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  • February 22, 2024

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers open fire at Palestinians during a raid in Shaab al-Butum in the Masafer Yatta area; no injuries are reported. Israeli settlers also open fire at 2 commercial...

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  • December 15, 2023

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles near Bruqin. Armed Israeli settlers also threatened Palestinian shepherds in the Jordan Valley. Israeli forces attempted to...

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  • October 9, 2023

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with a military escort raided Duma, setting cars on fire and attacking Palestinians. Israeli forces shot and injured a Palestinian with live ammunition who was...

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  • May 12, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at 1 Palestinian vehicle driving near the Homesh settlement outpost, injuring 1 and damaging the car. Thousands of Palestinians partook in a funeral...

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  • April 12, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces raided the Palestine Technical University in Tulkarm, leading to a confrontation with students; 2 were injured by baton rounds and 16 suffered tear-gas related...

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  • July 18, 2021

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces closed off large parts of Hebron to Palestinians, including forcing Palestinians to close their shops in the Bab al-Zawyeh area to allow Israeli settlers to tour...

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  • March 21, 2021

    In the West Bank, 7 Palestinians were arrested, including 5 during late-night raids in and around Dhariyya and Bayt Fajjar, and 2 at a checkpoint near Ya‘bad. In East Jerusalem, 3 Palestinian...

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  • October 8, 2020

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling between Bethlehem and Hebron; 1 Palestinian child was injured by broken glass in his eye. Israeli settlers also...

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  • July 10, 2020

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man and injured 1 other near Kafr Haris. According to the Israeli military, the 2 had thrown a Molotov cocktail at the Israeli forces...

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  • September 12, 2016

    In the West Bank, IDF troops conduct raids in Qusra village nr. Nablus, sparking clashes with stone-throwing Palestinians; 4 Palestinians are injured. Israeli forces reseal the entrance to a...

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  • February 13, 2015

    In 2 separate incidents in the Gaza Strip, IDF troops e. of Khan Yunis and along the n. border open fire with live ammunition on Palestinian farmers working nr. the fence, causing no injuries. In...

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  • December 17, 2014

    In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids nr. Jenin, Nablus, Tulkarm, Ramallah, and Hebron. During a raid in ‘Askar r.c., residents throw stones at the Israeli soldiers,...

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  • July 16, 2014

    The IDF strikes over 50 targets across the Gaza Strip, including the Interior Ministry building and a hospital, killing 23 Palestinians. Among these are 4 children, who are killed when IDF troops...

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  • October 11, 1999

    In Luxembourg, Israeli FM Levy meets with EU FMs to discuss "reinvigorating" Israeli-EU relations. (EU press release 10/11; MEI 10/15)

    A day after his cabinet gives him the permission to...

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  • June 29, 1998

    In Luxembourg, EU FMs call for full, rapid implementation of trade cooperation agmt. with the PA, support European Commission's efforts to ensure that exports fr. Israeli settlements do not enter...

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  • March 19, 1998

    In Washington, EU troika (FMs fr. the UK, Luxembourg, Austria), U.S. hold talks on how to proceed with the peace process. EU encourages U.S. to present its FRD proposal. (LPA 3/19 in...

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  • October 1, 1996

    In Washington, U.S. holds separate mtgs. with PA, Israeli, Jordanian delegations. Brief joint mtg. is held. Then Arafat, Netanyahu hold private 3-hr. talk. Netanyahu later holds private mtg. with...

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  • June 12, 1996

    2-day technical mtg. of the Multilateral Working Group on Refugee Affairs opens in Oslo. (Article 74 7/96)

    2-day Syrian-European Cooperation Council mtg. closes in Luxembourg. (SATN...

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  • June 10, 1996

    European Union (EU) FMs meet in Luxembourg to draft a policy statement, regarding the peace process, Middle East (HA 6/10 in FBIS 6/10)

    Hamas spokesman Zahhar says that halt on attacks has...

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  • September 16, 1994

    Palestinian econ. report is released, shows PNA has received only $90 m. of $2.4 b. allocated by donor countries; PNA will need $11.2 b. to finance autonomous areas until 2000. (TJT 9/16 in FBIS 9...

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  • April 17, 1991

    U.S. military sends troops and helicopters into northern Iraq to secure large sites for refugee camps; camps are to be built near Kurdish cities and as deep as 60 miles inside Iraq as part of...

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  • March 11, 1991

    After meeting in Cairo with Pres. Mubarak, Sec. Baker arrives in Jerusalem and meets with F.M. Levy, Baker says he is pleased with initial Israeli responses to Pres. Bush's peace initiative;...

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  • February 19, 1991

    Pres. Bush says 2/18 Soviet proposal for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait "falls well short of what would be required" to end war with Iraq [NYT, LAT, WP, WT, CSM 2/20].

    F.M. Aziz meets in...

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  • January 7, 1991

    U.S. officials say 6 Iraqi helicopter pilots flew to Saudi Arabia in one of most significant defections since crisis began; Iraq denies defections occurred (cf. 1/8) [INA 1/7 in FBIS 1/8; NYT, LAT...

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  • August 16, 1990

    Iraqi occupation authorities order 6,500 American and British citizens in Kuwait to assemble at 2 hotels in Kuwait City [NYT, WP 8/17].

    Pentagon announces U.S. naval forces will begin "...

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  • July 25, 1990

    Middle East Watch issues human rights report accusing Israel of condoning excessive force against Palestinians, although report claims IDF recently has begun to show more restraint [MEM, LAT 7/26...

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  • October 27, 1986

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Blind 28-year-old Palestinian is sentenced to life imprisonment for leading a guerrilla band, killing British tourist and Israeli...

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  • September 19, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: The 10-member inner cabinet deadlocks on a proposed compromise to end the Taba border dispute with Egypt, leaving the issue unresolved;...

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  • July 11, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: The Daily Telegraph reports depleted uranium, potential material for making nuclear explosives, was exported to Israel last...

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In the West Bank, Israeli settlers open fire at Palestinians during a raid in Shaab al-Butum in the Masafer Yatta area; no injuries are reported. Israeli settlers also open fire at 2 commercial structures and an electric transformer in al-Naqura, causing a power outage in the village. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers raid Tuqu’, threatening Palestinian shepherds. Israeli settlers also set up 3 mobile homes in Wadi Rahal. Israeli forces shoot and kill 2 Palestinians after they allegedly shot and killed 1 Israeli settler and injured 10 others on a highway near the Ma’ale Adumim settlement. Israeli forces also bomb Jenin using a drone, killing 2 Palestinians, including a child, and injuring 15 others. Elsewhere, Israeli forces shoot and injure 2 Palestinians during a raid in Balata refugee camp. Israeli forces also shoot and injure a Palestinian during a raid in ad-Doha. Meanwhile, Israeli forces detain 2 10-year-old Palestinian boys for 6 hours in Sinjil. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers tour the Haram al-Sharif compound. Israeli forces assault and arrest 2 Palestinians outside of the compound’s Lions Gate. In Gaza, Israeli forces bomb Jabalia refugee camp, Dayr al-Balah, Rafah, Gaza City, Khan Yunis, Nuseirat refugee camp, al-Bureij refugee camp, and Maghazi, killing at least 97 people, including 18 people from the same family in a home in Gaza City. 5 patients die at the Nasser Hospital due to the lack of power and oxygen as Israeli forces continue to occupy the hospital. In Lebanon, Israeli forces bomb Kafr Remen, Tayr Harfa, Jbaa, Kafr Kila, Maroun al-Ras, Khiam, Umm al-Tut, and Shehin, killing 4 people in Kafr Remen. Hezbollah attacks an Israeli military building in Kfar Yuval. In the Red Sea, a ship is hit by 2 missiles fired from Yemen. Israel’s Arrow missile defense system shoots down a ballistic missile the Houthi movement says is fired by its forces. (AJ, AJ, AP, HA, HA, NYT, NYT, REU, REU, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 2/22; AJ, HA, NYT, REU, UNOCHA 2/23)

More than 29,410 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces in Gaza, including at least 12,000 children and 7,200 women, and around 69,465 have been injured since 10/7/2023. At least 8,000 people are missing in rubble, including 1,700 children. 399 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7/2023, including 102 children. More than 4,530 people have been injured. Israel reports that 1,139 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed and 5,400 have been injured in Israel since 10/7/2023, including Israeli soldiers. In addition, 235 Israeli soldiers have been killed and 1,396 injured in Gaza since the ground invasion began on 10/27/2023. Over 1.93 million Palestinians, nearly 85% of the population of Gaza, have been displaced since 10/7/2023. There has been a complete electricity blackout in Gaza since 10/12/2023 due to the Israeli blockade. At least 70,000 housing units have been destroyed and 290,000 have been damaged in Israeli airstrikes since 10/7/2023, constituting over 60% of all housing units. 42 trucks carrying aid enter Gaza. (UNOCHA, UNOCHA, WAFA 2/22; UNOCHA 2/23)

