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  • March 27, 2001

    2 bombs, the 4th and 5th since Sharon's 2/6 election, explode outside the Jewish settlements of Talpiot, French Hill in East Jerusalem, killing an apparent Palestinian suicide bomber...

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  • February 26, 2001

    Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 1 Palestinian dead. A 2d, ailing Palestinian dies at an IDF checkpoint that she was barred fr. crossing to reach a hospital in Nablus....

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  • February 24, 2001

    Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue. The IDF shells residential areas of Brazil refugee camp, damaging a school. Israel says it will begin allowing Palestinians with VIP passes (e.g...

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  • February 16, 2001

    Israeli-Palestinian clashes, which have left 365 Palestinians, 19 Israeli Arabs, and 58 Israeli soldiers, settlers, and civilians dead, stretch into their 5th mo. The most severe...

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  • November 11, 2000

    Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, leaving 11 Palestinians, 1 IDF soldier dead and over 200 Palestinians, 1 IDF soldier, 1 American wounded. 8 Palestinians and 1 IDF soldier are killed during...

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  • October 7, 2000

    Israeli-Palestinian fighting in the West Bank and Gaza abates slightly but escalates again this evening, leaving at least 3 Palestinians dead. The most serious incident is in Nablus, where the IDF...

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  • June 13, 2000

    Israeli, PA teams open 2 sets of talks nr. Washington: final status issues at Andrews air force base (AFB) and interim issues at Bolling AFB. (MM, WT 6/13; NYT, WP, WT 6/14; WP 6/15)

    ...

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  • May 13, 2000

    Speaking in Kuwait, Qatari FM Shaykh Hamad Bin-Jassim Bin-Jabbar al-Thani calls for an initiative by Gulf Arab states to normalize ties with Iraq, lift UN sanctions. (MM 5/15, 5/17) (see 3/22)

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  • April 4, 2000

    In Geneva, Israeli FM Levy assures UN Secy.-Gen. Annan that Israel will withdraw fr. s. Lebanon in 7/00 in coordination with the UN. Annan says that he will discuss with the UN...

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  • April 3, 2000

    After a mtg. with PM Barak in Israel, U.S. Defense Secy. William Cohen says that plans for a U.S.-Israeli defense pact have been put on hold since the deal is contingent upon Israeli...

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  • March 31, 2000

    Egyptian pres. Mubarak phones Syrian pres. Asad to brief him on his meeting with Pres. Clinton in Washington on 3/28. (MENA 3/31 in WNC 4/5)

    Iraq gives Palestinians who have...

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  • March 22, 2000

    Barak phones UN Secy.-Gen. Kofi Annan, French pres. Chirac, U.S. Amb. Indyk to discuss scenarios for a unilateral s. Lebanon pullout if Asad does not agree to resume Syrian-Israeli...

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  • March 14, 2000

    After criticism fr. right-wing MKs, Barak removes the West Bank village of Anata, in jointly controlled area B nr. Jerusalem, from the list of possible areas to be transferred to PA-...

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  • February 21, 2000

    U.S. special envoy Dennis Ross returns to the Middle East to try to revive the stalled Israeli-PA negotiations, meets with PM Barak upon his arrival. Barak proposes 5/00 as a new...

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  • February 15, 2000

    On the 5th day of Arafat's visit to Vatican City for mtgs. with Pope John Paul II, the Vatican and the PA sign an agmt. on bilateral relations and protecting religious freedom in Jerusalem. Israel...

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  • January 26, 2000

    Despite his cancellation of experts meetings with the U.S. (see 1/25), Barak says he is optimistic that talks with Syria will resume in 4+n6 wks. (MM 1/26)

     Israeli and PA chief negotiators...

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  • December 18, 1999

    Citing the "murky political situation" surrounding final status talks with Israel, Arafat postpones until 1/15 a crucial PLO Central Council (PLOCC) mtg., which was to take place on 12/20. (JT,...

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  • December 17, 1999

    Russian dep. FM Sredin arrives in Cairo on 2-day visit, discusses with FM Musa reviving multilateral talks. (ITAR-TASS, MENA 12/17, MENA 12/18 in WNC 12/20)

    The UN Security Council (UNSC)...

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  • December 16, 1999

    Israeli PM Barak, Syrian FM Shara` close 2 days of "friendly" talks in Washington, agree that teams will hold their 1st round of intensive negotiations 1/3+n9 in Washington. (MM 12/16; MM, NYT, WP...

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  • December 13, 1999

    PM Barak tells his cabinet that although he had made no new commitments to Syria in order to resume talks, he "would not erase" any promises made in previous negotiations under PMs Yitzhak Rabin,...

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  • December 4, 1999

    PA chief negotiator for final status talks Yasir`Abid Rabbuh goes to Cairo to brief FM Musa on interim and final status talks with Israel. (MENA 12/4 in WNC 12/6)

    Arafat hosts tree-lighting...

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  • November 22, 1999

    PA, Israeli final status teams hold their 5th round of talks in Ramallah. (MEI 11/26)

    With Vatican support, Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches across Israel, the Israeli-controlled...

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  • November 20, 1999

    Some 30+n50 Jewish settlers try to seize a Palestinian home in East Jerusalem by forcing owners to sign papers renouncing their ownership. Settlers injure 1 woman during the confrontation, before...

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  • November 19, 1999

    Some 30+n50 Jewish settlers try to seize a Palestinian home in East Jerusalem by forcing owners to sign papers renouncing their ownership. Settlers injure 1 woman during the confrontation, before...

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  • October 31, 1999

    Israel opens Shuhada Street, which runs along the border of a Jewish settlement in Hebron, to Palestinian taxis. According to Wye II, the route should have been opened to all traffic by yesterday...

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  • October 12, 1999

    In Washington, King Abdallah, Pres. Clinton hold talks on the peace process, bilateral economic ties. Previously, Abdallah said he would bring with him a message for Clinton fr. Iraqi pres. Saddam...

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  • October 4, 1999

    Israel, PA reached agmt. on safe-passage route fr. Tarqumiyya in the West Bank to Erez crossing in Gaza, which could open in days. Signing is set for 10/5. (MM 10/4; AFP 10/4 in WNC 10/5; MM, NYT...

