, in line with international law, does not recognize Israel’s sovereignty over the territories occupied by Israel since June 1967, including the Golan Heights, and does not consider them to be part of Israel’s territory.” (HA, JP, MNA, NYT, TOI, YA 3/21; HA 3/22)

Hundreds of Palestinians gather along Gaza’s border to set tires of fire, throw stones, and otherwise continue the Great March of Return late at night. IDF troops violently disperse them near Khan Yunis; 3 Palestinians are injured. After armed Palestinians open fire on an IDF post from the other side of the border fence late at night, an Israeli tank shells a Hamas post near Jabaliya refugee camp, causing damage. Off Gaza’s coast, Israeli naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishing boats near Bayt Lahiya, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, Israeli forces carry out the punitive demolition of the Ramallah-area home of a Palestinian accused of killing 2 Israeli soldiers on 12/13/18. The demolition sparks clashes between the Israeli troops and Palestinian residents of the area; no serious injuries are reported. Israeli forces also demolish a Palestinian home under construction near Nablus and 2 makeshift Palestinian housing structures near Hebron. Meanwhile, IDF troops patrol near Hebron, Qalqilya, and Ramallah. In East Jerusalem, Israeli police enter the al-Rahma Gate prayer area at Haram al-Sharif, provoking tensions at the sanctuary. Later, they arrest 7 Palestinians in the Old City on their way to the sanctuary and 6 more Palestinians during late-night raids in the Old City and Issawiyya. In southern Israel, Israeli forces demolish the Palestinian bedouin village al-Araqib for the 141st time since 2010. (HA, MNA, MNA, MNA, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, YA 3/7; MNA 3/8; PCHR 3/14)

A Palestinian minor succumbs to injuries sustained when IDF troops violently dispersed Palestinian demonstrations along Gaza’s border fence on 3/6. This brings the death toll stemming from the Great March of Return to 206. (AP, HA, JP, MNA, WAFA 3/7)

Afghanistan contributes $1 million to UNRWA to support Palestinian refugees. A senior UNRWA official calls the contribution an “immense gesture of dignity.” (MNA, WAFA 3/7)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces demolish a 4-story building in al-Bireh near Ramallah; an agricultural structure in Khirbet al-Marajim near Nablus; and a makeshift residential structure, 3 tents, and 3 agricultural structures in Bardala near Jericho. IDF troops patrol near Hebron, Tulkarm, and Qalqilya. Approximately 50 Israeli settlers throw stones at a Palestinian school in Urif village near Nablus, sparking clashes between their IDF escort and Palestinian students and residents of the area; 1 Palestinian is injured. (MNA, MNA, MNA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/18; PCHR 10/25)

The IDF reinforces its troops stationed along Gaza’s border with additional tanks, artillery and engineering forces ahead of the planned protests on the other side of the border fence on 10/19. Meanwhile, Hamas announces plans to investigate the rocket fire on 10/17, likely in an effort to reduce tensions ahead of the planned protests on 10/19. (HA, TOI, YA 10/18)

Al-Hayat reports that Hamas and the other factions in Gaza recently agreed to scale back the Great March of Return protests along Gaza’s border fence to help facilitate the Egyptian effort to mediate a long-term Hamas-Israel cease-fire. The deal was reportedly reached on 10/15, before rocket fire and air strikes heightened tensions on 10/17. Meanwhile, a delegation of senior Egyptian officials shuttle between Gaza and Israel throughout the day, negotiating with both Hamas and Israeli officials on a long-term cease-fire and the stalled Palestinian reconciliation process. (AH, AP, TOI, TOI, YA 10/18)

U.S. secretary of state Mike Pompeo announces that the U.S. consulate general in Jerusalem, which serves Palestinians, is to be merged with the new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem. “This decision is driven by our global efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our operations,” he says. “We will continue to conduct a full range of reporting, outreach, and programming in the West Bank and Gaza as well as with Palestinians in Jerusalem through a new Palestinian Affairs Unit inside the U.S. Embassy Jerusalem.” (JP, MNA, MNA, REU, TOI, WAFA, YA 10/19)

Israel’s High Court of Justice rules in favor of Lara Alqasem, the U.S. student who the Israeli authorities denied entry into Israel on 10/2 and have detained ever since over her support for BDS. “Since the appellant’s actions do not raise satisfactory cause to bar her to entry to Israel, the inevitable impression is that invalidating the visa given to her was due to the political opinions she holds,” the court’s ruling reads. “If this is truly the case, then we are talking about an extreme and dangerous step, which could lead to the crumbling of the pillars upon which democracy in Israel stands.” (EI, HA, MNA, TOI 10/19)

Along Gaza’s border, IDF troops open fire on Palestinian homes near al-Maghazi; 1 elderly Palestinian is shot in the back and killed. Some reports say that the man was killed by fragments of an Israeli tank shell instead. An IDF spokesperson says he is unaware of any soldiers or tanks opening fire in the area around the time of the incident. Separately, Israeli forces conduct a limited incursion to level land near Rafah. In the West Bank, IDF troops violently disperse Palestinians gathering at the Beit El checkpoint near Ramallah to protest Israel’s new Nation-State Law for a 2d day in a row; 2 Palestinians are injured. They also shoot and injure 1 Palestinian during clashes sparked by a raid near Jericho; arrest 7 Palestinians and issue 1 arrest summons during raids near Bethlehem, Hebron, Tulkarm, and Jenin; and patrol near Nablus and Hebron. Israeli forces dismantle a makeshift Palestinian residential structure outside Hebron. Israeli settlers raze more than 200 dunams (approximately 49.4 acres) of Palestinian-owned land near Nablus. Settlers also flood with wastewater parts of Khan al-Ahmar, the Jerusalem-area Bedouin village slated for imminent evacuation and demolition. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces arrest 10 Palestinians during raids in Issawiyya and Shu‘fat refugee camp. (HA, MNA, MNA, MNA, WAFA 10/2; MNA, TOI 10/3; PCHR 10/4)

The Israeli authorities deny a U.S. citizen entry into Israel at Ben Gurion Airport late at night, citing alleged “boycott activity.” The woman, Lara Alqasem, arrived in Israel with a student visa to work towards a master’s degree at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. (HA, JP, YA 10/6)

