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  • November 24, 2023

    In the West Bank, a Palestinian man succumbed to injuries sustained during the airstrikes on Tulkarm refugee camp on 11/17. Israeli settlers attacked and wounded several Palestinian farmers in...

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  • October 12, 2023

    In the West Bank, Israeli...

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  • June 14, 2022

    In the West Bank, PA security forces, dressed in civilian clothes, violently dispersed Palestinian students and staff protesting the dismissal of 10 students from the Islamic bloc and 5 employees...

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  • May 26, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 3 Palestinians in Burqa and threw stones at vehicles and homes in the town. Israeli forces closed the main road between Nablus and Qalqilya, impeding...

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  • August 4, 2021

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces demolished 5 agricultural structures in Wadi Rahal and demolished 1 house, agricultural structures, water tanks, and solar panels, and confiscated 1 tractor and 1...

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  • December 2, 2014

    In the Gaza Strip, IDF troops on the e. border fence twice open fire on Palestinian agricultural lands, causing no injuries. Late at night, Israeli naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishing...

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  • February 2, 2014

    Off the coast of the Gaza Strip nr. Bayt Lahiya, Israeli naval vessels open fire on Palestinian fishermen, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, Israeli forces clash with residents in...

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  • May 23, 2013

    U.S. Secy. of State John Kerry holds separate talks with Israeli and Palestinian leaders, on his 4th visit to the region in 4 mos. Kerry meets with Israeli PM Netanyahu, Justice Minister Tzipi...

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  • December 23, 2012

    In the Gaza Strip, the IDF opens fire on Palestinians nr. Dayr al-Balah, seriously wounding 2. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 1 village nr. Ramallah and 3 villages nr. Qalqilya in the...

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  • October 20, 2011

    The IDF patrols in Tulkarm, 2 villages nr. Ramallah, 1 nr. Qalqilya, 1 nr. Tulkarm during the day; conducts late-night patrols in Jericho, Tulkarm, and Bayt Liqya nr. Ramallah (where stone-...

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  • May 15, 2011

    On the anniversary of the Nakba, 1,000s of Palestinians fr. the West Bank, Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria stage marches (mostly nonviolent, though some stone throwing) toward the Israeli border...

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  • March 24, 2011

    Palestinians fire at least 7 mortars, 6 homemade Qassam rockets, and 2 manufactured Grad rockets fr. Gaza into Israel during the day, causing no injuries. Israel retaliates with several air...

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  • March 12, 2011

    In the West Bank, the IDF raids and searches Palestinian villages around Itamar settlement, particularly in Awarta village, in search for the killers of 5 settlers found murdered on 3/11,...

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  • June 20, 1999

    Last Serbian troops pull out of Kosovo. NATO declares air war over. (NYT, WP, WT 6/21) (see 6/10)

    Rival Christian sects who divide caretaking of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in...

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  • June 10, 1999

    NATO halts its air campaign, as Yugoslav forces begin pullout fr. Kosovo. Yugoslav military has 11 days to fully withdraw or face renewed bombing. As they evacuate, 50,000 NATO troops will move in...

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  • June 3, 1999

    Yugoslavia accepts an international peace plan negotiated by Russia, Finland (acting for NATO) for ending Kosovo conflict. The plan provides "substantial autonomy" for Kosovo, return of all 850,...

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  • April 6, 1999

    In Moscow, Arafat meets with Russian pres. Boris Yeltsin, who calls for extension of the Oslo interim period. Arafat then leaves for the Ukraine for talks on the declaration of state...

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  • March 30, 1999

    Israel releases 14 Palestinian prisoners as a good-faith gesture to mark Id al-Adha. (MM 3/30; YA 3/30 in WNC 3/31; PR 4/9)

    U.S. intelligence officials say that in...

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  • March 24, 1999

    Led by the U.S., NATO forces begin air strikes on military installations of Yugoslavian pres. Slobodan Milosevic to prevent further Serbian attacks on the Kosovo province's ethnic...

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  • January 26, 1996

    Syria, Israel end 3 days of talks in Maryland, reportedly hit an impasse. Israeli Environmental M Sarid blames FM Barak. (MM 1/25, 1/26; QY, SARR 1/26, IDF Radio 1/27, HA, MA, QY, YA 1/28 in FBIS...