Israeli finance minister Bezalel Smotrich issues a statement after meeting with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Defense Minister Yoav Gallant, and Strategic Affairs Minister Ron Dermer, saying the government will submit plans for 2,350 new settlement units in Ma’ale Adumim, 300 in the Keidar settlement, and 694 in the Efrat settlement in response the killing of an Israeli settler earlier in the day. National Security Minister Itamar Ben-Gvir says Israeli settlers’ right to freedom of movement in the West Bank overrides that of Palestinians’, adding he will further limit the freedom of movement for Palestinians. (AJ, AJ, HA, HA 2/22; HA 2/23)

Israel confirms its forces are building a new road through central Gaza “to move logistics and soldiers.” (AJ 2/22)

Prime Minister Netanyahu presents his post-war plan for Gaza to the Israeli war cabinet, which includes installing “local officials” to govern the area, “maintain an indefinite freedom to operate throughout” Gaza, enlarge the “buffer zone” inside Gaza, and the complete demilitarization of Gaza before reconstruction is allowed to begin. Netanyahu’s plan also includes the permanent closure of UNRWA and the rejection of “unilateral recognition” of a Palestinian state. The Times of Israel reports that Israel has agreed to allow U.S. flour to enter Gaza. (AJ, AX, HA, NYT, REU, WAFA 2/23)

Defense Minister Gallant meets with U.S. National Security Council coordinator for the Middle East and North Africa Brett McGurk, saying Israel will expand the authority of Israeli negotiators to reach a prisoner exchange deal in Paris over the weekend. U.S. National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby calls the meetings McGurk had with Gallant and Egyptian officials “constructive.” (AX 2/21; AJ, AP, AX, AX, HA, HA, REU, REU 2/22; AJ, NYT 2/23)

Jordanian representatives, including Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi, give statements to the ICJ on the fourth day of the hearings on the legality of the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories, saying Israeli policies and practices show that Israel intends for the occupation to be permanent. Japan’s representative argues that even territory that is not internationally recognized cannot be acquired by force. Ireland’s representative says Israel has committed serious breaches of international law during its occupation. China says the issue of Palestinian self-determination is a UN issue, countering a U.S. argument made on 2/21, and argues that because of the occupation the right to self-defense lies more with the Palestinians than with the Israelis. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, and Mauritius also present arguments. (AJ, AJ, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA 2/22)

UNRWA commissioner-general Philippe Lazzarini writes a letter to UN General Assembly president Dennis Francis, saying Israel is making a “concerted effort” to dismantle UNRWA, including by ordering UNRWA to leave a vocational center in East Jerusalem and pay Israel $4.5 million for using the facility, pointing out that the facility was given to UNRWA by Jordan in 1952. Lazzarini also says Israel is only giving UNRWA staffers visas for 1-2 months, that Finance Minister Smotrich has threatened UNRWA with revoking its tax exemption, that an Israeli bank has blocked the UNRWA account, and that Israeli customs has suspended shipments of goods to UNRWA. (AJ 2/22; AJ 2/23)

The UN Security Council convenes to discuss the situation in Gaza. UN special coordinator for the Middle East peace process Tor Wennesland and representatives from Doctors Without Borders brief council members on the situation. (WAFA, WAFA 2/22)

U.S. president Joe Biden says in a tweet that the “overwhelming majority of Palestinians are not Hamas . . . In fact, they’re also suffering as a result of Hamas’ terrorism.” (HA 2/22; HA 2/23)

After a 2-day G20 meeting in Brazil, EU high commissioner for foreign affairs Josep Borrell and Brazilian foreign minister Mauro Vieira say that there is unanimous agreement among the G20 members in support of a 2-state solution. (REU 2/22)

The Houthi movement announces that Israeli, UK, and U.S.-owned ships are banned from the Red Sea. (AJ, AJ 2/22)

Haaretz reports that Israeli forces shot and killed an Israeli citizen and injured his girlfriend on 10/7/2023, mistaking them for Palestinians. (AJ, HA 2/22)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles near Bruqin. Armed Israeli settlers also threatened Palestinian shepherds in the Jordan Valley. Israeli forces attempted to assassinate 3 Palestinians traveling in a vehicle near Balata refugee camp, firing a missile at their car; no injuries were reported. Israeli forces also shot and injured 4 Palestinians, including 2 children, during raids in Tuqu’, al-‘Ayn, and Shuweika. Elsewhere, Israeli forces assaulted a Palestinian in Hebron. Israeli forces also punitively demolished the family homes of 2 Palestinians prisoners in ‘Urif. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces severely assaulted a journalist, hospitalizing him in Wadi al-Juz. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinians heading to the Haram al-Sharif compound. In Gaza, telecommunications remained cut off for the second day in a row, obfuscating reporting on the number of casualties. Israeli forces bombed Khan Yunis, Rafah, Dayr al-Balah, Gaza City, Jabalia refugee camp, Beit Lahiya, and Nuseirat refugee camp, killing at least 100 Palestinians, including Al Jazeera journalist Samer Abudaqa and Palestinian New Press journalist Ramy Budair and 3 civil defense workers during an airstrike that also wounded Al Jazeera Gaza bureau chief Wael al-Dahdouh in Khan Yunis. Abudaqa was reportedly left to bleed out for 5 and half hours while rescue teams tried to secure safe passage during Israeli shelling of the area. Several members of al-Dahdouh’s immediate family were killed in an Israeli air strike on 10/25. Israeli forces also shot and killed 3 Israeli captives that had either been freed or escaped captivity in the Shuja‘iya neighborhood of Gaza City, mistaking them for Palestinians. The 3 were shirtless and holding up a white flag. The Israeli military called the incident “a tragic error.” Separately, 2 Israeli soldiers were killed in combat. Rockets were fired at Israel, causing damage near Jerusalem. In Lebanon, Israeli forces attacked Ramiya, Beit Lif, and near Alma al-Chaab, saying shots were fired toward Israel. Israel also dropped leaflets in Kfar Shuba, threatening residents to stop Hezbollah from operating in the area for their own safety. In the Red Sea, projectiles fired from Yemen hit 2 cargo ships. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, AP, AX, HA, HA, HA, HA, NYT, REU, REU, REU, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 12/15; AJ, HA, HA, NYT, REU 12/16; AP, REU 12/17; AP, NYT 12/18)

More than 18,897 Palestinians had been killed by Israeli forces in Gaza, including at least 7,729 children and 5,153 women, and around 51,000 had been injured since 10/7. At least 8,000 people were missing in rubble, including 1,700 children. 280 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7, including 72 children. More than 3,387 people have been injured. Israel reported that 1,200 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed and 5,400 have been injured since 10/7. 119 Israeli soldiers have been killed and 648 injured in Gaza since the ground invasion began on 10/27. Over 1.93 million Palestinians, nearly 85% of the population of Gaza, have been displaced since 10/7. There has been a complete electricity blackout in Gaza since 10/12 due to the Israeli blockade. As of 12/3, at least 52,000 housing units had been destroyed and 253,000 had been damaged in Israeli airstrikes since 10/7, constituting 60% of all housing units. 115 trucks carrying aid entered Gaza via the Rafah crossing. (UNOCHA, UNOCHA, WAFA 12/15)

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs released a report, saying 476 Palestinians, including 112 children, have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in 2023. Of the 476, 276 have been killed since 10/7. 12,566 have been injured, including 1,841 children. Israeli forces have also demolished 1,010 structures since 1/1, displacing 1,884 people while settler violence has displaced 1,442. (UNOCHA 12/15)

Israel said it found the bodies of 3 Israeli captives in Gaza, including 2 soldiers and a civilian. The Palestinian Prisoner’s Society said 4,420 Palestinians have been arrested in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7. (HA, NYT, REU 12/15)

The Israeli security cabinet approved the reopening of the Karem Abu Salem (Kerem Shalom) crossing for humanitarian aid after U.S. pressure. Haaretz reported that the Israeli military, with approval from Religious Zionism leader Bezalel Smotrich and Otzma Yehudit leader  Itamar Ben-Gvir, had allowed 10,000 Palestinians from the West Bank to work in Israeli settlements upon request from settlement leaders. (AJ, AJ, HA, HA, HA, HA, UNOCHA 12/15; HA 12/16)

The Foreign Press Association and Al Jazeera condemned the Israeli killing of Al Jazeera journalist Samer Abudaqa. Al Jazeera said it would refer the killing of Abudaqa to the ICC. U.S. National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby called Abudaqa’s death a “heavy loss” but said there was no indication that Israel deliberately targets journalists.  (AJ, AJ, HA 12/15; AJ, AJ 12/16; HA 12/17)

Israelis demonstrated in several places over the military’s killing of 3 Israeli captives in Gaza City. (HA 12/15; HA 12/16)