Along Gaza’s border fence, unidentified Palestinians open fire on Israel Defense Forces (IDF) patrols near Jabaliya refugee camp causing no injuries. Israeli tanks then shell several Hamas posts near the border fence, causing damage. Later, Palestinians fire machine guns across the border into Israel, this time causing minor damage to an Israeli home near Sderot. The IDF then bombs Hamas sites in northern Gaza, including an alleged weapons production facility, causing an unclear amount of damage. Separately, IDF troops violently disperse Palestinians gathering along the border fence to protest and throw stones near al-Bureij refugee camp, Gaza City, and Khan Yunis; 4 Palestinians are injured. In the West Bank, IDF troops violently disperse Palestinians protesting the 5/14 opening of the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem at the Beit El checkpoint; there are no serious injuries. They also arrest 5 Palestinians during late-night raids in and around Bethlehem and Nablus, and patrol in Hebron and near Nablus. Israeli settlers cut down approximately 400 grapevines in a Palestinian vineyard near Hebron. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces arrest 4 Palestinians during a raid in Silwan. (WAFA 5/16; HA, JP, TOI, YA 5/17; PCHR 5/17; PCHR 5/24)

 

Guatemalan president Jimmy Morales and Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu attend the inauguration of the new Guatemalan embassy in Jerusalem. “My next trip through Latin America goes through Guatemala," Netanyahu says. (HA, JP, TOI, YA 5/16)

 

The Egyptian authorities keep the Rafah border crossing open for the fourth consecutive day, despite their initial plans to keep it closed today. (AP 5/18)

Unidentified parties fire a rocket from Gaza toward Israel. It lands in an open area short of the border, causing no damage or injuries. An IDF tank shells and destroys a Hamas observation post east of al-Maghazi refugee camp. Israeli artillery also target a site east of Gaza City, causing a fire to break out; there is no major damage or injuries. Separately, IDF troops stationed along the border fence arrest 2 Palestinians attempting to cross from Gaza into Israel near Rafah, and open fire on Palestinian lands near al-Bureij refugee camp, causing no damage. In East Jerusalem, approximately 524 Israeli settlers tour Haram al-Sharif in the morning, commemorating the Jewish holiday Sukkot. Some of the settlers reportedly pray at the sanctuary. In the West Bank, the Israeli authorities shut down al-Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron to Muslim worshippers to make way for Sukkot-related activities at the site. IDF troops arrest 16 Palestinians and issue 1 arrest summons during late-night raids in and around Hebron, Jerusalem, Qalqilya, Bethlehem, Nablus, Salfit, and Jenin, and patrol near Tulkarm and Hebron. In Israel, approximately 30,000 Palestinians and Israelis gather in Jerusalem to call for a resumption of IsraeliPalestinian peace talks. The Israeli NGO Women Wage Peace organized the demonstration. Hamas denounces the PLO for supporting the rally, accusing it of “normalizing” relations with Israel. (HA, MNA, TOI, WAFA 10/8; MNA, TOI, WAFA 10/9; PCHR 10/12)

In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in 2 villages nr. Ramallah, Hebron and 1 nearby village, 1 village nr. Nablus, and in Tulkarm; patrols in 3 villages nr. Salfit, and in Hebron and 2 nearby villages. (AFP, HA 8/27; PCHR 8/28)

Syrian opposition forces take control of the Qunaytra border crossing between Syria and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, prompting Israel to close off the surrounding area. Two Israelis are injured by stray fire in separate incidents caused by the intense fighting in Syria: an officer is shot and wounded and a civilian is injured by a tank shell. Earlier, 2 mortar shells land in the Golan Heights, causing damage but no injuries. The IDF responds by targeting 2 Syrian army positions. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, YA 8/27)

The IDF continues its assault on the Gaza Strip attacking over 30 targets with aircraft, tanks, and naval vessels, killing 17 Palestinians. Palestinians fire some 30 rockets into s. Israel, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, Palestinian gunmen open fire on Israeli soldiers nr. Nablus, causing no injuries. The IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in 1 village each nr. Ramallah and Salfit, and ‘Ayn al-Sultan r.c. nr. Jericho at night; patrols during the day in 8 villages nr. Ramallah, Jericho, and Salfit. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU, YA 8/9; PCHR 8/10)

Egyptian and Palestinian officials reportedly reach a new draft cease-fire agreement to present to Israel, which stipulates that the PA would take control of the Rafah crossing. Anonymous Israeli officials tell the media that their negotiators will not return to Cairo “as long as the shooting goes on.” Senior Hamas official Abu Marzuq says that the Palestinian delegation will leave Cairo on 8/10 unless Israel agrees to return to Egyptian-mediated negotiations. (AFP, AP, HA, JP, MNA, REU, YA 8/9)

In the Gaza Strip, Palestinians fire approximately 20 projectiles into s. Israel, causing no injuries and minor damage to several buildings in 1 kibbutz. Two projectiles are intercepted by Iron Dome batteries. The IDF launches air strikes on 3 Hamas-related targets in the s. Gaza Strip. IDF troops on the border fence nr. Rafah fire tank shells at the remains of the Gaza international airport, causing no casualties. Later, IDF troops open fire on farmers close to the border fence nr. Dayr al-Balah, wounding 1. Off the coast nr. Bayt Lahiya, IDF naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishermen, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, IDF troops injure 8 Palestinians with live ammunition and rubber-coated metal bullets during clashes with demonstrators at Qalandia checkpoint nr. Ramallah. There is also a demonstration in Surayf village nr. Hebron protesting Israeli settlements, and IDF troops open fire during the ensuing clashes, wounding 5 Palestinians. The IDF patrols in 1 village nr. Ramallah in the morning, in al-Fawar r.c. nr. Hebron in the afternoon, and in 2 villages nr. Ramallah at night. IDF troops violently disperse Palestinian, Israeli, and international protesters at weekly demonstrations against Israel’s separation wall, settlements and, occupation in 3 villages nr. Ramallah (Bil‘in, Nabi Salih, and Ni‘lin), and 1 village nr. Qalqilya (Kafr Qaddum). There are no serious injuries. In East Jerusalem, Israeli security forces deploy in large numbers and restrict worshippers’ access to Haram al-Sharif. Two days after his death on 7/2, Abu Khdeir’s funeral is held in Shu‘fat, after which there are violent clashes with Israeli police, who use rubbercoated metal bullets and injure 20. (HA, JP, MNA, REU 7/4; PCHR 7/10)