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  • September 22, 1999

    In Paris, PM Barak discusses with Pres. Chirac the role of France, the EU in restarting the peace process. Chirac stresses that he has conveyed no messages btwn. Barak and Syrian pres. Asad, whose...

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  • September 12, 1999

    2-day Arab League session opens in Cairo; will discuss the peace process, reconciliation btwn. Iraq and the Gulf states. Arafat gives an address, calling on Arab states to oppose resettlement of...

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  • August 2, 1999

    After being briefed by Erakat on his 8/1 mtg. with Sher, Arafat accuses Israel of a breach of trust, saying Israel is trying to "avoid the accurate and honest implementation of what has been...

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2 bombs, the 4th and 5th since Sharon's 2/6 election, explode outside the Jewish settlements of Talpiot, French Hill in East Jerusalem, killing an apparent Palestinian suicide bomber, injuring 35 Israelis. Islamic Jihad takes responsibility for both attacks. Right-wing opposition MKs, Jewish settlers accuse Sharon of not taking Israeli security seriously and demand retaliation, with Likud Education M Limor Livnat saying Arafat should be targeted. Sharon's office says Israel will respond "at the time and place we choose." (AFP [Internet], MM 3/27; ITAR-TASS 3/27 in WNC 3/28; MM, NYT, WP 3/28; WJW 3/29; AFP 3/29 in WNC 3/30; JP, MEI 4/6)

In the West Bank and Gaza, Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 1 Palestinian dead. In Hebron, Jewish settlers attempt to storm Abu Sunayna for a 2d day, are push back by the IDF (which continues to urge Palestinian residents to evacuate the area). After dark, the settlers set fire to 5 Palestinian-owned stores, 7 cars, Waqf offices in the PA-controlled section of Hebron. Jewish settlers place caravans on confiscated Palestinian land on Mount Jarzim in Nablus. Israel arrests 2 Israeli border policemen for beating, torturing a Palestinian at a checkpoint into Israel earlier today. (MM 3/27; HA, HP, NYT, WP 3/28; AFP [Internet], NYT 3/29; MEI 4/6)

The 1st full Arab League summit in 12 yrs. opens in Amman. The agenda covers the peace process, aid to the Palestinians, Arab solidarity, inter-Arab economic ties, sanctions on Iraq. (MM 3/27; AN, DUS, JT, SA 3/27 in WNC 3/28; AYM 3/27, HJ, JT, SA 3/28 in WNC 3/29; MM, WP, USIS Washington File 3/28; JP, MEI 4/6)

On the sidelines of the Arab summit, Syrian pres. Asad meets with Arafat, marking the 1st senior-level Palestinian-Syrian mtg. since 1993. (JT 3/28 in WNC 3/29; MM, WP, USIS Washington File 3/28; JT, al-Quds 3/29 in WNC 3/30; DUS 3/30 in WNC 4/2; al-Majd 4/2 in WNC 4/3; AYM 4/2, HJ 4/3 in WNC 4/5; JP, MEI 4/6; MM 4/20)

After a week of negotiations on 2 compromise proposals fail, the U.S. vetoes a UNSC resolution backing a UN observer force to help protect the Palestinians in the West Bank, Gaza. (AP 3/27; XIN 3/27 in WNC 3/28; WP 3/28; MM, NYT, WJW, WT 3/29; al-Quds 3/29 in WNC 3/30; MM 3/30; al-Quds 4/3 in WNC 4/5)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 1 Palestinian dead. A 2d, ailing Palestinian dies at an IDF checkpoint that she was barred fr. crossing to reach a hospital in Nablus. Palestinians detonate 2 roadside bombs nr. IDF convoys in Gaza, wounding 1 soldier. The IDF shells residential areas nr. Bayt Hanun; bulldozes Palestinian land nr. Khan Yunis, Netzarim Junction, Shaykh Ajlin. YESHA settlers council call on the government to assassinate or expel Arafat. (HP 2/26; NYT, WT 2/27; WT 2/28; WJW 3/1; AYM 3/3 in WNC 3/8; MEI 3/9)

The Labor party central comm. votes (67% to 32%, with more than half of the 1,675 mbrs. not voting) to join a unity government led by Likud's Sharon. Likud says it offered Labor 8 cabinet posts (including DM, FM), equal say in determining security and diplomatic policy. (MM 2/26; HA, MM, NYT, WP, WT 2/27; HA, MM 2/28; al-Ra'i 2/28 in WNC 3/2; MEI 3/9)

U.S. Secy. of State Powell stops in Saudi Arabia, then heads to Damascus to meet Pres. Hafiz al-Asad, who agrees to funnel Iraq's revenues oil transported through Syria's pipeline to the UN oil-for-food program. (MM 2/26; NYT, WP, WT 2/27; MM 2/28; SA 3/4 in WNC 3/5; MEI 3/9; JT 3/9 in WNC 3/11)

The State Dept.'s annual human rights report criticizes Israel for using "excessive force," committing "numerous serious human rights abuses" against Palestinians; faults PA forces for participating in, or at least failing to prevent, violence. (NYT, WP 2/26; WT 2/28; AYM 2/28 in WNC 3/5; WJW 3/1; MM 3/14)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue. The IDF shells residential areas of Brazil refugee camp, damaging a school. Israel says it will begin allowing Palestinians with VIP passes (e.g., PC mbrs.) to travel btwn. the West Bank and Gaza providing they request permission of the IDF in advance, submit to searches. The PA says Israel should honor the VIP passes without restrictions as per signed agmts. (MA 2/25 in WNC 2/26; HJ 2/26 in WNC 2/27; LAW 3/1)

U.S. Secy. of State Colin Powell arrives in Egypt on the 1st leg of a 3-day tour to meet regional leaders, to discuss the Bush administration's proposal to modify the sanctions regime on Iraq to eliminate many economic restrictions, refocus sanctions more narrowly on Saddam Hussein's military. After meeting with Egyptian pres. Husni Mubarak, Powell heads to Israel, where he confers with Barak on bilateral, Israeli-Palestinian relations. Powell will also visit Ramallah, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria. (NYT, WP, WT 2/25; al-Ra'i 2/25 in WNC 2/27; WP 2/27; MA 3/1 in WNC 3/5; MEI 3/9)