U.S. national security advisor Jake Sullivan met with PA president Mahmoud Abbas in Ramallah. National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby said the 2 discussed “governance possibilities” for after Israel’s war. Abbas told Sullivan that the U.S. must intervene to prevent the forceful displacement of Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank and to stop the bombing of Gaza. (AJ, AJ, HA, NYT, REU, WAFA 12/15)

Israeli heritage minister Amichai Eliyahu said Gaza must be “fully occupied.” (AJ, HA 12/15)

National Security Advisor Sullivan also met with Israeli officials for the second day in a row, including Defense Minister Yoav Gallant and Mossad director David Barnea. Sullivan told the press that the U.S. expects the Israeli war to transition to a phase that is “focused on targeting the [Hamas] leadership, on intelligence operations.” The U.S. also criticized Israel for attacking the Lebanese army 34 times since 10/7. (AJ, AJ, AP, NYT, NYT 12/15)

The UK, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the EU, Australia, and Canada issued a joint statement calling on Israel to take steps to end settler violence in the West Bank, calling the violence against Palestinians unacceptable. The statement said that settler impunity had led to unprecedented levels of violence. (WAFA 12/14; AJ, AP, HA, HA, REU 12/15)

A court in the Netherlands rejected a petition by human rights organizations to halt transfers of F-35 parts to Israel. (AJ, AJ, AP, REU 12/15)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with a military escort raided Duma, setting cars on fire and attacking Palestinians. Israeli forces shot and injured a Palestinian with live ammunition who was trying to fend off the settlers. Israeli settlers also set fire to a tent near Kisan; the Palestinian couple who owned the tent were later reported missing. Elsewhere, an Israeli settler attempted to ram Palestinians on a street in Tuqu’. Israeli settlers also threw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling west of Jericho, causing damage. Israeli forces also shot and killed a Palestinian who allegedly attempted to ram soldiers at a checkpoint in Hebron using a tractor. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in al-Arroub refugee camp, killing a Palestinian and injuring 1 other with live ammunition. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed a funeral procession in Beit Umar, killing 1 person and injuring 5 with live ammunition and others with baton rounds and tear gas. Israeli forces also shot and injured 2 people with live ammunition and injured 12 others with tear gas in ‘Ayn Bus. Meanwhile, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Huwwara, injuring 3 with live ammunition and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters at the Jalamah checkpoint, injuring 2 with live ammunition. Separately, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in al-Bireh, injuring 1 with live ammunition and 3 with baton rounds. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters at a checkpoint near Beit Furik, causing tear-gas related injuries. 40 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in and around Ramallah, Hebron, Tulkarm, Nablus, Salfit, Tubas, Qalqilya, and Bethlehem. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians protesting in Isawiya, injuring 1 with live ammunition. In Gaza, Israeli airstrikes killed nearly 200 Palestinians and caused widespread destruction. Near Gaza, Palestinian militants attacked Kibbutz Sa’ad and Kibbutz Be’eri; no injuries were reported. Hamas fired rockets at Jerusalem, hitting targets around the city and in the Gush Etzion settlement bloc, saying it was retaliation for Israeli attacks on civilian targets. Near the Blue Line, mortar shells were fired from Lebanon toward Israel; no injuries were reported. Israel also said it had 3 killed gunmen entering Israel from Lebanon; Hezbollah denied having an active operation into Israel. Islamic Jihad later claimed responsibility. Israel later fired artillery shells at Marwahin and used combat helicopters to attack South Lebanon, killing 5 members of Hezbollah. 3 Israeli soldiers were killed and 5 injured by forces in Lebanon. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, ALM, AP, AP, HA, HA, REU, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/9; AP, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA 10/10; HA 10/11)

The Gaza Ministry of Health reported that as of 9:30 p.m. at least 687 Palestinians had been killed and 3,800 injured in Gaza, while 17 Palestinians, including 4 children, had been killed and 295 injured in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7. Israeli media reported more than 900 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed and 2,616 injured. Israel said it had hit 500 targets in Gaza overnight and 1,100 since 10/7. Hamas said Israeli airstrikes have killed 4 Israeli captives in Gaza. The UN reported that more than 187,518 Palestinians were displaced, including 137,427 sheltering in UNRWA facilities. 790 housing units were destroyed and 5,330 were damaged since 10/7. (AJ, ALM, HA, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/9; ALM, AP 10/10)

The Israeli emergency rescue organization Zaka said that the bodies of 108 Israelis were found in Kibbutz Be’eri as were the bodies of Palestinian militants. Military spokesperson Daniel Hagari said the bodies of 70 militants were found in the town. (HA 10/10; AP 10/11)

Hamas’ Izzeddin al-Qassam Brigades spokesperson Abu Obaida said the Qassem Brigades would not negotiate the release of captives while Gaza was being bombarded. Earlier in the day Abu Obaida said Qassam Brigades would begin executing 1 Israeli captive each time Israel bombs a civilian target. There was no indication that the threat was carried out as civilian buildings were being bombed by Israel. Hamas official Moussa Abu Marzouk told Al Jazeera that Hamas is open to discussing a truce and all political dialogue. Hamas leader Ali Barakeh said only half a dozen members of Hamas planned the attack on Israel on 10/7 and none of its allies were informed but Hezbollah and Iran would join the battle if “Gaza is subject to a war of annihilation.” (AJ, REU, REU, REU 10/9; AJ, AP, HA 10/10)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke to Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, UN secretary-general Antonio Guterres, and Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman about the Hamas-Israel war. In a statement, bin Salman’s office said Saudi Arabia “continues to stand with the Palestinian people in their pursuit for their legitimate rights, striving for a dignified life, realizing their hopes and aspirations, and achieving a just and lasting peace.” (AJ, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/9)

Israeli military spokesperson Hagari said Israel had regained control in all communities surrounding Gaza but that Palestinian militants still could be in the area. (HA 10/9)

Reuters reported that Qatar was mediating a prisoner exchange that will see Israeli women and children released by Hamas in exchange for the release of 36 Palestinian women and children from Israeli prisons. Egyptian sources also said that Egypt was in close contact with Israel and Hamas to prevent further escalation, calling on Israel to exercise restraint and Hamas to keep the captives in good condition. (HA, REU, REU 10/9; HA, HA 10/10; HA 10/11)

Israeli defense minister Yoav Gallant said that he had ordered that no power, water, food, or gas enters Gaza, saying “[w]e are fighting human animals and we act accordingly.” His office later said Gallant had ordered the intensity of the Gaza bombings to increase. Several Israeli politicians called for the formation of an emergency unity government, including Finance Minister Bezalel Smotrich, who said the emergency government should “bring about the complete elimination of Hamas and the terrorist organizations in Gaza.” Benny Gantz’s National Unity party demanded that Smotrich and National Security Minister Itamar Ben-Gvir not be part of the war cabinet and that no legislation unrelated to the war would be promoted. (AJ, AJ, HA, REU, WAFA 10/9; AP 10/10)

Axios reported that Israeli prime minister Netanyahu told U.S. president Joe Biden that Israel will invade Gaza. The Washington Post reported that the U.S. is preparing for a prolonged war in Gaza and is assessing Israeli diplomatic, political, and military needs. The White House briefed members of Congress that Israel will need replenishment for the Iron Dome, ammunition rounds, precision-guided missiles, and small-diameter bombs. Biden said in a briefing that 11 U.S. citizens have been killed by Hamas and that there likely are U.S. captives being held in Gaza. The U.S. also said Iran was complicit in the Hamas attack and warned Iran about getting involved in the fighting. Iran denied any involvement or knowledge. (ALM, HA, HA, REU, REU 10/9; HA, REU, REU 10/10)

Egyptian officials said they had warned Israel about an imminent attack from Gaza. Prime Minister Netanyahu’s office denied having received warnings. (HA 10/9)

President Erdoğan spoke to Israeli president Isaac Herzog, urging him to end indiscriminate attacks on Gaza. (AJ, ALM 10/9)

The UN Security Council convened a meeting on the situation in Gaza without releasing a statement. Secretary-General Guterres called for an immediate ceasefire and said 137,000 Palestinians were sheltering in UNRWA facilities. Guterres also said he was deeply distressed by Israel’s decision to prevent all power, food, and gas from entering Gaza. (AJ, AP, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA 10/9; AJ, HA 10/10)

U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken deleted a tweet on X in which he said he “encouraged Turkey’s advocacy for a cease-fire.” The tweet was replaced by language that supported Israel’s “right to defend itself.” (HA 10/9)

Hungary, Bulgaria, and Poland evacuated hundreds of their own citizens and European and Israeli nationals from Israel. (HA, HA 10/9)