Israeli media reports that Egyptian intelligence officials are mediating a truce between Israel and Hamas, on the basis of “quiet for quiet.” Israeli FM Lieberman criticizes talk of a possible cease-fire and urges the IDF to target the Hamas leadership. Hamas spokesperson Abu Zuhri, meanwhile, says the group is “not interested in a confrontation” and holds Israel “responsible for the escalation.” (REU, ToI, YA 7/4)

In the Gaza Strip, Palestinians fire 6 rockets and 2 mortar shells into s. Israel, causing no damage or injuries. Two of the rockets are intercepted by Iron Dome batteries. In addition, an explosive device detonates nr. IDF troops adjacent to the border fence, causing minor damage but no injuries. An IDF drone strikes a car nr. Shati’ r.c., killing 2 senior mbrs. of the PRC and injuring 1. The IDF conducts air strikes on 3 other targets across the Gaza Strip, causing no injuries. Also, IDF troops fire tank shells toward Khuza village close to the border fence, injuring 8. In a separate incident, IDF troops shell agricultural lands close to the border fence nr. Khan Yunis, causing no injuries. In the West Bank, IDF troops shoot and wound 3 Palestinians during clashes with residents outside Balata r.c. nr. Nablus. Meanwhile, during an arrest raid in Bethlehem, IDF troops shoot and wound 1 Palestinian in Dahaysha r.c. The IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in 1 village nr. Hebron in the afternoon, and in 2 villages and al-Am‘ari r.c. nr. Ramallah, 2 villages nr. Hebron, and 1 village nr. Bethlehem at night; patrols in 1 village nr. Ramallah in the morning, in 1 village nr. Ramallah in the afternoon, and in 3 villages nr. Jericho, 2 villages nr. Hebron, and 1 village nr. Nablus at night. IDF troops violently disperse Palestinian, Israeli, and international protesters at weekly demonstrations against Israel’s separation wall, settlements, and occupation in 2 villages nr. Ramallah (Bil‘in and Ni‘lin), and 1 village nr. Qalqilya (Kafr Qaddum). There are no serious injuries. (HA, MNA, REU 6/27; PCHR 7/3)

Martin Indyk resigns as U.S. special envoy, though he will remain an adviser to the Obama administration. Indyk will return to his role as director of the foreign policy program at the Brookings Institution. (HA 6/27)

Israel’s military assault on the Gaza Strip (Operation Pillar of Defense) continues, and projectile fire from Palestinian factions into Israel intensifies. The IDF kills 9 Palestinians, bringing the death toll since 11/14 to 19, including 6 children. The IDF claims to have struck a total of 300 ‘‘terror activity’’ sites in the Gaza Strip, deploying air strikes, tank, and naval shelling and destroying 70 unmanned missile launch sites. The Israeli army also calls up 30,000 army reservists to prepare for a potential ground invasion. Three Israelis are killed by a rocket fired from the Gaza Strip that hits a residential building in Kiryat Malakhi. The IDF cites an estimated 270 rockets fired by Palestinian factions since the start of the Israeli military assault, with over 100 shot down by the Iron Dome missile defense/intercept system. Meanwhile, the Israeli daily Ha’Aretz reports that Hamas leader Ahmad Jabari was negotiating a permanent truce agreement with Israel just hours before his assassination on 11/14 (see Selections from the Press in JPS 166). (BBC, HA, MNA, REU 11/15, 11/16)

Internationally, the U.S. continues to show support for Israel’s operation, with the Senate unanimously passing a resolution backing Israel’s right to defend itself (62 senators were cosponsors). Egypt, Jordan, Russia, and Turkey all condemn Israel’s use of force as disproportionate, while Hizballah leader Hasan Nasrallah calls on Arab countries to support Hamas. PA pres. Mahmud Abbas calls for an urgent Arab League meeting, and Egypt and Tunisia announce plans to send delegations to the Gaza Strip on 11/16 and 11/18 respectively. (Guardian, REU, ToI 11/15)

For a 3d night, Jordanians in various cities across Jordan protest against King Abdullah and a reduction in public fuel subsidies. Islamist opposition groups vow to keep up the demonstrations. Gunmen attack 2 police stations, sparking a clash that leaves 1 attacker dead and 17 people injured (including 13 police officers). (AP, NYT 11/15)

The IDF carries out air strikes on a number of targets in the Gaza Strip, killing 1 armed Palestinian and wounding a number of civilians. Palestinian groups fire around 100 rockets and mortars into Israel, causing 3 injuries and structural damage. Israeli PM Netanyahu tells the weekly cabinet meeting that the army is prepared to intensify its attacks; a number of ministers urge an escalation in military operations (such as assassinations), as well as other measures, like cutting off electricity. A source in Netanyahu’s office says that the PM is preparing international public opinion for a military operation in Gaza. (AP, HA 11/11; JP 11/12; PCHR 11/14)

U.S. pres. Barack Obama tells PA pres. Abbas that his administration opposes a Palestinian bid for non-state membership of the UN. Abbas tells a rally in Ramallah marking the anniversary of Yasir Arafat’s death that the PA is under huge pressure to stop the UN initiative, but that they would continue regardless, as it is intended to save the two-state solution. (AFP, JP 11/11)

PA pres. Abbas announces that Russia will join an international investigation into whether Yasir Arafat was murdered. French and Swiss experts will exhume the late Palestinian leader’s body later in the month, after an Al Jazeera report in July suggested he was murdered with polonium. (REU 11/11)

In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 1 village nr. Ramallah and 1 village nr. Bethlehem (firing rubber bullets and tear gas at children going to school) in the morning; patrols in 2 villages nr. Tulkarm and 1 village nr. Ramallah at night; conducts house searches and arrest raids in Hebron and 1 village nr. Ramallah. Israeli police deliver notices to 13 Israeli activists, banning them from taking part in weekly demonstrations in West Bank villages. (972mag 11/11; PCHR 11/14)

Israeli forces fire into Syria in what the military calls a warning, after stray munitions from fighting between Syrian troops and rebels hit the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. The incident, described by Israel Radio as the 1st direct engagement of the Syrian military on the Golan since the countries’ 1973 war, highlights international fears that Syria’s civil war could ignite wider regional conflict. An Israeli security source said the military fired in the direction of a Syrian army mortar crew that had launched a shell that overshot the Golan disengagement fence on Sunday, exploding near a Jewish settlement without causing casualties. (REU 11/11)