In Amman, 1,000 Jordanians attend a rally organized by the Jordan professional associations to protest the U.S. Secy. of State Powell's visit to the kingdom on 2/25 in light of the U.S. position toward the Palestinians, Iraq. (JT 2/25 in WNC 2/26; JT 2/26 in WNC 2/27)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes, which have left 365 Palestinians, 19 Israeli Arabs, and 58 Israeli soldiers, settlers, and civilians dead, stretch into their 5th mo. The most severe clashes are in Ramallah. 2 Palestinians are killed by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Palestinian Auhority (PA) General Intelligence Service (GIS) officer Anwar Mar'i is stabbed to death by Palestinian assailants nr. Salfit; the PA claims it is an IDF-backed assassination. A 4th Palestinian dies of a heart attack when the IDF delays his passage through a checkpoint to a hospital for over 1 hr. The IDF bulldozes Palestinian land nr. the Rafah border, demolishing 7 Palestinian homes, 10 greenhouses; shells residential areas nr. al-Bireh. (WT 2/17; LAW 2/18; SA 2/19 in WNC 2/21; LAW 2/22)

Outgoing Israeli Labor PM Ehud Barak announces he will join a unity government with Likud's PM-elect Ariel Sharon as DM, pending finalization of the government guidelines and the coalition. (MM 2/16; WT 2/17; AYM 2/17 in WNC 2/22; AYM 2/18 in WNC 2/21; MM 2/19; NYT 2/20)

Hizballah fires mortars at an IDF convoy in the disputed Shaba` Farms area of the occupied Golan Heights, killing 1 soldier, wounding 2. In response, the IDF bombards s. Lebanon, using tanks, artillery, helicopter gunships. (NYT, WP, WT 2/17; MM 2/19-21; WJW 2/22)

The U.S., Britain bomb 5 Iraqi sites, marking the 1st strikes outside the no-fly zones since 12/98, signalling a more confrontational approach to Baghdad by the new administration of U.S. Pres. George W. Bush. 3 Iraqi civilians are killed, 25 are injured. France, Turkey, the Arab states condemn the action. (ATL 2/16, ATL, MENA, MIL 2/17, ATL, HJ, JT, al-Quds 2/18, JT, MA, MENA 2/19 in WNC 2/20; NYT, WP, WT 2/17; MIL 2/17, 2/18 in WNC 2/21; NYT, WP, WT 2/18; MM, WP, WT 2/19; MM 2/20; HJ 2/20 in WNC 2/22; MM, WT 2/21; WP 2/22; MIL 2/22 in WNC 2/23; MEI, MM 2/23; al-Quds 2/23 in WNC 2/27; AP, WP 2/25; JP 3/2)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, leaving 11 Palestinians, 1 IDF soldier dead and over 200 Palestinians, 1 IDF soldier, 1 American wounded. 8 Palestinians and 1 IDF soldier are killed during a gun battle outside Gush Katif settlement in Gaza; the IDF confirms that the soldier is killed by IDF gunfire, 6 of Palestinians are likely killed by settler gunfire. Nr. Rachel's Tomb, an American photographer is seriously wounded by live ammunition fired by the IDF. The IDF shells an unfinished building al-Bireh, killing 2 Fatah mbrs. The 11th Palestinian is fatally shot at Erez crossing. 3 Palestinians die of injuries received earlier. IDF shelling, heavy machine gun fire is reported in Hebron, Nablus. The IDF clears more Palestinian land in the Rafah area. (LAW, PCHR 11/11; LAW, MEZ, NYT, WP, WT 11/12; MA 11/13 in WNC 11/14; NYT 11/19)

An OIC summit opens in Qatar, focusing on the Palestinian situation. (ATL, MENA, RL 11/11, ATL, AYM, IRNA, MENA 11/12 in WNC 11/13; WP 11/12; HA [Internet], MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/13; IRNA, MENA, RL 11/13 in WNC 11/14; ATL, AYM 11/13, Iraq News Agency, DUS 11/14 in WNC 11/16; MM, NYT, WP 11/14; MM 11/15, 11/16; WP 11/22; JP, MEI 11/24)

In Rome, 30,000 Italians protest against Israel's "massacre of innocent Palestinians." Similar, smaller rallies are held in Oslo, Stockholm. (ANSA 11/11 in WNC 11/13; IsraelWire [Internet] 11/12, 11/13)

Israeli-Palestinian fighting in the West Bank and Gaza abates slightly but escalates again this evening, leaving at least 3 Palestinians dead. The most serious incident is in Nablus, where the IDF, implementing the Sharm agmts., turns over Joseph's Tomb to the PSF. Palestinians celebrating the IDF pullback overrun the PSF, destroy the tomb. In response, armed Jewish settlers roam areas around West Bank settlements, stoning and firing at Palestinian cars, killing 1 Palestinian. Inside Israel, Jews fr. Upper Nazareth rampage through Arab Nazareth throwing stones at Israeli Palestinians, sparking a riot; when Israeli Arabs start to fight back, Israeli riot police intervene, using tear gas and live ammunition, shooting dead 2 Israeli Arabs. In Tiberias, Jews vandalize a historic mosque. The IDF moves tanks into the West Bank to guard the Jewish settlement of Psagot, which has been the target of Palestinian sniping. At Rafah airport, Palestinians fire on a bus Israeli airport workers, injuring 8. Israel shuts the airport. (LAW 10/7; MENA, RL 10/7, al-Quds 10/8, AFP, Le Monde 10/10 in WNC 10/10; ADM, NYT, WP, WT 10/8; MM, NYT, WT 10/9; AYM 10/9, MA 10/10, 10/11 in WNC 10/12; NYT 10/10; WJW 10/12; MEI 10/13; WJW 10/19; WP 10/28)

Barak calls up IDF reservists, sets an ultimatum of 48 hrs. for Palestinians to halt their assaults on IDF outposts, Jewish settlements or "we will regard this as a cessation by Arafat of the peace process, and we will order the army to use all means at its disposal." Barak also says he is considering forming a "unity government" with Likud MK Sharon. (AYM 10/7, al-Quds 10/9 in WNC 10/12; NYT, WP, WT 10/8; AYM 10/8 in WNC 10/13; MM 10/9; Le Monde 10/10 in WNC 10/10; MM 10/11; JP, MEI 10/13)