The U.S., Germany, the UK, France, and Italy issued a joint statement of support for Israel, saying the countries are coordinating to “ensure Israel is able to defend itself, and to ultimately set the conditions for a peaceful and integrated Middle East region.” (AP, REU 10/9; HA, HA 10/10)

Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov condemned violence against Palestinians and Israelis and criticized the U.S. for its “destructive policy” of undermining the Quartet by monopolizing Israeli-Palestinian dialogue during a press conference with Arab League secretary-general Ahmed Aboul Gheit. (REU, WAFA 10/9)

The EU, Germany, and Austria said they suspended all aid to Palestinians in response to Hamas’ operation in Israel. None of the aid in question is delivered to Hamas. Later EU countries, including Ireland, France, Spain, and Luxembourg, objected to the EU Commission's decision and EU Crisis Management commissioner Janez Lanercic said the EU aid would continue. (AJ, HA, REU, REU, REU 10/9; AJ 10/10)

The Bank of Israel said it will sell $30 billion of foreign currency to maintain the shekel’s stability in light of the war with Hamas. The shekel had lost 10% of its value compared to the dollar in 2023 before the war. (AJ, ALM, HA, REU 10/9)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at 1 Palestinian vehicle driving near the Homesh settlement outpost, injuring 1 and damaging the car. Thousands of Palestinians partook in a funeral ceremony in Ramallah for Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh, who was killed by Israeli forces on 5/11 in Jenin refugee camp. PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke at the ceremony and awarded her the Al-Quds star of honor. Abu Akleh will be buried in East Jerusalem on 5/13. Israeli forces prevented Palestinians in the funeral procession from accompanying her casket through the Qalandia checkpoint from Ramallah to East Jerusalem. Israeli forces also demolished a water collection pond used for irrigation in Marj Na‘aj. 7 Palestinians were arrested, including 5 during a late-night raid in Hebron, Rumana, Qabatiya, and Burqin, and 2 at flying checkpoints in Hebron and Tulkarm. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces raided a house in Bayt Hanina, where friends and family of Abu Akleh were holding a memorial ceremony for her; Israeli forces confiscated Palestinian flags. Israeli police also raided Abu Akleh’s house on 5/11, confiscating Palestinian flags. 5 Palestinians were arrested during raids. (AJ, AJ, AP, CNN, GDN, HA, MEE, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/12; WAFA 5/13; PCHR 5/19; UNOCHA 6/4)

Israel’s higher planning council approved 4,427 new settlement housing units in the West Bank. 2,791 received final approval, while 1,636 were deposited for public comment before final approval. Among the new housing units are the retroactive legalization of the Mitzpeh Dani and Givat Oz VeGaon settlement outposts and expansion of the settlements of Negohot, Shvut Rachel, Dolev, Betar Ilit, and Kiryat Arba. According to Haaretz, the government’s meeting to approve the settlements was a condition by Yamina MK Nir Orbach to remain in the fragile government coalition. UN Middle East envoy Tor Wennesland condemned the settlement expansions. On 5/13, 15 European countries urged Israel to reverse its decision, including France, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Poland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden. (PCN 5/9; ABC, AJ, AP, GDN, HA, JP, MEE, MEMO, REU, TOI, WAFA 5/12; AJ, ALM, F24, REU, WAFA, WAFA 5/13)

Ecuadorian president Guillermo Lasso met with Israeli president Isaac Herzog in Jerusalem, saying he will open a representative office in Jerusalem and support Israel in votes at the UN. President Lasso also met with prime minister Naftali Bennett and foreign minister Yair Lapid. (HA 5/12)

The New York Times reported that the FBI stated in a 2018 letter to the Israeli government that it wanted to use NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware “for the collection of data from mobile devices for the prevention and investigation of crimes and terrorism” before purchasing the spyware later the same year. (NYT 5/12)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces raided the Palestine Technical University in Tulkarm, leading to a confrontation with students; 2 were injured by baton rounds and 16 suffered tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces also seized 1 residential tent, demolished an agricultural structure, and seized agricultural equipment in Beit Samia. 17 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Nablus, Bethlehem, Hebron, Tulkarm, Tubas, and Salfit. In East Jerusalem, 4 Palestinians were arrested in the Old City and Shu‘fat. In Israel, Israeli police shot and killed 1 Palestinian man from Hebron who was working at a construction site in Ashkelon after he stabbed a police officer. The Israeli police officer approached the Palestinian man who was working at the construction site without a permit before he lightly wounded the officer. (AJ, AP, HA, HA, HA, MEE, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/12; WAFA 4/13; PCHR 4/14; UNOCHA 4/23)

The Israeli Civil Administration signed an order declaring 22,000 dunams (5,445 acres) of land in Area C south of Jericho an Israeli nature reserve. The nature reserve, dubbed Nachal Og Nature Reserve, is situated on 6,000 dunams (1,483 acres) of privately-owned Palestinian land. The nature reserve designations means that Palestinians will not be allowed to cultivate the land or have their livestock graze on it, without approval from the Israeli nature reserve officer. (PCN 5/24; HA, WAFA 5/25)

The office of the Israeli attorney general approved connecting Israeli settlement outposts built on Israel-declared state lands in the West Bank to the electrical grid. In the decision, the attorney general’s office also said that Palestinian villages in Area C, not recognized by Israel, should be given equal consideration in being connected to the electrical grid, citing international law of non-discrimination. (HA 4/12; MEMO 4/13)

Representatives from Ireland, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden signed a letter to EU enlargement commissioner Olivér Várhelyi of Hungary, urging him to disburse EU aid to the PA. Commissioner Várhelyi has been withholding the aid, saying that the PA needs to reform its schoolbooks to conform with a pro-Israeli narrative. (WAFA 4/12)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces closed off large parts of Hebron to Palestinians, including forcing Palestinians to close their shops in the Bab al-Zawyeh area to allow Israeli settlers to tour it. Israeli forces also seized an excavator in Burin. 7 Palestinians were arrested, including 5 during late-night raids in and around Bethlehem, Burqin, and Deir Ghasana, 1 was arrested at a checkpoint near al-Khader, and 1 was arrested at the entrance to Zabbuba. In East Jerusalem, nearly 1,700 Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound on the Jewish holiday Tisha B’Av, drawing criticism from the Israeli governing party the United Arab List, the PA, Hamas, the EU, and Jordan. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters on and around the Haram al-Sharif compound who were expressing anger over the settler incursion, causing injuries and 5 arrests. (AJ, AP, HA, HA, MEMO, MEMO, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/18; MEMO, MEMO 7/19; PCHR 7/29)

The Rafah crossing between Gaza and Egypt was open for 1 day. (MEMO, WAFA 7/19)

In a statement after the Israeli settlers had toured the Haram al-Sharif compound, Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett said the Israeli security forces had preserved “freedom of worship for Jews on the Mound [the Haram al-Sharif compound],” a significant departure from the status quo of the Holy Sites and a 1st from an Israeli prime minister. Under the status quo agreement, only Muslims have the right to worship on the Haram al-Sharif compound. 1 day later, Prime Minister Bennett clarified that the wording was a mistake and that he meant “visit” rather than “worship.” (HA, MEMO 7/18; AP, HA, JP, WAFA 7/19)

The Israeli high court of justice rejected a petition from Peace Now to stop the transfer of Israeli public funds to the Amana movement, which funds and builds unauthorized constructions in Israeli settlements and settlement outposts. (HA 7/19)

Israeli foreign minister Yair Lapid said that the Israeli government would examine the diplomatic ramifications of the demolition and eviction of the bedouin community Khan al-Ahmar. (HA 7/18; MEMO 7/19)

The PFLP-GC said it had elected a new leader, Talal Naji, to replace Ahmed Jibril who died on 7/7 after months of sickness. (AP, HA 7/18)

17 news outlets published a Forbidden Stories and Amnesty International investigation based on a leak of more than 50,000 records of phone numbers, which had been targeted for surveillance with Pegasus spyware from the Israeli spyware company NSO Group’s clients. The investigation found that at least 180 journalists from 21 countries had been targeted by 12 NSO Group clients, including the governments of Bahrain, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, India, the UAE, Mexico, Hungary, Azerbaijan, Togo, and Rwanda. The investigation also found that heads of governments, including Pakistan’s prime minister Imran Khan, France’s president Emmanuel Macron, and Morocco’s king Mohammed VI, were among possible victims. Furthermore, the investigation showed that Pegasus spyware was installed on Saudi dissent journalist Jamal Khashoggi’s fiancée’s phone and that his son had been listed for targeting before Khashoggi was murdered by special forces in Saudi’s embassy in Istanbul on 10/2/2018. Charges against NSO Group that its spyware was used against Khashoggi have been denied by the company. The Israeli government approves all sales of spyware from NSO Group to potential clients. Amazon subsequently said it had shut down its servers used by NSO Group. The investigation comes as a different investigation into another Israeli spyware company Candiru was released on 7/15. Later, after the Forbidden Stories investigation was published and with international criticism mounting, the Knesset’s foreign affairs and defense committee chairman Ram Ben Barak on 7/22 said that his committee would review the process of granting licenses to export spyware to other countries. France and Luxembourg said they would start investigations into the Israeli-made spyware. (NYT 7/17; AI, AJ, F24, GDN, HA, HA, HA, HA, MEE, NYT 7/18; AJ, ALM, AP, GDN, MEE, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, NPR, REU, REU 7/19; AJ, ALM, AP, AP, HA, HA, HA, MEE, REU 7/20; AJ, AP, HA, HA, MEE, MEE, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, REU, REU, REU 7/21; AJ, ALM, BBC, HA, HA, HA, HA, MEE, MEE 7/22; HA, MEE, MEE 7/23; CNN, HILL 7/25)