The IDF enters the c. Gaza Strip nr. al-Bureij r.c. with 6 bulldozers and 4 military vehicles; Israeli tank fire during the incursion injures 1 Palestinian man. In the West Bank, the IDF serves 40 families with eviction orders in Khirbat Tana village nr. Nablus, declaring that the area is earmarked for a military training zone; enters a village nr. Salfit to order residents out of 20 homes in preparation for demolition (clashing with locals, leaving 6 Palestinians injured, including 2 journalists); patrols in 1 village nr. Ramallah and 2 villages nr. Hebron at night; conducts house searches and arrest raids in 1 village nr. Hebron and 1 village nr. Bethlehem at night. Suspected Jewish settlers cut down around 50 Palestinianowned olive trees in a village nr. Rehelim settlement and leave ‘‘price tag’’ graffiti. (MNA, ToI 11/7; PCHR 11/14)

Syrian security forces seal the Damascus office of Hamas chief Khalid Mishal, abandoned by the Hamas leadership earlier in 2012. (REU 11/7)

Palestinians fire 2 rockets (including 1 Grad) and 54 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel within 15 mins., lightly injuring 2 Israelis, damaging an empty kindergarten, and marking the largest barrage since OCL in 1/2009. Hamas acknowledges it fired 33 of the mortars, targeting IDF bases along the border in retaliation for a 3/16 Israeli air strike that killed 2 Hamas mbrs. Israel retaliates with heavy air strikes and tank fire on Hamas facility e. of Gaza City, killing a Hamas official and wounding at least 5 Palestinians (including at least 2 civilians); artillery fire throughout the morning directed at villages on the s. Gaza border with Israel, damaging a mosque in Abassan but causing no injuries; 4 air strikes on rocket-launching sites in s. Gaza, causing no reported injuries; and, late at night, artillery fire directed at suspicious movement nr. the s. Gaza border, killing 2 16-yr.-old Palestinians, allegedly armed. Meanwhile, a group of 10 armed, plain-clothed Palestinians claiming to be Hamas-affiliated security forces raid the Gaza City bureaus of CNN, NHK news channel, and Reuters, attacking journalists, destroying cameras, and confiscating tapes to punish them for filming Hamas police dispersing a 3/17 Palestinian rally. Hamas’s interior M Fathi Hamad denies the men were connected to Hamas, and Reuters confirms that the men did not show identification. In the West Bank, Jewish settlers fr. Dolev settlement nr. Ramallah set up a tent and hold Purim services on a nearby plot of Palestinian land; the IDF observes but does not intervene, and the settlers leave on their own the next morning (3/20). Jewish settlers attack Palestinians and international activists working an olive grove nr. Hebron; the IDF intervenes to remove the settlers. Jewish settlers fr. Suissa settlement nr. Hebron raid a nearby Palestinian farm, releasing 100s of sheep into crop fields; the IDF observes but does not intervene. Jewish settlers stone Palestinian cars driving nr. Hebron and Qalqilya. (AP, JP 3/19; JP, NYT, WP 3/20; PCHR 3/24; OCHA 4/1)

U.S., British, and French forces begin strikes (fr. planes and warships) on Libya. The forces target radar and antimissile batteries to enforce a no-fly zone against Qaddafi’s forces. (NYT, WP 3/20)

When protests in Dara’a resume today, Syrian security forces seal off the city and clash with the demonstrators. Violence in Dara’a continues through 3/22. (NYT, WP 3/20; NYT, WP 3/21)

Israeli authorities indicate they intend to close the Qarni crossing into Gaza (used to import wheat, animal fodder, and construction aggregates) permanently within weeks and reroute these imports through the Kerem Shalom crossing. OCHA reports that Israel has allowed no grain or fodder imports to Gaza for a week and that wheat reserves are nearly depleted. Gaza hospital officials report that because of a dispute between PA Health Min. officials in Ramallah and Gaza, transfers of medical supplies to Gaza hospitals have dropped off dangerously, increasing the number of medical supplies that are totally out of stock in the Strip. Meanwhile in Gaza, armed Palestinians detonate a buried explosive device inside the northern border as an IDF patrol on the Israeli side passes, causing no casualties. The IDF troops fire 7 tank shells at the area, killing 1 Palestinian and wounding 2; the IDF claims the men were militants, whereas Palestinians claim they were innocent bystanders scavenging for construction material in the area. Unidentified Palestinians later fire 4–5 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries. The IDF also makes a brief incursion into n. Gaza to level land and clear lines of sight along the border fence e. of Jabaliya. A Palestinian dies of injuries sustained on 1/15 when Egyptian authorities blew up a smuggling tunnel on the Rafah border. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts synchronized morning patrols in 3 villages nr. Jenin; patrols in Hijja village nr. Qalqilya late at night; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Nablus. (JP 1/18; WT 1/19; PCHR 1/20; OCHA 1/21)

IDF troops on the s. Gaza border fire on armed Palestinians laying a roadside bomb nr. the border fence e. of Khan Yunis. When Palestinians return fire, the troops enter the Strip in pursuit, triggering at least 1 buried device and drawing Palestinian mortar fire, which prompts the IDF to move several tanks and armed bulldozers into Gaza, shelling areas outside Khan Yunis. The exchange leaves 2 armed Palestinians, 1 Palestinian bystander, and 2 IDF soldiers dead and 3 IDF soldiers and 6 Palestinians (including at least 2 civilians, one a 13-yr.-old boy) wounded, marking the 1st deadly exchange of fire in Gaza since OCL ended on 1/18/09. The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Islamic Jihad, and a group calling itself Palestinian Taliban (believed to be a radical Salafist splinter group opposed to Hamas) claim their fighters were involved in the initial border incident; the Izzedin al-Qassam Brigades claims responsibility for ambushing and firing mortars at IDF troops once they entered Gaza, causing the IDF casualties. In the West Bank, the IDF fires rubber-coated steel bullets, stun grenades, tear gas at Palestinian, Israeli, and international activists taking part in weekly demonstrations against the separation wall and settlement expansion in Bil‘in (10s suffer tear gas inhalation; 1 Israeli is arrested), Dayr Nizam/al-Nabi Salih (2 Palestinians injured), and Ni‘lin (10s suffer tear gas inhalation). (JP 3/27; WP 3/28; OCHA, PCHR 4/1; PCHR 4/8)