Nr. Shaba` Farms, IDF soldiers fire across the blue line into Lebanon at 100s of Palestinian refugees staging a protest, killing 2, wounding 15. In response, Hizballah guerrillas cross into Golan Heights, kidnap 3 IDF soldiers; fire rockets at the IDF's Shaba` outpost, injuring 6 soldiers. Barak reinforces the border area, sends Israeli warplanes and attack helicopters into Lebanon to strike Hizballah targets, injuring 4 Lebanese civilians. U.S.'s Albright phones Lebanese pres. Lahoud, Syrian pres. Asad to urge them to intercede with Hizballah to release the IDF soldiers. France, Germany, the Red Cross, Russia, the UN open channels with Hizballah, which demands Israel release at least 19 Lebanese political prisoners (kidnaped by the IDF in Lebanon, held without trial for as long as 20 yrs.) in exchange for the soldiers. (CNN [Internet] 10/7; RL 10/7, AYM 10/8, Interfax 10/9, Le Monde 10/10 in WNC 10/10; NYT, WP, WT 10/8; Manar TV [Internet], MM, NYT, WT 10/9; al-Quds 10/9, DUS, al-Safir 10/10 in WNC 10/12; MM, NYT, WP 10/10; NYT, WJW, WP 10/12; JP, MEI 10/13; JP 10/27, 11/3)

After 6 days of debate, the UNSC passes (14 to 0, with the U.S. abstaining) a watered down resolution that condemns the "excessive use of force" against the Palestinians but does not mention Israel by name. U.S. Amb. Richard Holbrooke threatened to veto stronger language. (AP 10/7; NYT, WP, WT 10/8; AYM 10/8 in WNC 10/13; MM, NYT, WT 10/9; CSM, WP 10/10; MEI 10/13)

In Amman, Jordanian police open fire on Palestinian refugees demonstrating for the closure of the Israeli emb., killing 1, arresting 97. Demonstrations condemning Israeli violence, U.S. support of Israel are held in Bahrain, Canada, Egypt, France, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritania, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, the UAE, and Yemen. In the U.S., rallies are held in Albuquerque, Dearborn, New York. (BBC, al-Jazeera TV [Internet] 10/7; AFP, ATL, MENA 10/7, JT 10/8 in WNC 10/10; Daily Star 10/12 in WNC 10/13; Gulf News [Internet], NYT 10/8; MM 10/11; AYM 10/11 in WNC 10/12; MEI 10/13)

Israeli, PA teams open 2 sets of talks nr. Washington: final status issues at Andrews air force base (AFB) and interim issues at Bolling AFB. (MM, WT 6/13; NYT, WP, WT 6/14; WP 6/15)

Funeral ceremonies for Syrian pres. Hafiz al-Asad are held in Damascus, Latakia, and Asad's childhood home of Qardaha, where he is laid to rest in the family mausoleum. Attending are the heads of state of Egypt, France, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Turkey, and Yemen; the heads of the PA and Hizballah; plus senior reps. from Iraq, Russia, the U.S. Secy. of State Albright meets alone with Bashar al-Asad for 15 mins., says he is ready to continue discussions on talks with Israel. (MM, WT 6/13; ATL, DUS, HINA [Zagreb], Interfax, IRNA, ITAR-TASS, MENA, al-Quds, Rompres [Bucharest] 6/13 in WNC 6/14; CSM, NYT, WP, WT 6/14; MA, al-Quds 6/14 in WNC 6/15; JP, MEI, MM 6/16; Sabah [Istanbul] 6/15 in WNC 6/21; MIL 6/19 in WNC 6/27; MM 6/20; MEI 6/30)

After a wk. of coalition bargaining to keep his government together following the 6/7 Knesset vote, PM Barak's main partner, Shas (17 Knesset seats), announces it will quit the coalition at the next cabinet mtg. unless Barak agrees to bail out its financially strapped schools, to remove its schools fr. Education Min. oversight, and to legalize its pirate radio stations. Shas's departure would leave Barak with a minority government. (MM 6/13; MM, NYT, WP, WT 6/14; MM 6/15; MA 6/16 in WNC 6/19; WP 6/20; WJW 6/22)

The IDF bulldozes a Palestinian home in East Jerusalem to make way for a road. This is the 13th house demolition in East Jerusalem this yr. (WT 6/14)

Speaking in Kuwait, Qatari FM Shaykh Hamad Bin-Jassim Bin-Jabbar al-Thani calls for an initiative by Gulf Arab states to normalize ties with Iraq, lift UN sanctions. (MM 5/15, 5/17) (see 3/22)

In Geneva, Israeli FM Levy assures UN Secy.-Gen. Annan that Israel will withdraw fr. s. Lebanon in 7/00 in coordination with the UN. Annan says that he will discuss with the UN Security Council (UNSC) possibly expanding UNIFIL's 4,500-mbr. force. (MM 4/4; MM, WP, WT 4/5; WJW 4/6; MM 4/7)

In Amman, U.S. Defense Secy. Cohen, King Abdallah discuss cooperation efforts to modernize the Jordanian army, improve living conditions in the kingdom. Cohen also complains about the violation of the embargo on Iraq by an Italian plane that departed Amman on 4/3. (MM 4/4)

At Haifa University, a fist fight breaks out btwn. several Israeli Arab and Right-wing Jewish students over insults by the Jewish students regarding an Israeli Arab demonstration on campus 4/3. Israeli police intervene, detain 1 Arab and 1 Jewish student for questioning. Irate students attack the police, sparking a riot that lasts 2 hrs. (HA [Internet] 4/5)

In Amman, Jordanian police clash with University of Jordan students protesting a decision by the school administration to appoint half of the 80 student council mbrs. so as to reduce the influence of pro-Islamist student groups. (WT 4/5; JT 4/7 in WNC 4/11; MM 4/12; MEI 4/21)

After a mtg. with PM Barak in Israel, U.S. Defense Secy. William Cohen says that plans for a U.S.-Israeli defense pact have been put on hold since the deal is contingent upon Israeli withdrawal fr. the Golan, which does not appear likely. Cohen also discusses Israel's planned sale of sophisticated U.S.-developed AWACS technology to China. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 4/4; WP 4/5; WJW 4/6; MM 4/10; WP 4/11)

Israeli Arab students at Haifa University stage a demonstration to protest the death of a woman during Land Day protests in Sakhnin on 3/31. (HA [Internet] 4/5)