In the West Bank, 7 Palestinians were arrested, including 5 during late-night raids in and around Dhariyya and Bayt Fajjar, and 2 at a checkpoint near Ya‘bad. In East Jerusalem, 3 Palestinian families started demolishing their own homes in Issawiyya and Ras Khamis. 2 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in al-Tur. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 3 nautical miles west of Dayr al-Balah; no injuries were reported. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinian famers east of Rafah; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 3/21; PCHR 3/25)

Israel confiscated the PA foreign minister Riyad al-Maliki’s VIP travel permit upon his return to the West Bank because he had met with the ICC chief prosecutor Fatou Bensouda on 3/18. The PA foreign ministry called Israel’s decision an “attack against the State of Palestine.” The foreign minister of Luxembourg Jean Asselborn said his country deeply regretted the retaliatory action by Israel. (AP, AX, HA, REU, TOI, WAFA 3/21; AJ, WAFA, WAFA 3/22; WAFA 3/23; WAFA 3/24)

The PA started inoculating Palestinian medical staff, cancer and kidney patients, and people over the age of 75 in the West Bank against the COVID-19 virus. 40,000 doses of vaccine in the West Bank and 20,000 doses in Gaza arrived on 3/17. (AP, HA, WAFA, WAFA 3/21)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling between Bethlehem and Hebron; 1 Palestinian child was injured by broken glass in his eye. Israeli settlers also uprooted dozens of Palestinian-owned olive saplings east of Yatta. Israeli forces opened fire at a vehicle with 5 Palestinians inside at a military checkpoint near Jenin, causing damage to the vehicle; no injuries were reported. 7 Palestinians were arrested in and around Hebron, Qalqilya, and Nablus; during a raid in Tammun, Israeli forces seized mobile phones, leading to confrontations with Palestinians; no injuries were reported. During a different raid in Sabastiyya, Israeli forces clashed with Palestinians, leading to tear-gas related injuries. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces detained the secretary of Fatah in Jerusalem Yasser Darwish and banned him from entry to the West Bank for 3 months. 7 Palestinians were arrested during raids in Issawiyya, the Old City, and al-Tur. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at agricultural lands east of al-Shawka; no injuries were reported. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire on Palestinian fishermen within 4 nautical miles west of al-Sudaniyya; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/8; WAFA 10/9; PCHR 10/15)

An Israeli court ruled that Israel can demolish 1 school east of Ramallah under the pretext that it was built without a permit. The school enrolls 50 students and was financed by donations from France, Finland, Luxembourg, Ireland, Spain, the UK, and Sweden. (WAFA 10/8; WAFA 10/9)

Secretary-general of the PLO Saeb Erakat said that he had tested positive for the COVID-19 virus. (AJ, JP, TOI, WAFA 10/9)

Israel and Jordan signed a deal allowing airlines from each country to fly over each other’s airspace. (HA 10/8)

Lebanon’s former prime minister Saad Hariri, who resigned after prolonged protests at the end of 2019, said that he is a possible candidate to head the new Lebanese government. (REU 10/8; AJ 10/9)

The U.S. Trump administration announced new sanctions on Iran that effectively shuts off the country from the global financial system. The new sanctions are expected to halt flows of food, medicine, and humanitarian aid to Iran. (AJ, REU 10/8)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man and injured 1 other near Kafr Haris. According to the Israeli military, the 2 had thrown a Molotov cocktail at the Israeli forces; the governor of Salfit said that the 2 had done nothing wrong and were hanging out with friends when they were attacked. During the funeral procession for the deceased Palestinian man, Israeli forces and Palestinians clashed in Kafr Haris; 1 Palestinian was hospitalized after being hit by a rubber-coated bullet to the neck. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum and Asira; 2 people were injured by sound bomb canisters in Asira, leading to fractures and an amputation of 1 finger; in Kafr Qaddum, 1 Palestinian was hit by a rubber-coated bullet; tear-gas related injuries were also reported. Israeli forces also delivered stop-work orders for 2 homes under construction in al-Khadir. 2 Israeli soldiers were injured by Israeli settlers while dismantling an Israeli settlement outpost near the Yitzhar settlement. 8 Palestinians were arrested, including 5 during late-night raids in and around Yatta, Hebron, and Jalazun refugee camp; and 3 at checkpoints near Nablus and Ramallah. In East Jerusalem, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was closed to curb the spread of COVID-19; no date was set for its reopening. 1 Palestinian was arrested during a house raid in the Old City. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire on Palestinian fishermen; no injuries were reported. (HA, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/10; PCHR 7/16)

According to the Saudi Arabian news channel al-Arabiya, 1 senior member of Hamas, Mohammed Omar Abu Ajwa, defected and fled to Israel for which he allegedly had been spying on Hamas for more than 10 years. Hamas denied al-Arabiya’s report. (HA 7/12; HA 7/14)

In a letter to the EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell, the foreign ministers of Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Holland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, and Sweden demanded that he accelerate the process of formulating possible responses to Israel annexation. The 1st request for Foreign Policy Chief Borrell to do so was made on 15 May at an unofficial meeting. (HA 7/14)

In the West Bank, IDF troops conduct raids in Qusra village nr. Nablus, sparking clashes with stone-throwing Palestinians; 4 Palestinians are injured. Israeli forces reseal the entrance to a junction nr. Hebron 1 day after reopening it. An Israeli military bus driver rams and injures 2 Palestinian youths nr. Hebron, according to Palestinian witnesses of the incident. Late at night, 2 Israeli soldiers mistakenly drive into Tulkarm using the GPS navigation app Waze. Residents throw stones at the 2 soldiers, lightly injuring both. The IDF and PASF coordinate their exit from the city. IDF troops arrest 3 Palestinians for throwing stones and paint cans at an Israeli settler bus in al-‘Arub r.c. nr. Hebron. (MNA, YA 9/12; MNA 9/13; PCHR 9/22)

In a joint press conference with Luxembourg’s PM Xavier Bettel, Israeli PM Netanyahu says that the proposed meeting between himself and PA pres. Abbas, which was 1st planned for Cairo and then Moscow in recent weeks, may now happen in Luxembourg: “[Bettel] has invited me to Luxembourg, and he said the Palestinians might also come there; therefore, it’s either Moscow or Luxembourg.” (JP 9/12)

In 2 separate incidents in the Gaza Strip, IDF troops e. of Khan Yunis and along the n. border open fire with live ammunition on Palestinian farmers working nr. the fence, causing no injuries. In the West Bank, Israeli authorities release 14-year-old Palestinian Malak al-Khatib from prison after arresting her on 12/31 for throwing stones and possessing a knife, the latter being a charge added after the arrest. The IDF violently disperses Palestinian, Israeli, and international protesters at demonstrations against Israel’s separation wall, settlements, and occupation in 5 areas nr. Ramallah (Jalazun r.c., Silwad, Bil‘in, Nabi Salih, and Ni‘lin), and 1 village nr. Qalqilya (Kafr Qaddum); 1 Palestinian is seriously injured with live ammunition in Kafr Qaddum and 1 is arrested in Bil‘in. The IDF also patrols nr. Qalqilya, Jericho, and Ramallah. PA security forces conduct raids and house searches in 2 villages around Hebron, detaining 27 people. (MEMO, MNA 2/13; AFP, HA, MNA 2/14; PCHR 2/19)

On a visit to Luxembourg, PA Pres. Abbas says that he will be forced to “take harsh steps” if Israel does not unfreeze the transfers of tax revenues collected on behalf of the PA for the last 2 mos., denying the PA over $200 m. (MNA, WAFA 2/14)

In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids nr. Jenin, Nablus, Tulkarm, Ramallah, and Hebron. During a raid in ‘Askar r.c., residents throw stones at the Israeli soldiers, and 1 Palestinian is injured by rubber-coated metal bullets. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces raid the home of a former prisoner in Jabal Mukabir and arrest her. (MNA 12/17; PCHR 12/18, 12/25)