Clinton, Netanyahu both address the AIPAC conference in Washington and then hold an 80-min. meeting on the sidelines to discuss recent tensions. In the evening, Netanyahu holds a working dinner with Biden on bilateral relations. (JTA 3/22; JTA, NYT, WP, WT 3/23; WJW 3/25; JPI 4/2)

In Gaza, 1 IDF soldier is killed by friendly fire when IDF infantry and tank units on the Gaza border are mobilized to halt 3 unarmed Palestinians nr. the border fence, and the tank crew accidentally fires on the infantry unit on the Israeli side of the border; the Palestinians are not injured. After unidentified Palestinians fire a rocket fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries, the IDF makes an air strike on an alleged weapons depot in Gaza City, destroying it and lightly injuring 8 Palestinian civilians (including 1 woman and 2 children). Later in the evening, unidentified Palestinians fire another rocket toward Israel, but it lands harmlessly nr. the Erez crossing. Late in the evening, IDF troops on the central Gaza border e. of Dayr al-Balah shoot, wound an unarmed Palestinian outside his home 500 m fr. the border. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in al-Fara‘a r.c. nr. Tubas. (HA, JP, NYT, YA 3/23; OCHA, PCHR, WJW 3/25)

In Gaza, Palestinian gunmen and IDF troops exchange cross-border fire, including Palestinian mortars and IDF tank fire; tank shells hit 2 homes nearby, killing 1 Palestinian girl, wounding 2 men. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Balata r.c., Nablus. Jewish settlers escorted by IDF troops rally at the evacuated Homesh settlement site to protest U.S. calls for a settlement freeze. (PCHR 7/2; WP 7/3; OCHA, PCHR 7/9)

With the 1/16 MOU in hand, along with a letter from European heads of state pledging to support the U.S.-led efforts outlined therein and a private message from Mubarak to the Israeli security cabinet received today, Olmert formally declares a unilateral cease-fire in Gaza effective 2:00 A.M. local time on 1/18 (7:00 P.M. 1/17 EST). Stressing that Hamas was not party to any of the pledges secured by Israel, Olmert states: “If [the Palestinians] stop firing, we will consider leaving Gaza at a time that is suitable to us,” but if they continue rocket fire (NYT 1/17), “the Israeli army will regard itself as free to respond with force.” Hamas denounces Israel for ignoring Egyptian efforts to broker an agreed upon truce.

Combat notes: Olmert’s announcement comes at the end of a day of “sporadic and intensive” fighting in Gaza. The IDF reports hitting more than 120 targets, mostly comprising a final massive bombardment of more than 100 tunnels along the Rafah border that lasts 10 hrs., but also including strikes on at least 10 rocket-launching sites, 5 groups of armed Palestinians, 3 Hamas outposts. In addition to Rafah, air strike target areas include Bayt Hanun, Gaza City (city center), Jabaliya, Khan Yunis. Heavy artillery and tank fire are reported in: Bayt Lahiya, Jabaliya, al-Nasser (n. of Rafah). In Bayt Lahiya, IDF shells (possibly including white phosphorous) hit an UNRWA school sheltering 1,600 Gazans, killing 2 Palestinian brothers (ages 4, 5) and wounding 36 Palestinians (including the boys’ mother, who loses both legs. Naval bombardments center on Khan Yunis. Ground engagements are reported in al-Bureij r.c., al-Mughraqa, Nussayrat r.c., al-Zahra’. Late in the evening, IDF troops pull out of al-Shuka (where troops seized positions on 1/14), with residents reporting many houses demolished and damaged, wide areas of agricultural land razed, and significant damage to the village infrastructure (water systems, etc.).

Palestinians fire 19 rockets and 5 mortars into Israel, lightly injuring 5 Israelis (possibly all shock). The IDF reports 4 IDF soldiers seriously wounded in a friendly fire incident involving Israeli mortar fire, plus another 13 soldiers injured (3 seriously, 3 moderately, 7 lightly) in clashes with Palestinian gunmen over the previous 24 hrs., including 5 soldiers wounded by a Palestinian antitank round today.

With the truce ordered, the IDF put Israel’s comprehensive casualty toll for OCL at 3 (perhaps 4; see casualties chart in special document section for details) civilians and 10 soldiers dead, more than 100 soldiers and an unstated number of civilians injured. (This marks the 1st time the IDF has given estimates for comprehensive IDF casualties inside Gaza.) Gazan health officials estimate the Palestinian toll to be at least 1,200 killed and more than 5,000 wounded, though numbers are expected to change as rescue workers gain access to damaged areas.

Humanitarian notes: The IDF allows 62 truckloads of humanitarian aid into Gaza. Israel gives no indication whether or how quickly it will ease restrictions on imports once the cease-fire goes into effect. (IDF, IFM 1/17; IFM, ITIC, NYT, QA, WP, WT 1/18; ITIC, JP, MM 1/19; JAZ 1/20; PCHR 1/22; FT 1/28; PCHR 1/29)

The IDF imposes a curfew on Hawara village s. of Nablus. (PCHR 1/22)

Israel warns of an expanded ground war in Gaza and begins moving more tanks and reservists to the Gaza border. The IDF drops leaflets and sends out automated phone messages across Gaza, warning of an escalation in fighting.

Combat notes: IDF tanks and artillery pound Gaza throughout the day. The IDF reports making air strikes on about 120 targets, including the home of IQB head Ahmad Jabari (presumed to be in hiding), at least 15 rocket-launching sites, 21 suspected weapons depots (including a mosque and school in Rafah, the homes of several Hamas mbrs.), 16 tunnels, 3 Hamas outposts, 1 police station, and 2 vehicles allegedly transporting weapons. In Khan Yunis, an air strike destroys Gaza European Hospital’s fuel depot, electricity generator, and water supply system. Target areas include Bani Suhayla, Bayt Lahiya, al-Bureij r.c., Gaza City (al-Nasser, Shaykh Ridwan, al-Shuja‘iyya), Jabaliya, Khan Yunis, al-Maghazi, Nussayrat, Rafah. IDF ground forces engage in heavy exchanges with Palestinians in and nr. Bayt Lahiya. Heavy IDF tank and artillery fire are reported in Jabaliya (where 8 family mbrs. are killed by an IDF tank shell that lands outside their home), Khuza (possibly involving white phosphorus, burning 15 homes and 100s of individuals), Nussayrat, and Tal al-Hawa in Gaza City. The IDF claims to kill 16 armed Palestinians, including Hamas’s “leading authority on Grad rockets,” IQB cmdr. Amir Mansi, during a strike on a rocket-launching site. The estimated Palestinian toll reaches 820–840 dead.