To protest against sanctions on Iraq, an Italian plane carrying EU parliament mbr. Vittorio Sgarbi, an Italian journalist, and a French Catholic priest leaves Jordan's Amman airport and flies to Baghdad without UN permission. (MM 4/4, 4/7; JT 4/7 in WNC 4/11)

Turkey sends 1,000 troops into n. Iraq to hunt down Kurdish separatists, makes air strikes on Kurdish bases. Turkey has previously carried out spring campaigns against the separatists. Since 1,000s of troops, supported by mbrs. of Iraq's Kurdistan Democratic Party, began massing on the border with Iraq in 3/00, there have been a few crossborder skirmishes, but this is the 1st large incursion into Iraq. (NYT 4/4; WT 4/5; see also WP 3/27)

Egyptian pres. Mubarak phones Syrian pres. Asad to brief him on his meeting with Pres. Clinton in Washington on 3/28. (MENA 3/31 in WNC 4/5)

Iraq gives Palestinians who have lived in Baghdad since 1948 (totalling some 30,000 individuals) the right to own property, but stresses that rights cannot be passed on. (JT [Internet] 3/31)

Barak phones UN Secy.-Gen. Kofi Annan, French pres. Chirac, U.S. Amb. Indyk to discuss scenarios for a unilateral s. Lebanon pullout if Asad does not agree to resume Syrian-Israeli negotiations in his mtg. with Clinton on 3/26. (MM 3/24) (see 3/12)

The pope visits Bethlehem, where he meets with Arafat, conducts mass, visits Dahaysha refugee camp, and tours religious sites. The pope pauses his mass for 2 minutes of silence during the Muslim afternoon call to prayer to demonstrate the accommodation, respect necessary among religious groups. (MM 3/22; CSM, JP, MM, NYT, WP, WT 3/23; MEI 3/24; PR [Internet] 3/29; MEI 4/7)

After the pope leaves Dahaysha refugee camp (where almost 10,000 refugees live on less than 1 mi.2 of land), Palestinians angry over the highhandedness of PA police enforcing security for the pope's visit clash with the police in an exchange of rock throwing, beatings, weapons fire. Some 60 injuries are reported, mostly caused by rocks. (NYT, WP, WT 3/23; LAW 3/27; MEI, MM 4/7)

After overseeing the pope's visit, Arafat heads to Cairo to hold talks with Mubarak on the peace process in advance of Mubarak's trip to Washington beginning 3/25. (MENA 3/22 in WNC 3/23; MENA 3/23 in WNC 3/27)

Given the skyrocketing gas prices in the U.S., Washington agrees to allow Iraq to double its spending on maintaining, expanding the oil industry to $1.2 b. a yr. (WP 3/23, 3/25; MEI 4/7) (see 3/14)

After criticism fr. right-wing MKs, Barak removes the West Bank village of Anata, in jointly controlled area B nr. Jerusalem, from the list of possible areas to be transferred to PA-controlled area A under the 3d stage of the 2d FRD. (MM 3/14; MENA 3/14 in WNC 3/15; CSM, MM, NYT, WT 3/15; CSM, MM, WJW 3/16; CSM 3/21)

Israel formally deploys the Arrow 2 missile system, culminating a 14-yr., $13-b. joint development project with the U.S. (NYT 3/15)

Israeli air strikes on s. Lebanon continue. The Lebanese army says there have been 20 raids in the past 24 hrs. (MENA 3/14 in WNC 3/15; NYT 3/15)

Kuwait announces that it has started accepting job applications fr. Jordanians, Palestinians, Yemenis for the 1st time since accusing their leaders of supporting Iraq during the 1990-91 Gulf conflict. (WT 3/15) (see 2/21)

U.S. congressional staffers who traveled to Iraq in 8/99 release a report denouncing the U.S., British sanctions regime, delineating the negative effects of sanctions, and calling for support in Congress for pending legislation to lift sanctions. (MM 3/16)

U.S. special envoy Dennis Ross returns to the Middle East to try to revive the stalled Israeli-PA negotiations, meets with PM Barak upon his arrival. Barak proposes 5/00 as a new target date for completing a FAPS; says Israel is willing to offer the PA a confidence-building package, including a release of prisoners, payment of some of taxes, minor changes to maps of the 3d stage of the 2d further redeployment (FRD). (MM, WT 2/21; AYM 2/22 in WNC 2/28; WT 2/22) (see 2/19)

In Cairo, Pres. Mubarak receives Kuwaiti FM Shaykh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah for talks on Israel attacks on Lebanon. Kuwait says it would attend a pan-Arab summit, even if Iraq were to participate; also says it does not oppose Arab states opening a dialogue with Iraq, though it would not do so until Baghdad apologizes for the 1990 invasion. (MENA 2/21 in WNC 2/23)

On the 5th day of Arafat's visit to Vatican City for mtgs. with Pope John Paul II, the Vatican and the PA sign an agmt. on bilateral relations and protecting religious freedom in Jerusalem. Israel calls the agmt. "deplorable." (ANSA 2/15 in WNC 2/17; MM, NYT, WP, WT 2/16; MM, WJW, WP 2/17)

Hebron Times editor Amayreh is questioned by the Israeli District Coordination Office, warned against publishing "inciting" material. (Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group press release 2/21) (see 2/11)

A 2d UN agency chief, Jutta Purghart, head of the World Food Program in Iraq, quits to protest sanctions, the failure of humanitarian aid programs in Iraq. (CSM, NYT, WT 2/16; MM 2/17) (see 2/14)

Despite his cancellation of experts meetings with the U.S. (see 1/25), Barak says he is optimistic that talks with Syria will resume in 4+n6 wks. (MM 1/26)

 Israeli and PA chief negotiators Oded Eran and `Abid Rabbuh hold a preparatory mtg. in advance of their intensive negotiations on the FAPS, which are set to start on 1/30. (AFP 1/27 in WNC 1/28)

Israel, the PA agree to move forward with plans to build 2 water purification plants along the 1967 border to serve both Israeli and Palestinian towns. Funding would come fr. the EU. (MENL 1/27)

PC passes the FY 2000 budget, its 1st balanced budget. It, however, does not include any funding to implement Arafat's promise to increase the salaries of more than 100,000 civil servants. (al-Quds 1/27 in WNC 2/1; MENL 1/30)