Following 2 rounds of negotiations with reps. of the Arab Group at the UN, Jordanian diplomats officially submit a Palestiniandrafted res. to the UNSC. It is based on the French draft, but with substantial changes based on the Palestinians’ input, including the removal of a passage calling on the Palestinians to recognize Israel as a Jewish state. (AFP, HA, MDW, MNA, NYT, TOI 12/17; AFP, HA 12/18)

After 3 days of negotiations, the Israel Prison Service (IPS) pledges to, among other things, phase out the use of solitary confinement “without cause,” leading over 100 Palestinian prisoners to suspend their hunger strike started on 12/9. (MNA 12/17; EI 12/19)

Israeli DM Ya’alon orders the evacuation of 2 military bases to expand nearby settlements, a move delayed on 11/25 when then-Fin. Min. Lapid refused to authorize the funds. (PM Netanyahu authorizes funding for the relocation on 1/4.) (HA 12/17)

The European Parliament passes a nonbinding motion expressing support for the recognition of Palestinian statehood “in principle,” which should complement a new round of peace talks. Meanwhile, Luxembourg’s parliament adopts a similar nonbinding motion calling on its govt. to recognize Palestine. (HA, MNA, WAFA 12/17)

In Geneva, 126 of the 196 signatories of the Fourth Geneva Convention convene to discuss Israel’s noncompliance with its strictures. They adopt a declaration by consensus that calls for investigations into all serious violations of international humanitarian law, including Israel’s. (AP, TOI, WAFA 12/17)

The Gen. Court of the EU, the body’s 2d highest court, removes Hamas from the EU’s list of designated terrorist organizations on the procedural grounds that the status was determined by media reports rather than by “acts examined and confirmed in decisions of competent authorities.” (HA, JP, MEMO, MNA, NYT, REU, TOI 12/17)

The IDF strikes over 50 targets across the Gaza Strip, including the Interior Ministry building and a hospital, killing 23 Palestinians. Among these are 4 children, who are killed when IDF troops shell a beach nr. Gaza City, an attack witnessed by a number of international journalists. IDF troops also destroy the house of a high-ranking Hamas political figure. Palestinians fire more than 60 rockets into Israel, including rockets aimed at Ashqelon and Ashdod. Iron Dome batteries intercept 4 of the projectiles. Rockets cause damage in Ashdod and Tel Aviv, and 1 soldier is injured. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in Hebron and 1 nearby village at night. (AFP, AP, HA, MNA, NYT, REU 7/16; PCHR 7/17)

UNRWA says that the Gaza Strip’s health system is on the brink of collapse, with 600,000 people facing water shortages and 22,000 seeking refuge in school shelters. (AP, HA, MNA, NYT 7/16)

Israeli DM Ya’alon asks Netanyahu’s security cabinet to authorize the mobilization of another 8,000 reserve troops, adding to the approximately 30,000 that have already been called up since 7/8. (AP, HA, NYT, REU 7/16)

After Hamas rejected the Egyptian cease-fire proposal the previous day, Dep. Hamas leader Abu Marzuq meets Egyptian officials and offers terms Hamas seeks in a cease-fire deal, such as “fully lifting the blockade on Gaza, including opening all the crossings and releasing the rearrested prisoners.” (See the Quarterly Update in JPS 173 for more on Hamas’s terms.) Pres. Abbas meets with Abu Marzuq in Cairo, and separately with Egypt’s Pres. al-Sisi and FM Sameh Shoukri, as well as Arab League chief al-‘Arabi. He also speaks with Hamas leader Mish‘al by telephone. Meanwhile, Secy. of State Kerry says that the U.S. is doing “everything in our power” to end the violence, in remarks he makes on an official visit to Luxembourg. Kerry speaks with the FMs of Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Pres. Obama says that the U.S. supports Egypt’s efforts to secure a cease-fire and restoration of the 11/2012 agreement. (AFP, AP, HA, MNA, REU, YA 7/16)

In Luxembourg, Israeli FM Levy meets with EU FMs to discuss "reinvigorating" Israeli-EU relations. (EU press release 10/11; MEI 10/15)

A day after his cabinet gives him the permission to remove 42 settlements constructed since Wye, PM Barak approves Housing Min. tenders for new housing units in West Bank settlements. (NYT 10/12; CSM, WJW 10/14) (9/27)

Lacking sufficient evidence to prove his complicity in the 1996 Khobar barracks bombing, the U.S. deports suspect Hani `Abd al-Rahim Sayigh to Saudi Arabia, which is expected to try and execute him for the crime. The U.S. does not have an extradition treaty with Saudi Arabia, which did not want Sayigh back. The U.S. Justice Dept. refused to Sayigh's request that he be granted asylum since he would be probably executed if extradited. (NYT, WP, WT 10/12; MM 10/13) (see 10/6)

In Luxembourg, EU FMs call for full, rapid implementation of trade cooperation agmt. with the PA, support European Commission's efforts to ensure that exports fr. Israeli settlements do not enter the EU with "Made in Israel" labels. (MEI 7/3) (see 5/20)

In Jerusalem, PM Netanyahu attends fundraiser for Ateret Cohanim settler group, expresses solidarity with settlers in East Jerusalem. Ateret Cohanim says that it will use the proceeds fr. the $200-a-plate dinner to take over more East Jerusalem properties. (MM 6/30; IDF Radio 6/30 in WNC 7/1; ITV 6/30 in WNC 7/2)

Israeli pres. Ezer Weizman says that since PM Netanyahu has dropped idea of holding national referendum on FRD (see 6/25), the only solution to the stalemated peace process is to call new elections; says that he will no longer perform missions on behalf of the PM. Netanyahu says he will not call elections, accuses Weizman of politicizing the traditionally ceremonial office of the president. (MM 6/29; IDF Radio, ITV 6/29 in WNC 6/30; CSM, NYT, WT 6/30; ITV 6/30 in WNC 7/2; JP 7/4)

Israeli FMin. legal adviser Alan Baker presents legal opinion that concludes that upgrading the PLO's status at the UN to that of a "superobserver" would not constitute a violation of the Oslo agmts. (MM 6/29; MA 6/29 in WNC 6/30)

Jordanian Planning M Rima Khalaf arrives in Kuwait for talks on improving bilateral relations. She is the 1st Jordanian minister to visit Kuwait since the Gulf War. (al-Dustur 6/28 in WNC 6/30; Petra-JNA 6/29, JT, SA 6/30 in WNC 7/1; JT 7/1 in WNC 7/2)

Hizballah, SLA clash in s. Lebanon, leaving 2 SLA mbrs. dead. In a separate incident in s. Lebanon, 2 civilians are injured by Israeli shelling. (RL 6/29 in WNC 6/30; RL 6/30 in WNC 7/1)

In Washington, EU troika (FMs fr. the UK, Luxembourg, Austria), U.S. hold talks on how to proceed with the peace process. EU encourages U.S. to present its FRD proposal. (LPA 3/19 in WNC 3/20)

Jordan's King Hussein meets with Pres. Clinton in Washington, calls on the U.S. to open dialogue with Iraq to defuse tensions. Clinton briefs the king on 1/98 talks with Israel's Netanyahu, PA's Arafat; urges the king to encourage Arafat to support the 13.1% FRD proposal. (NYT, WT 3/20; al-Dustur, RJ 3/20 in WNC 3/23; JT 3/21 in WNC 3/24; MEI 3/27; JTV 3/29 in WNC 3/31)

Israeli Finance M Yaakov Neeman leaves for U.S. to meet with Jewish leaders in New York, convicted spy Pollard in North Carolina (see 3/6). Neeman had arranged mtgs. in Washington but was informed before he left that they had been canceled. (MA 3/19 in WNC 3/20; Globes 3/22 in WNC 3/24)

Israeli Infrastructures M Sharon sends letter to King Hussein, apologizing for 3/14 threat against Mishal. (ITV 3/29 in WNC 3/23; JT 3/24 in WNC 3/25; MEI, PR 3/27; JP 3/28)

In Amman, Iran, Jordan discuss upgrading culture, information cooperation. (RJ 3/19 in WNC 3/20)

In Gaza, Fatah supporters march fr. Rafah to Egyptian border to protest IDF shooting of 3 Palestinians in Hebron 3/10. (al-Ayyam 3/19 in WNC 3/24)

In Washington, U.S. holds separate mtgs. with PA, Israeli, Jordanian delegations. Brief joint mtg. is held. Then Arafat, Netanyahu hold private 3-hr. talk. Netanyahu later holds private mtg. with King Hussein. Israel rejects U.S. requests to set a firm date for withdrawal fr. Hebron, close tunnel (see 9/29). (WP, WT 10/1; Independent [London], ITV, JT, JTV, RJ 10/1 in WNC 10/3; MM, NYT, WP, WT 10/2; VIRI 10/2 in WNC 10/4; WJW 10/3; JT 10/3 in WNC 10/7; NYT, PR, WT 10/11; WJW 10/17; JT 10/17 in WNC 10/19; JP 10/19; MM 10/24; MEI 10/25; MM 11/14)