Palestinians fire 9 rockets and 10 mortars into Israel, the fewest since OCL began on 12/27; 3 Grad rockets strike Ashqelon (each causing damage and light injuries, including shock), others land in open areas nr. Ashdod and in the Negev (causing no damage or injuries). The IDF reports 7 ground troops lightly wounded in various exchanges.

Humanitarian notes: The IDF observes a 3-hr. humanitarian lull to allow relief agencies to recover casualties and distribute food but does not allow new aid through Gaza’s crossings on the Sabbath.

Of note: The IDF reports that ground troops have been facing extensive tunnel networks inside the Strip, especially in Gaza City, which the Palestinian factions are using to try to ambush soldiers. IDF sources and Israeli journalists embedded with IDF troops report recent incidents in which Palestinian fighters tried to lure troops into a boobytrapped building in al-Zaytun; left a weapons cache rigged with explosives where the IDF would find it (the booby trap did not detonate); and sent a suicide bomber on a failed attempt to attack a group of soldiers. The IDF also acknowledges that it has rounded up and interrogated scores of Palestinians to gain knowledge of local Hamas positions and tactics. Israeli intelligence officers acknowledge phoning Gazans, sometimes overtly and sometimes pretending to be sympathetic Arabs fr. abroad, to gain information about conditions and locations of Palestinian forces on the ground. (AP, BBC, IDF, REU 1/10; IDF, NYT, WP, WT 1/11; MM, QA, WP 1/12; al-Akhbar, MM 1/13; NYT 1/14; PCHR 1/15; WJW 1/16; ITIC 1/19; JPI 1/23)

The IDF fires live ammunition at Palestinians demonstrating against OCL in Bayt Awa nr. Hebron, seriously wounding a 13-yr.-old boy; fires live ammunition and rubber-coated steel bullets at Palestinians holding a similar protest in Sa’ir nr. Hebron, wounding 3 Palestinians; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in ‘Askar r.c. nr. Nablus, nr. Hebron. (PCHR 1/15)

As OCL enters day 10, IDF ground forces tighten the circle around Gaza City and continue to operate against Palestinian rocketlaunching units across n. Gaza, still avoiding entering densely populated areas. Troops deploy to segment the Strip into 3 main operational zones: a northern zone running fr. the n. Gaza border south to Netzarim Junction (the Qarni Crossing–Netzarim settlement line drawn on 1/4); a central zone fr. Netzarim Junction to Khan Yunis; and a southern zone fr. Khan Yunis to the Rafah border. While IDF troops are still entering Gaza, IDF reservists have not yet been sent in.

Meanwhile, French pres. Nicholas Sarkozy begins a regional tour to press for a 48-hr. humanitarian cease-fire, meeting with Mubarak in Cairo and Olmert in Israel).

Combat notes: In Gaza City, residents and medical workers report that IDF troops are concentrated in the al-Shuja‘iyya, al-Tuffah, and al-Zaytun neighborhoods (al-Zaytun is a strategic high point, providing a view over the breadth of the Strip) and that fighting is so intense (involving heavy Israeli tank and helicopter fire) that bodies of the dead have been left lying in the street and ambulances are unable to reach the area. IDF troops occupy at least 3 high-rise buildings in eastern areas of Gaza City as observation posts, expelling the residents and exchanging heavy gunfire with Palestinian gunmen. Israeli aircraft drop leaflets over Gaza City warning residents to evacuate their neighborhood; 1,000s of Gazans report receiving automated phone messages form the IDF saying “We are getting rid of Hamas.”

In addition to carrying out air strikes in support of advancing ground troops, the IDF reports making 40 air strikes targeting tunnels on the Rafah border, weapons caches, homes of senior Hamas and PFLP mbrs. (most of whom are in hiding), the Gaza airport site. Target areas include Abasan, Bayt Hanun, Bani Suhayla, Bayt Lahiya, al-Bureij r.c., Dayr al-Balah, Gaza City (the center city, al-Tuffah, al-Shuja‘iyya, Tal al-Hawa, alZaytun), Jabaliya, Khan Yunis, Khuza, the al-Mawasi area (w. of Khan Yunis), Nussayrat, Rafah, al-Shabura r.c. (nr. Rafah), Shati’ r.c., al-Shuka, Yibna r.c. (nr. Rafah).

Of particular note: A home in Gaza City’s al-Zaytun neighborhood, where the IDF placed 110 Palestinians it had rounded up on 1/4, is hit by an air strike and repeatedly shelled, killing at least 30 mbrs. of an extended family (including 5 children age 4 and younger) and wounding scores; the IDF bars relief workers fr. reaching the scene until 1/7. A shell fired from an Israeli naval vessel hits a Palestinian home in Shati’ r.c., killing a family of 7 asleep in their beds. A late-night air strike hits an UNRWA school in Shati’ r.c. being used as a shelter, killing 3 members of a single family. The IDF also makes air strikes hitting the offices of the Hamas-affiliated al-Risala for a 2d time (see 1/3). Photographs and live footage of the ongoing operations clearly show IDF artillery firing white phosphorus shells on densely populated areas, though Israel denies using the munitions. The IDF fires flechette shells on residential areas nr. Bayt Hanun, killing at least 1 Palestinian, wounding at least 3.

Palestinians fire 28 rockets, 5 mortars into Israel, hitting Ashdod, Ashqelon, Beersheba, Sederot, and Shaar Hanegev, damaging an empty kindergarten in Ashdod, injuring 2 Israelis in Shaar Hanegev.

More than 40 Palestinians are killed today (almost half of them children), bringing the estimated Palestinian toll to 550 dead, 2,500 injured. The Israeli toll reaches 9–10 dead, more than 70 wounded: 3 IDF soldiers are killed, 24 wounded (4 seriously) by friendly fire when their unit is hit by an Israeli tank shell outside Gaza City; an IDF officer is killed during an exchange of fire in n. Gaza, possibly by an IDF tank shell; 6 IDF soldiers are wounded in clashes with Palestinians nr. the e. Gaza border.