The UN names Swedish arms control expert Hans Blix as head of the new UN Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission for Iraq (UNMOVIC). Baghdad says it will not allow UNMOVIC inspectors into Iraq. (NYT, WP 1/27; MM, WP 1/28; MEI 2/11)

Citing the "murky political situation" surrounding final status talks with Israel, Arafat postpones until 1/15 a crucial PLO Central Council (PLOCC) mtg., which was to take place on 12/20. (JT, al-Quds 12/19 in WNC 12/21; AYM 1/5 in WNC 1/6)

Pres. Clinton renews 6-mo. waiver of the Jerusalem Embassy Act, which calls on the U.S. to move its emb. in Israel fr. Tel Aviv to Jerusalem or face cuts to the State Dept. budget. (MM 12/22; WJW 12/30; JP 12/31)

Iraq rejects the UNSC plan for resuming arms inspections, easing sanctions. (NYT, WP, WT 12/19; MM 1/5; MEI 1/14)

In Beirut, Iran, Lebanon hold talks on expanding tourism, scientific, cultural exchanges. (IRNA 12/18 in WNC 12/20)

Russian dep. FM Sredin arrives in Cairo on 2-day visit, discusses with FM Musa reviving multilateral talks. (ITAR-TASS, MENA 12/17, MENA 12/18 in WNC 12/20)

The UN Security Council (UNSC) votes (Britain, U.S. for; China, France, Russia abstaining) to create a new arms inspection system for Iraq, with the promise to Pres. Saddam Hussein that sanctions could be suspended within a yr., eventually lifted if he complies. If Iraq accepts the deal, the UN would immediately remove the ceiling on Iraqi oil sales under the Oil-for-Food program, ease some controls on imports of medical, agricultural, educational goods. (NYT, WP, WT 12/18; LPA 12/18 in WNC 12/20; MM 12/20; AYM 12/20 in WNC 12/22; MEI 1/14)

Israeli PM Barak, Syrian FM Shara` close 2 days of "friendly" talks in Washington, agree that teams will hold their 1st round of intensive negotiations 1/3+n9 in Washington. (MM 12/16; MM, NYT, WP, WT 12/17; ITAR-TASS 12/17 in WNC 12/20; IRNA, al-Quds, SA 12/20 in WNC 12/21; JP, MEI 12/24)

In Washington, Orthodox Jews protest outside the White House, objecting to any return of the Golan Heights to Syria. (WT 12/17)

In Gaza, Russian dep. FM Sredin hands Arafat a message fr. Pres. Boris Yeltsin, discusses the peace process. (ITAR-TASS 12/16 in WNC 12/17)

In s. Lebanon, 3 IDF shells strike an elementary school, wounding 20 Lebanese children. Israel apologizes for the attack, which marks the 4th time the school has been hit by errant IDF shells over the yrs. Hizballah says it will not retaliate in light of the Syrian-Israeli negotiations ongoing in Washington. (AFP, RL 12/16 in WNC 12/17; CSM, MM, NYT, WP, WT 12/17; DUS, ITAR-TASS, RL 12/17 in WNC 12/20; NYT 12/18; MEI 12/24)

The PA General Intelligence Service mbrs. detain, severely beat PC mbr. `Abd al-Jawad Salih for participating in a sit-in protest outside Jericho prison where several signers of the Petition of the 20 are still being held. (LAW 12/16; AYM 12/20, al-Quds 12/22 in WNC 12/23; MEI 12/24)

Pakistan extradites to Jordan for questioning a suspected Bin Laden associate Khalil Deek, the 14th person arrested for plotting attacks on tourists. (WP 12/18; JT 12/18, The News [Islamabad] 12/18, 12/19 in WNC 12/20) (see 12/13)

Iraq resumes oil exports. (WT 12/17) (see 11/22)

PM Barak tells his cabinet that although he had made no new commitments to Syria in order to resume talks, he "would not erase" any promises made in previous negotiations under PMs Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, or Benjamin Netanyahu. (CSM, NYT, WP 12/14)

At the Knesset, PM Barak gives a speech, telling Israelis to prepare to pay "a heavy territorial price" for peace with Syria. After 7 hrs. of debate, MKs pass (47-31, with 24 abstentions, 18 absent) a vote of confidence giving Barak a mandate to negotiate with Syria. 1,000s of Golan settlers demonstrate outside. (CSM, MM, NYT, WP 12/14; CSM 12/15; WJW 12/16)

Russian dep. FM Sredin arrives in Amman for a 2-day visit. He discusses the peace process with the Russian rep. to the PA and Russian ambs. to Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria. (ITAR-TASS 12/14 in WNC 12/15)

In Bayt Awa, nr. Hebron, IDF commandos searching for 2 wanted Hamas mbrs. storm a house, killing 2 Palestinians, arresting 3. DM Efraim Sneh admits that there was a "contract" out for 1 of the men for killing an undercover Israeli border policeman in 1/99. (WT 12/14; NYT, WP 12/15; VIRI 12/15 in WNC 12/16; LAW 12/16; JP, MEI 12/24)

The U.S. reports the arrest in the Middle East of 13 mbrs. of a suspected terrorist group with links to Saudi dissident Osama Bin Laden that was believed to be planning New Year's attacks around the world. (NYT, WP 12/14; WT 12/15)

PA chief negotiator for final status talks Yasir`Abid Rabbuh goes to Cairo to brief FM Musa on interim and final status talks with Israel. (MENA 12/4 in WNC 12/6)

Arafat hosts tree-lighting ceremony in Bethlehem, officially opening the PA's Bethlehem 2000 celebrations. (NYT, WT 12/5)

In Ramallah, 5,000 Palestinians hold a rally to mark the 51st anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, call on PA to stop political detention, safeguard freedom of expression, uphold democracy and the rule of law, end corruption. (LAW 12/6)

Iraq rejects a 2d, week-long UN extension of the Oil-for-Food program; continues to suspend its oil exports. (WT 12/5) (see 11/22)

PA, Israeli final status teams hold their 5th round of talks in Ramallah. (MEI 11/26)

With Vatican support, Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches across Israel, the Israeli-controlled occupied territories close for 2 days to protest Israel's approval of plans for a mosque nr. Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth. (al-Quds 11/22 in WNC 11/23; MM, NYT, WT 11/23; WP 11/24; MEI 12/10) (see 11/3)