In Luxembourg, EU FMs issue their strongest condemnation against Israel since 1980. (LPR 10/1, El Mundo [Madrid] 10/2 in WNC 10/3; MM 10/2; Diario de Noticias [Lisbon] 10/2 in WNC 10/4)

4 Palestinians, 1 Israeli wounded during recent clashes die, bringing death toll to 75. (WP 10/2) (see 9/29)

According to the Federal Election Commission, pro-Israeli PACs have donated $1.3 m. directly to candidates running in the 11/5 election. 54% has gone to Democrats, 40% to Republicans (a 10% increase over the 1994 election). (WJW 10/24)

2-day technical mtg. of the Multilateral Working Group on Refugee Affairs opens in Oslo. (Article 74 7/96)

2-day Syrian-European Cooperation Council mtg. closes in Luxembourg. (SATN 6/11, SARR 6/12, SARR 6/13 in FBIS 6/13)

U.S. says it is not insisting that Israel redeploy its troops in Hebron by today, the deadline set by PM Peres before the 5/29 elections. (MM, WP 6/12)

Netanyahu postpones trip to U.S. scheduled for 6/25 until 7/96. (NYT 6/12; WT 6/13)

Israeli Atty. Gen. Mikhael Ben-Ya'ir informs Netanyahu that 3 candidates for cabinet positions may not legally be qualified: Jerusalem mayor Ehud Olmert is under investigation by the Justice Min. for concealing illegal contributions to Likud in 1988; Shas MK Aryeh Deri is on trial for misusing party funds; Tsomet MK Eitan is under investigation for bribery, misusing classified IDF information. (NYT 6/13, 6/20)

Palestinian human rights groups say Sarraj has been beaten by PA police while in custody. PA military court accuses him of striking an officer. Sarraj's lawyers have still not been permitted to see him. (NYT, WP 6/13; PR 6/21; WT 6/22; WP 6/26) (see 6/11)

In light of the Netanyahu win, Israel's Peace Now decides to shelve its campaign to encourage an Israeli withdrawal fr. the Golan in favor of the "less ambitious" goal of blocking new Jewish settlements in the West Bank. (WP 6/12)

European Union (EU) FMs meet in Luxembourg to draft a policy statement, regarding the peace process, Middle East (HA 6/10 in FBIS 6/10)

Hamas spokesman Zahhar says that halt on attacks has expired now that elections are over. (HA 6/11 in FBIS 6/12) (see 5/18)

In Gaza, PA police rearrest human rights activist Sarraj; order him detained for interrogation for 48 hrs.; raid his office at the Gaza Community Mental Health Program; confiscate papers, tapes; arrest his secretary. Sarraj's lawyers say they have been denied permission to see him, do not know where he is being held. (NYT 6/11; WT 6/12; PR 6/14; MEI 6/21) (see 5/27)

Israel says it has begun construction of 100s of housing units for a new settlement on Hazayit Hill, nr. Efrat settlement; expansion, renovation of Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem. (QY 6/10 in FBIS 6/10) (see 7/17/95, 7/31/95)

In s. Lebanon, Hizballah ambushes IDF patrol, killing 5 soldiers, wounding 8. IDF responds by shelling Nabatiyya, killing 1 Lebanese solider, wounding 1 civilian. (MM 6/10; QY 6/10, 6/11 in FBIS 6/11; CSM, MM, NYT, WP, WT 6/11; WJW 6/13)

Palestinian econ. report is released, shows PNA has received only $90 m. of $2.4 b. allocated by donor countries; PNA will need $11.2 b. to finance autonomous areas until 2000. (TJT 9/16 in FBIS 9/20)

PNA Local Affairs M Erakat says Israel has blocked preparations for elections by not releasing population records for West Bank, halting survey to determine polling locations. (WP 9/16)

PNA Econ. M Qurai` tenders resignation citing dissatisfaction with Arafat's economic approach, refusal to delegate authority. Arafat does not accept the resignation. (ITV, QY, VOP 9/16; FT, NYT, WP 9/17)

UNRWA announces following donations: Luxembourg, $1.2 m. for 2 medical centers in Gaza; Netherlands, $840,000 for women's centers in Gaza; Australia, $179,055 for 2 health centers in Gaza. (UNRWA News 9/21)

Benjamin Kahane, head of Kahane Chai, says 150 of his U.S. supporters will leave for Jordan to set up a settlement on the East Bank. Jordanian FMin. asks Israeli govt. to curb group. (IDF Radio 9/16, QY 9/17 in FBIS 9/19)

Israeli Police M Moshe Shahal announces Israeli police want to question PSF's West Bank head Col. Jibril Rajub about charges 10 PSF mbrs., inc. 3 of his bodyguards, kidnapped a Jordanian national in Jerusalem 9/9 and are detaining him in Jericho. (QY 9/16 in FBIS 9/16; JP 10/8)

IDF Lt. Oren Edri, arrested 9/2 for "anti-Arab activities," is formally charged with illegally holding and transferring arms, passing classified information on locations IDF arms depots to settlers. (MM 9/16; JP 9/17)

2 settlers fatally shoot Palestinian nr. Hebron, claiming he threw stones at their car. Court releases the pair on bail, saying they shot in self-defense. (JP 9/24)

U.S. military sends troops and helicopters into northern Iraq to secure large sites for refugee camps; camps are to be built near Kurdish cities and as deep as 60 miles inside Iraq as part of effort to lure refugees home. Sec. Baker defends plan at EC meeting in Luxembourg [NYT, WP, LAT, MEM 4/18; MET 4/30].

Suspicious of U.S. motives, Iran refuses to comment on U.S. camp-building operation [WP, LAT 4/18].

At Luxembourg meeting, EC foreign ministers tell Sec. Baker that Europe wants role in any Middle East peace conference [WP, LAT 4/18; CSM 4/19].

Iraq says it has promised to return to Kuwait more than $1 billion in gold bars, bank notes, and silver coins taken during occupation [LAT 4/18].

Palestinian leaders from o.t. submit to U.S. consul in Jerusalem a list of 11 questions, the American answers to which would help Palestinians decide whether to accept invitation to meet with Sec. Baker on 4/20 [MEM 4/18].

Two armed guerrillas cross into Israel from Jordan, shoot 4 farmers in border kibbutz, killing 1, wounding 3 [NYT, WP, LAT 4/18; MET 4/30].

Arab trying to swim from Egypt to Israel is shot dead by IDF in Rafah [JDS 4/17 in FBIS 4/18]. 

After meeting in Cairo with Pres. Mubarak, Sec. Baker arrives in Jerusalem and meets with F.M. Levy, Baker says he is pleased with initial Israeli responses to Pres. Bush's peace initiative; announces plans to meet with Palestinian leaders from o.t., but will ignore their insistence that they speak for the PLO [NYT, LAT, WP, WT 3/12; MENA 3/11 in FBIS 3/11; MENA, JDS 3/11, IDF 3/12 in FBIS 3/12; CSM 3/13; JPI 3/23].

Israeli troops shoot dead 6 heavily armed Arabs who had crossed border from Jordan; 3 Israeli soldiers are slightly wounded in the 2-hour gun battle [NYT 3/12; JDS 3/11 in FBIS 3/11; JPI 3/23].

U.S. military officials say Iraq will turn over the bodies of 14 allied soldiers killed in Gulf war; 24 U.S. soldiers remain missing in action [LAT, WP 3/12].

23 Iraqi opposition groups begin 3-day conference in Beirut to solidify their stand and offer alternative to Saddam Hussein's regime [LAT, CSM 3/12; BDS 3/11 in FBIS 3/12].

Allied air strikes have left Iraq's oil production capacity reduced by two-thirds, according to oil industry experts [LAT 3/12].

U.S. Commerce Dep't. makes public list of $500 million in advanced American goods, including lasers and computers, that were sold to Iraq with Washington's approval between 1985 and August 1990 [NYT 3/12].

Palestinian journalist Taher Shriteh, released from Israeli prison on 3/8, is indicted on charges of aiding an illegal Arab group by giving them the publicly listed telephone number of Reuters in Jerusalem [NYT 3/17].

Gulf Crisis Financial Coordination Group, 27 wealthy countries, meet in Luxembourg, pledge $834 million in new aid to nations hardest hit by Gulf war [WT 3/12].

Public opinion survey published in Israeli newspaper Yedi'ot Ahronot shows 49% of respondents find "territories for peace" principle acceptable; 49% say it is unacceptable [YA 3/11 in FBIS 3/19].

Pres. Bush says 2/18 Soviet proposal for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait "falls well short of what would be required" to end war with Iraq [NYT, LAT, WP, WT, CSM 2/20].