Humanitarian notes: Israel allows 80 truckloads of food, medicine, and medical equipment into Gaza, but the UN says much more is needed. Relief agencies (including the ICRC, UNRWA, and UNSCO) warn that two-thirds of the Strip is still without power, suffering freezing winter temperatures; 250,000 Gazans are without any running water; and water supplies for another 500,000 Gazans are expected to run out within days because of lack of fuel for pumps and backup generators. Shifa hospital, which has been running fully on generators for 3 days, warns that it has only a 2-day supply of generator fuel. (BBC, CNN, IDF, IDF Radio, MM, NYT, REU, RFM, UNIS, UNOSAT, WT 1/5; AFP, BBC, Guardian, HA, IDF, IFM, Israel Radio News, MA, MM, NYT, WP, WT, YA 1/6; IFM, PCHR, WJW, WT 1/8; Committee to Protect Journalists, MM, YA 1/9; NYT, WP 1/10; NYT 1/17; WP 1/27; BBC 2/23)

The IDF arrests 2 12-yr.-old Palestinians at an OCL protest nr. Hebron; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Bethlehem and in al-Bireh, Ramallah. Clubwielding PASF officers violently disperse a protest against OCL by students attempting to march fr. Ramallah’s Birzeit University to a main IDF checkpoint at Atarot. (PCHR 1/8)

Israel reseals crossings into Gaza, citing continued Palestinian mortar and rocket fire. Palestinian rocket fire immediately falls to near zero. The IDF sends tanks into s. Gaza to disable roadside bombs planted along the border, trading fire with Palestinian gunmen, causing no reported injuries. The Israeli navy intercepts and confiscates 3 Palestinian fishing boats carrying fishermen and international peace activists, detaining passengers and crew (all are released on 11/19). Egyptian security forces demolish 20 smuggling tunnels on the Rafah border. In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes a Palestinian home in Issawiyya nr. East Jerusalem; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus, in Ramallah, and nr. Bethlehem and Salfit. Jewish settlers fr. Yitzhar bar Palestinian access to a nearby road, stone Palestinian vehicles. (WP, WT 11/19; OCHA 11/19; PCHR 11/20)

In the West Bank, the IDF makes a major daytime raid into Hebron, surrounding 4 Palestinian homes, bulldozing surrounding areas, directing tank shells and heavy machine gun fire on the buildings, demanding the surrender of a wanted Hamas mbr. inside, also firing on stone-throwing Palestinians protesting the operation, wounding a 13-yr.-old boy; the operation is ongoing by the end of the day. The IDF also patrols in, fires on residential areas of Bayt Umar, then fires on stone-throwing youths who confront them, wounding 4, arresting 5; conducts daytime arrest raids, house searches in Jalazun r.c. nr. Ramallah and similar nighttime operations in and around Nablus, nr. Hebron. In Gaza, Hamas-led police launch a major crackdown on Fatah in response to the 7/25 bombings, arresting 10s of Fatah supporters and searching several Fatah offices (including those of PLO Exec. Comm. mbr. Zakariya al-Agha and PC mbr. Ziad Abu ‘Amr), while IQB mbrs. toss grenades at the home of a Gaza City Fatah leader (causing no reported injuries) and set up roadblocks across the Strip; 2 Hamas mbrs. wounded in the 7/25 beach bombing die. (WT 7/27; OCHA, PCHR 7/30)

IDF troops on the s. Gaza border fire on a Palestinian farmer fixing a water pipeline nr. the border, wounding him. IDF troops on the c. Gaza border e. of Gaza City fire a tank shell at a group of armed Palestinians, killing 1 armed Palestinian, wounding 1. An IDF drone fires a missile at a group of armed Palestinians in Abasan nr. Khan Yunis, missing the target, causing no injuries. IDF troops level land along the border fence inside Gaza e. of Gaza City. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols, fires percussion grenades in al-Far‘a r.c. nr. Tubas, then opens fire on stone-throwing Palestinian youths who confront them, wounding 2; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Hebron, including in al-Far‘a r.c. Jewish settlers fr. Susia settlement nr. Hebron harass Palestinian farmers, shepherds in nearby Yatta. In Khan Yunis, a bomb explodes outside the home of a fmr. Fatah mbr. who is now working for the Hamas-affiliated police, causing damage but no injuries. (OCHA 6/11; PCHR 6/12)

Overnight, the IDF sends tanks and troops into Abasan to search homes (reportedly using some Palestinians as human shields), exchanging fire (including tank shells) with local gunmen (killing 1 Palestinian, wounding 1), detaining 21 (releasing them in the evening), and bulldozing 225 d. of agricultural land, a greenhouse, an irrigation system before withdrawing late at night. The IDF also makes an air strike on Rafah, assassinating Izzeddin al-Qassam Brigades cmdr. Nafiz Mansur, who allegedly had a role in the capture of IDF Cpl. Gilad Shalit, as he walks through town, seriously wounding a 15-yr.-old bystander, damaging several surrounding homes. IDF soldiers at the Kerem Shalom crossing fire on Palestinian farmers who stray nr. the border fence, causing no reported injuries. Palestinians fire 30 rockets, mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Jenin town and r.c., Tulkarm and nr. Hebron. In Gaza City, mbrs. of a PRC faction raid and steal office equipment fr. the offices of a rival PRC faction. (NYT 5/2; OCHA 5/7; PCHR 5/8)