In the Gaza Strip, Palestinian taxi drivers go on 3-day strike to protest increase in taxes imposed by the PA. Some Palestinians stage a sit-in outside the PC to protest increased fuel prices. Some Palestinians are also refusing to pay phone bills, since rates have been lowered in Israel but not in the territories. (al-Quds 11/24 in WNC 11/29)

Iran rejects a U.S. request to send a consular team to Tehran to promote travel btwn. the 2 countries. State Dept. says it is "high time" Iran allowed such visits since Iranian officials are routinely allowed into the U.S. (NYT, WT 11/24; WJW 12/2; NYT 12/3)

A Turkish trade delegation arrives in Jordan on a 5-day visit to examine the Israeli-Jordanian-U.S. qualified industrial zones (QIZs). (ATL 11/23 in WNC 11/24)

Turkish tourism officials meet with their PA counterparts to discuss including the PA in Turkish-Israeli joint projects. Turkey, the PA sign a bilateral agmt. on tourist packages to Bethlehem. (ATL 11/22 in WNC 11/24)

In Tehran, Iran, Turkey discuss security on their common border, expanding economic cooperation. (IRNA 11/22 in WNC 11/23)

Iraq halts oil exports to protest the UN's decision to extend the Oil-for-Food program for 2 wks. instead of 6 mos., as it has done in the past; says sanctions should be removed immediately. (NYT, WT 11/23)

In s. Lebanon. 1 civilian is wounded by IDF shelling. (RL 11/22 in WNC 11/23)

Some 30+n50 Jewish settlers try to seize a Palestinian home in East Jerusalem by forcing owners to sign papers renouncing their ownership. Settlers injure 1 woman during the confrontation, before police intervene. (LAW 11/19)

The Israeli daily Ma'ariv reports that Israel is suing Iraq for $1.71 b. in damages caused by its Scud attacks during the 1991 Gulf War. The UN, which appropriates a third of Iraq's oil sale profits to pay out reparations, is expected to hear the case within the yr. (MM 11/19)

In s. Lebanon, 1 Lebanese army soldier, 1 civilian are injured by IDF shelling. (RL 11/19 in WNC 11/23)

Some 30+n50 Jewish settlers try to seize a Palestinian home in East Jerusalem by forcing owners to sign papers renouncing their ownership. Settlers injure 1 woman during the confrontation, before police intervene. (LAW 11/19)

The Israeli daily Ma'ariv reports that Israel is suing Iraq for $1.71 b. in damages caused by its Scud attacks during the 1991 Gulf War. The UN, which appropriates a third of Iraq's oil sale profits to pay out reparations, is expected to hear the case within the yr. (MM 11/19)

In s. Lebanon, 1 Lebanese army soldier, 1 civilian are injured by IDF shelling. (RL 11/19 in WNC 11/23)

Israel opens Shuhada Street, which runs along the border of a Jewish settlement in Hebron, to Palestinian taxis. According to Wye II, the route should have been opened to all traffic by yesterday. (WP 11/1)

Israel blames a computer problem for the apparent "disappearance" of 17 Palestinians using the safe-passage corridor, who were recorded entering the route but not leaving. (AFP 10/31 in WNC 11/2)

Mauritania recalls its amb. to Iraq and bans the pro-Iraqi Ba`thist party in Mauritania, al-Tali'a, after Baghdad criticizes Nouakchott for establishing diplomatic relations with Israel, threatens retaliation. (AFP 10/31 in WNC 11/2; AFP 11/1 in WNC 11/3; AFP 11/3 in WNC 11/4; NYT 11/4; AFP 11/4 in WNC 11/5; MEI 11/12)

In Washington, King Abdallah, Pres. Clinton hold talks on the peace process, bilateral economic ties. Previously, Abdallah said he would bring with him a message for Clinton fr. Iraqi pres. Saddam Hussein (see 10/4); the U.S. says Abdallah brought no message, though one might exist. Some reports maintain that U.S. officials told Jordan that Abdallah should not pass the message to Clinton, since the U.S. was not interested in a dialogue with Iraq. (WP 10/13; DUS 10/13 in WNC 10/15; MEI 10/15; AYM 10/18 in WNC 10/19; WT 10/20; SA 10/20 in WNC 10/21)

Barak orders 15 of the 42 unauthorized settlements constructed after the Wye accord to be dismantled; allows 11 others to stay; says remaining 16 may remain for now, but new building is forbidden. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 10/13; JT, MENA 10/13 in WNC 10/15; CSM 10/14; AYM, al-Quds 10/14 in WNC 10/18; JP 10/22) (see 10/10)

Israel says it will let DFLP head Hawatimah into the occupied territories now that he has expressed support for the peace process. (WP 10/13; MEI 10/29)

The Israeli High Court rules that Muhammad Abbas, head of the Palestine Liberation Front, is immune from trial in Israel for the 1985 Achille Lauro hijacking during which hijackers shot dead U.S. citizen Leon Klinghoffer. (WP 10/13)

In Ramallah, Palestinian nationalist and Islamist organizations (including, ALF, DFLP, Fatah, FIDA, Hamas, the Palestine Liberation Front, PFLP, PPP, PPSF) hold unity talks aimed at drawing up a list of principles for resolving the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Participants call on Arafat to approve the PC's law on the independence of the judiciary, release political detainees fr. PA prisons. (al-Quds 10/14 in WNC 10/18)

Israel, PA reached agmt. on safe-passage route fr. Tarqumiyya in the West Bank to Erez crossing in Gaza, which could open in days. Signing is set for 10/5. (MM 10/4; AFP 10/4 in WNC 10/5; MM, NYT, WP, WT 10/5; AFP 10/5, QA 10/6 in WNC 10/8; CSM, NYT, WP 10/6; WJW 10/7; DUS 10/7 in WNC 10/11; JP, MEI 10/15)

Syrian FM Shara`, who has been in charge of Syria's foreign policy throughout the peace process, is admitted to a Beirut hospital for emergency heart surgery. (AFP, RL 10/4 in WNC 10/5; MM 10/5)

In Virginia, Israeli national Shalom Shaphyr pleads guilty to a charge of attempting to export U.S. defense equipment to Israel without a license. Shaphyr attempted to buy restricted video intercept equipment, designed to covertly receive electromagnetic signals fr. computers, fr. an undercover agent. (WP 10/5)