F.M. Aziz meets in Tehran with Iranian Pres. Rafsanjani; Baghdad gives no formal response to Soviet plan but reiterates 2/15 proposal. Iranian F.M. Velayati says he believes Iraq is "ready to withdraw from Kuwait unconditionally" [NYT, WP 2/20].

UN Sec. Council authorizes Red Cross to make emergency deliveries of water purification equipment to Iraq [NYT 2/20].

Allied planes attack targets in Iraq and Kuwait; single SCUD missile is launched at Israel, no casualties; U.S. A-10 plane is lost in combat, bringing American total to 22, and allied total to 31; U.S. military official says that Iraqi troops in Kuwait and southern Iraq are suffering "horrendous' casualties [JAA, JDS 2/19 in FBIS 2/20; NYT, LAT, WP 2/20; MET 3/5].

In separate forums, Soviet F.M. Bessmertnykh, envoy Primakov, and spokesman Ignatenko argue against beginning ground offensive against Iraq, saying its effect would only be enormous suffering and destruction; they add that Soviet proposal makes ground war unnecessary [NYT, WP 2/20].

U.S. commander Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf says Iraqi military machine is on verge of collapse, losing about 2 battalions of tanks a day to allied air strikes [LAT, WP 2/20].

Pope John Paul II summons bishops from countries involved in Gulf war, including U.S. and Iraq, to unprecedented peace-seeking conference from 3-4 March at the Vatican [MEM 2/19; LAT 2/20].

Moving to contain diplomatic fallout from its support for Iraq, PLO says it accepts the "spirit" of UN Sec. Council resolution 660; PLO also renews its call for talks with Israel [AFP 2/19 in FBIS 2/19].

In Luxembourg, EC "troika" foreign ministers decide to avoid talks with Yasir Arafat in their planned series of Middle East trips (cf. 2/21) [MEM 2/20].

U.S. State Dep't. reiterates its criticism of Israel's policy of administrative detention in light of Taher Shritch case [NYT, MEM 2/201

U.S. officials say 6 Iraqi helicopter pilots flew to Saudi Arabia in one of most significant defections since crisis began; Iraq denies defections occurred (cf. 1/8) [INA 1/7 in FBIS 1/8; NYT, LAT, WT, WP 1/8].

Sec. Baker meets with F.M.s of Britain, Spain, Luxembourg, and Sec.-Gen. of NATO; says that coalition will hold firm even in event of war [LAT, WP 1/8]; adds that UN deadline will not be extended [WT 1/8].

White House says it will work with Congress to draft measure on use of force that can be passed before 1/15 deadline [LAT 1/8].

In Baghdad, Yasir Arafat says PLO would side with Iraq in event of Gulf war, and that idea of linking Gulf crisis to Palestinian issue was his and not Saddam's [MEM, LAT 1/8]; PLO says in event of war, o.t. Palestinians would create internal disruption for Israel if Jewish state becomes involved [WT 1/8].

FBI agents, seeking to deter possible terrorist attacks resulting from any allied military action against Iraq, begin interviewing Arab-American business leaders (cf. 1/11, 1/14) [LAT 1/8; WP 1/9].

Israeli gov't. votes down 3 motions of noconfidence brought about by decision to resume deportations. Vote is 56 to 21 with 12 abstentions [JPD 1/8 in FBIS 1/14].

Iraqi occupation authorities order 6,500 American and British citizens in Kuwait to assemble at 2 hotels in Kuwait City [NYT, WP 8/17].

Pentagon announces U.S. naval forces will begin "intercepting" commercial shipping to or from Iraq and Kuwait to enforce UN sanctions [WP 8/17].

King Hussein of Jordan meets with Pres. Bush in Kennebunkport, Maine to discuss Gulf crisis [MEM 8/16; ADS 8/17 in FBIS 8/17; NYT, WP 8/17].

"Troika" foreign ministers from Italy, Luxembourg, and Ireland arrive in Amman and meet with Crown Prince Hasan to discuss crisis [ADS 8/16 in FBIS 8/17].

2d contingent of Egyptian military forces leaves Cairo for Saudi Arabia [MENA 8/16 in FBIS 8/16].

Special UNLU "Leaflet No. 1-the U.S. Invasion of Arab Lands" is distributed; it expresses unequivocal support for Iraq and attacks Pres. Mubarak [YA 8/17 in FBIS 8/17].

Hundreds of Palestinians hold pro-Iraq demonstration in Nablus; police disperse crowd with tear gas and rubber bullets [MEM 8/16; JDS 8/16 in FBIS 8/17]; fearing political repercussions, PLO leadership is seen as trying to distance itself from Iraq, but has been unable to ignore growing grassroots support of Palestinians for Saddam Hussein [WP 8/17].

Contradicting earlier Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood statement, group's leader Muhammad Hamid Abunnasar issues communique denouncing Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and calling for return of Kuwait's "legitimate gov't." [MEM 8/17]. 

Middle East Watch issues human rights report accusing Israel of condoning excessive force against Palestinians, although report claims IDF recently has begun to show more restraint [MEM, LAT 7/26]; IDF rejects findings, saying Israeli Supreme Court has found IDF practices to be legal [JDS 7/25 in FBIS 7/26; FJ 7/30].

Arafat meets in Tunis with EC delegation of foreign ministers from Ireland, Italy, and Luxembourg to discuss Middle East peace process [SVP 7/25 in FBIS 7/26].

Israeli and SLA artillery hits Iqlim al-Tuffah in S. Lebanon; 2 killed, 4 wounded [LAT 7/26; JDS 7/26 in FBIS 7/26; SVP 7/27 in FBIS 7/31; JPI 8/11].

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Blind 28-year-old Palestinian is sentenced to life imprisonment for leading a guerrilla band, killing British tourist and Israeli businessman in East Jerusalem (NYT 10/28).

Other Countries: Led by Greece and France, 12-member European Economic Community rebuffs British pressure to adopt punitive sanctions against Syria at foreign ministers meeting in Luxembourg (NYT, WP 10/28). U.S. considers sanctions against Syria (NYT 10/28).

Military Action

Arab World: Truce in Lebanon is broken, Amal and Palestinians resume clashes near Sidon (30 killed, 80 wounded) (NYT 10/28).

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: The 10-member inner cabinet deadlocks on a proposed compromise to end the Taba border dispute with Egypt, leaving the issue unresolved; Labor and Likud are evenly divided [JTA 9/20]. Leading Jewish businessmen from various countries and top Israeli officials and executives end 4 days of talks within the framework of P. M. Peres' International Task Force for Economic Recovery, chaired by Detroit businessman Max Fisher [JTA 9/20]. Jerusalem Post reports Israel has recently opened embassy in Hong Kong to improve contacts with Far East [JP 9/19]. Five thousand ultra-Orthodox Jews protest construction of $15 million extension of Brigham Young Univ., fearing it would be used for proselytizing [LAT 9/20].

Arab World: Nabih Birri states Israel is setting up new prison camp in Khiam; claims Israel and SLA detaining 50 Lebanese. Israeli military denies charge but cannot speak for SLA [JP 9/20]. British P.M. Thatcher, visiting 'Amman, signs $360 million arms deal with Jordan which includes military vehicles, electronic warfare and field communications equipment, and tank ammunition and spare parts. Israel condemns the agreement [WP 9/20].

Other Countries: The Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations issues statement calling on the administration to withdraw its proposed arms sale to Jordan [JTA 9/20]. P.M. Thatcher visits Palestinian refugee camp outside 'Amman and receives enthusiastic welcome [FT 9/20]. The British govt. defends its oil exporting policies in the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg against charges they discriminate against Israel [FT, JTA 9/20].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/lIsrael: Gasoline bomb thrown at Mt. Zion bus stop (2nd in one week); no injuries or damage reported [JP 9/20].

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: The Daily Telegraph reports depleted uranium, potential material for making nuclear explosives, was exported to Israel last autumn after it was bought from Luxembourg, in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty [DT 7/12, JW 8/1]. EEC spokesman reports private Luxembourg metals trading company imported 40 tons of depleted uranium from Britain and 7 tons from France; 47 tons then exported to Israel without required notification to Euratom (EEC agency charged with keeping track of trade of nuclear materials by EEC member states) [VO 8/1]. Foreign Min. Shamir calls Jewish underground defendants "excellent people who made a mistake" [JP 7/12]; vows to work for their release. Four Gazans are convicted of plotting to attack the U.S. embassy [JP 7/12].

Other Countries: U. S. House of Rep. passes fiscal 1985 Foreign Aid Authorization Bill on voice vote. Bill includes $3 billion in regular economic and military assistance for Israel, plus $1.5 billion in emergency supplemental economic aid; $400 million of military assistance is allocated to Lavi aircraft project, $150 million of which must be spent in the U.S. [NER 7/15].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Bombs go off in Ashkelon and Hadera; no injuries are reported [JP 7/12].