Israel resumes shipments (suspended 4/9) of industrial gasoline for Gaza’s power plant but continues to suspend gasoline and diesel for cars and generators. The UNOCHA calls the fuel supplies for the power plant “insufficient” and urges Israel to resume shipment of all forms of fuel, saying that schools and clinics are unable to function normally without regular transportation. Overnight, the IDF sends troops into areas e. of Gaza City, sparking clashes that leave 4 armed Palestinians dead and 1 IDF soldier, 4 armed Palestinians wounded. In the morning, Hamas and Islamic Jihad mbrs. stage a diversion nr. the Nahal Oz crossing to lure IDF soldiers into Gaza, ambushing the unit once it enters the Strip, killing 3 IDF soldiers; the IDF responds with tank fire and air strikes, killing 4 Hamas and Islamic Jihad mbrs. The IDF increases tank fire, air strikes on Palestinian targets throughout the day, killing 14 Palestinian civilians, including 11 in a helicopter air strike on a mosque in Juhur al-Dik in c. Gaza, and Reuters cameraman Fadel Shana’a (his clearly marked Reuters press vehicle is hit directly by a flechette tank shell), wounding 34 (including 17 children, 1 woman); 2 IDF soldiers are also wounded. The IDF also bulldozes 6 Palestinian homes, 200 d. of agricultural land in Juhur al-Dik. An IDF infantry unit crosses into Gaza nr. Bayt Lahiya to engage armed Palestinians in the area, fires on a car of Palestinian farmers trying to fleeing the area, killing 1 Palestinian farmer, wounding 2. Palestinians fire 10 rockets, 2 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel during the day, causing no damage or injuries; 1 rocket fired toward Israel lands nr. Jabaliya r.c., injuring 2 Palestinians. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts arrest raids, house searches in Jenin r.c. (firing on residential areas, arresting an AMB mbr. granted amnesty by Israel in 7/07) during the day, and late at night in and around Jenin and Tulkarm, in Nablus, and nr. Hebron. In the evening (8:30 P.M. EST; 2:30 A.M. on 4/17 local time), IDF undercover units ambush a car in Qabatya, assassinating local Islamic Jihad cmdr. Bilal Zaalah (also reported as Bilal Kmayel) and a 2d Islamic Jihad mbr. (BBC, IFM, OCHA, REU 4/16; HA, NYT, PCHR, WP 4/17; OCHA 4/23; PCHR 4/24)

As gestures to Abbas before the Annapolis summit, Israel allows 250 Palestinians students (out of more than 600) with valid foreign student visas to leave Gaza for Egypt via the Erez crossing to resume their studies abroad; makes an “exception” to the closure of the Sufa crossing to allow entry of gravel for an emergency sewage rehabilitation project in n. Gaza. Hamas mbrs. engage an IDF unit that moves into n. Gaza nr. Bayt Lahiya, causing no injuries; the IDF returns fire, killing 3 Hamas mbrs. Palestinians fire mortars fr. Gaza at an IDF base inside Israel, lightly wounding 4 soldiers; the IDF responds with tank fire, killing 1 armed Palestinian, wounding 3 armed Palestinians, 3 bystanders. Late in the evening, the IDF makes an air strike on a Hamas training camp nr. Dayr al-Balah, killing 3 Hamas mbrs. In the West Bank, the IDF fires on a Palestinian family picnicking nr. Ramallah, killing 1 Palestinian; conducts arrest raids, house searches in Hebron, nr. Bethlehem. (WT 12/3; OCHA 12/5; PAP, PCHR 12/6)

IDF troops encamped in the Erez industrial zone since 11/23 fire on local Palestinians who stray nr. the zone, wounding 1. Palestinians fire 4 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries. The IDF responds with tank fire, wounding 4 armed Palestinians, 2 bystanders. In the West Bank, the IDF sends undercover units into Tulkarm r.c. to ambush a car carrying wanted AMB mbrs. Muhammad Qawzah and Mushir Mansouri, mortally wounding Qawzah (he subsequently bleeds to death over an hr.), wounding Mansouri; conducts arrest raids in and around Nablus, nr. Ramallah (ambushing and detaining Birzeit University student council pres. Fadi Hamad). Jewish settlers fr. Beit Hadasah in Hebron vandalize a nearby Palestinian school, breaking windows, breaking down walls, attempting to set fire to the building, uprooting trees outside; settlers have previously tried to occupy the school to establish a new outpost. (NYT 11/26; OCHA 11/28; PCHR 11/29)

In Gaza, the IDF withdraws fr. al-Shuka, ending a 3-day arrest and bulldozing operation, having wounded 2 Palestinians, demolished 2 Palestinian homes; fires a tank shell at Palestinians collecting scrap metal nr. the n. Gaza border, wounding 6; makes 2 air strikes on suspected rocket-launching sites nr. Bayt Hanun, damaging an UNRWA school; sends bulldozers and tanks to uproot trees and level land to clear lines of sight nr. the Erez crossing, firing on residential areas of nearby Bayt Hanun, causing no reported injuries; conducts similar bulldozing operations along the border e. of Jabaliya r.c. and Rafah; demolishes 7 smuggling tunnels on the Gaza-Egypt border. Palestinians fire 9 rockets fr. Gaza into Israel, causing light damage but no injuries; the IDF responds with air strikes, heavy machine gun, tank, surface-to-surface missile fire on launch sites across Gaza, wounding 10 Palestinians. In the West Bank, the IDF makes an overnight incursion into ‘Azun nr. Qalqilya, imposing a curfew, firing on residential areas, wounding 2 Palestinian children (ages 13, 14) before withdrawing late in the morning; raids, searches, occupies 3 Palestinian homes in Hebron, citing the need to protect local settlers; conducts arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus. In Hebron, unidentified assailants set fire to a PA security forces vehicle. (NYT 11/2; OCHA 11/7; PCHR 11/8)

In Gaza, the IDF withdraws troops fr. al-Fakhari, ending an arrest campaign that began on 9/15, temporarily detaining 4 Palestinians, arresting 3 others. An IDF tank operating inside Gaza nr. the Sufa crossing triggers a roadside bomb, causing damage but no injuries. Palestinians fire 2 rockets fr. Gaza into Israel, causing no damage or injuries; the IDF dispatches helicopters to fire on the Bayt Hanun launch site, causing no reported injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF sends troops into Jabal Juhan nr. Hebron to break up an armed clash between 2 Palestinian clans and impose a curfew, later firing on mbrs. of 1 clan who violate the curfew, killing 1 Palestinian, wounding 4; sends troops into Ramallah, firing on stonethrowing youths who confront them, mortally wounding a 16-yr.-old Palestinian, denying access to an ambulance (he subsequently bleeds to death); denies an ailing Palestinian with a valid permit for medical treatment permission to cross a checkpoint to reach a Jerusalem hospital, allowing him to die; conducts arrest raids, house searches in al-Arub r.c. nr. Hebron, Bethlehem, Jenin town and r.c. In Rafah, unidentified assailants detonate a bomb outside the home of a prominent local Fatah mbr., causing damage but no injuries. (OCHA 9/19; PCHR 9/20)