PSF releases talk show host Disouqi, who was arrested 9/15. Disouqi announces on his program that he was tortured during questioning by PA police, names his interrogators on the air, dares them to arrest him again. (LAW 10/4; NYT 10/14; WP 10/15)

A Palestinian prisoner dies soon after being transferred to the hospital fr. the PA's Hebron jail. His family accuses the PA police of torturing him during his 2 days of detention. (LAW 10/5)

Iraq's Dep. PM Tariq Aziz meets with Jordanian PM Rawabida in Amman, gives him a message (verbal by most accounts, written by some) to deliver to the U.S. No details of the message are released, but reports speculate that Iraq wants to open a dialogue with the U.S. (SA 10/5, 10/6 in WNC 10/8; WT 10/6; GIU, MM, NYT 10/7; SA 10/9 in WNC 10/12; JP 10/15; MM 10/11; MEI 10/15)

In Paris, PM Barak discusses with Pres. Chirac the role of France, the EU in restarting the peace process. Chirac stresses that he has conveyed no messages btwn. Barak and Syrian pres. Asad, whose FM was in Paris on 9/18. (MM 9/22; AFP, France-Info Radio, LCI Television 9/22 in WNC 9/25; MM, NYT 9/23; MA 9/23 in WNC 9/26)

On the sidelines of the UNGA mtg. in New York, Secy. of State Albright holds a breakfast mtg. with Egyptian FM Musa to discuss the peace process, Iraq, bilateral ties; urges Egypt to take the lead in resuming multilateral talks now that Wye II has been signed and final status talks formally resumed. Egypt has not decided whether the time is right for multilateral working groups to restart mtgs. (MM 9/22; MENA 9/22 in WNC 9/25; MM, WT 9/23; MEI 10/1)

Later in the day, Albright meets with Syrian FM Shara` to discuss resuming Israeli-Syrian negotiations. (MM 9/22; MENA 9/22 in WNC 9/25; MM, WT 9/23; MM 9/24; RMC 9/25 in WNC 9/27; MEI 10/1)

This evening, Albright hosts a reception for Israeli FM Levy. 12 Arab, several EU reps. attend. Lebanese PM Huss, Syrian FM Shara` stay away. The U.S. and Russian cohosts urge attendees to resume multilateral talks regardless of the degree of progress in other negotiations. (MM 9/22; MENA 9/22 in WNC 9/25; MM, WT 9/23; MM 9/28; WJW 9/30; MEI 10/1, 10/29)

Jordan arrests 3 Hamas leaders (Abu Marzuq, Ghawshah, Mishal), 4 bodyguards on their return to Amman fr. Iran, charging them with membership in an illegal organization and possession of handguns. Abu Marzuq, a Yemeni-passport holder, is deported to the UAE, his point of departure for Jordan. (MM 9/22; AFP 9/22 in WNC 9/25; MM, NYT, WP 9/23; AFP, RMC 9/23 in WNC 9/26; CSM, MM 9/24; WT 9/26; MM 9/27; WJW 9/30; JP, MEI 10/1; NYT, WP 10/7; MEI 10/15) (see 9/13)

In s. Lebanon, a Lebanese soldier is killed, 6 are wounded by IDF shelling. (WP 9/23; RL 9/23 in WNC 9/26; WP 9/24)

2-day Arab League session opens in Cairo; will discuss the peace process, reconciliation btwn. Iraq and the Gulf states. Arafat gives an address, calling on Arab states to oppose resettlement of Palestinian refugees in their host countries. (MENA 9/12 in WNC 9/13; MM 9/13; QA 9/13 in WNC 9/14; HJ 9/13 in WNC 9/16; MM 9/16)

Barak says that if Israel, the PA fail to agree on an outline for a final status agmt. by 2/00, as planned, they may have to forgo a final peace accord and instead, by mutual consent, negotiate long-term interim agmts. on most issues. (JP [Internet] 9/14)

After being briefed by Erakat on his 8/1 mtg. with Sher, Arafat accuses Israel of a breach of trust, saying Israel is trying to "avoid the accurate and honest implementation of what has been agreed upon" under Wye. (NYT 8/3; MA, al-Quds 8/3 in WNC 8/5; MM 8/6)

Israeli PM Barak meets with Russian pres. Boris Yeltsin in Moscow for talks on the peace process, urges Russia to halt transfer of military technology to Iran, Iraq. (MM 8/2; Interfax, ITAR-TASS, NTV [Moscow] 8/2 in WNC 8/3; NYT 8/3; MM 8/4; Ekho Moskvy 8/6 in WNC 8/9)

In Cairo, PFLP closes 2 days of reconciliation talks with Fatah, PC mbrs. Although PFLP's Habash refuses to meet with Arafat, both groups describe the mtg. as a positive, agree to set up a follow-up comm. to outline principles of a comprehensive national dialogue that would create a unified position on final status talks with Israel. (NYT, WP, WT 8/2; al-Arabi, al-Quds 8/2 in WNC 8/5; MM, WT 8/3; al-Sha`b 8/6 in WNC 8/9; AYM 8/8 in WNC 8/10; MM 8/9) (see 7/30)

Israeli Finance M Shohat, PA Trade M Mahir al-Masri discuss Wye articles on economic issues, resuming mtgs. of the joint Israeli-PA economic comm., which has not convened for 2 yrs. (AYM 8/3 in WNC 8/5)

Israel's Environmental M Dalia Itzik tours Gaza with her PA counterpart Yusif Abu Safiyya. The pair discuss water pollution, destruction of green areas, possible joint projects. (NYT 8/4)

2-day Jordanian-Syrian Higher Comm. mtg. opens in Amman. Talks focus on economic relations. (JTV 8/2 in WNC 8/3; Petra-JNA, RJ 8/3, JT 8/4 in WNC 8/5) (see 7/22)

In Athens, a small homemade bomb explodes outside the offices of the Greece-Israeli Friendship Society, causing damage but no injuries. A caller claims responsibility on behalf of the previously unknown Black Star Group. (Athens News Agency 8/3 in WNC 8/5)

Turkey's military dismisses 58 officers suspected of being antisecularist Islamists or leftists. (WP, WT 8/4)