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  • February 24, 1995

    NATO opens talks with 5 North African, Middle Eastern nations (incl. Israel, Egypt) in Bonn as part of its new focus on maintaining Mediterranean security in the face of rising Islamist movements...

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  • January 7, 1991

    U.S. officials say 6 Iraqi helicopter pilots flew to Saudi Arabia in one of most significant defections since crisis began; Iraq denies defections occurred (cf. 1/8) [INA 1/7 in FBIS 1/8; NYT, LAT...

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  • January 2, 1991

    NATO announces that Germany, Belgium, and Italy will send 42 jet fighters with at least 470 support personnel to Turkey to reinforce that nation's border with Iraq [WP, LAT, NYT 1/3].

    After...

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  • December 19, 1990

    In Riyadh with Sec. Cheney, Lt. Gen. Cal- vin Waller, deputy commander of U.S. forces in Gulf, tells reporters American-led forces would not be ready to attack Iraq by 1/15; Bush admin. says...

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  • December 17, 1990

    Sec. Baker tells NATO allies he expects Saddam Hussein to take dramatic step, such as partial pullout from Kuwait, just before UN resolution authorizing use of force goes into effect on 1/15. NATO...

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  • December 6, 1990

    Saddam Hussein says he has decided to release all foreigners held hostage in Iraq and Kuwait; Bush admin. welcomes move, but reiterates that no concessions will be made and that Iraq must leave...

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  • September 10, 1990

    After 2 days of talks in Iran, Iraqi delegation under F.M. Aziz (1st high-level visit since 1979 revolution) announces it will restore full diplomatic ties [NYT, LAT 9/11].

    Sec. Baker calls...

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  • September 5, 1990

    Speaking before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Sec. Baker tones down 9/4 suggestion of NATO-style security arrangement, which had touched off controversy, by saying "any such arrangement...

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  • September 4, 1990

    In testimony to House Foreign Affairs Committee, Sec. Baker calls for creation of U.S.-led NATO-style security structure in Middle East to prevent renewed Iraqi aggression even if present crisis...

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  • February 16, 1987

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: Poice raid W. Jerusalem Alternative Information Center, confiscate material, arrest director, and order center closed for 6 months on...

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In the West Bank, a Palestinian man succumbed to injuries sustained during the airstrikes on Tulkarm refugee camp on 11/17. Israeli settlers attacked and wounded several Palestinian farmers in Ramin and vandalized their cars. Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian during a raid in Aqrabat Jaber refugee camp. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinians celebrating the release of prisoners near the Ofer Prison, injuring 3 with live ammunition, 4 with baton rounds, and 22 with tear gas. Meanwhile, Israeli forces shot and injured 5 Palestinian during raids in Nablus, Deir al-Ghusun, and Tuqu’. Israeli forces also punitively demolished the family home in Rumana of a Palestinian who was shot dead by Israeli police in Tel Aviv earlier this year after he allegedly shot and killed several Israelis. Elsewhere, Israeli forces assaulted 5 Palestinians, arresting them and seizing their vehicles at a flying checkpoint near Aqraba. Israeli forces also assaulted 2 Palestinians during a raid in Taqqou. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians trying to reach the Haram al-Sharif compound from Wadi al-Juz, causing injuries from beatings and tear gas. Israeli forces also raided the homes of 3 Palestinian prisoners in Jabel Mukaber and Bayt Hanina, warning their families not to celebrate their release. In Gaza, before the ceasefire took effect (see below), Israeli forces raided the Indonesian Hospital, killing a wounded woman and injuring 3 others after shelling and destroying the first floor of the hospital. Israeli forces also bombed Nuseirat refugee camp, killing at least 27 people. After the ceasefire took effect, Israeli forces shot and killed 2 Palestinians and wounded 15 others who were trying to return to northern Gaza from the south. Israel said it would not allow Palestinians to return to the north. Israel also said it had completed its operation at al-Shifa Hospital, claiming it had destroyed tunnels. It was also reported that Israeli forces destroyed oxygen pipes and generators at the hospital. Rockets were fired at Israel prior to the ceasefire; no injuries were reported. In Lebanon, Israel shot down a surface-to-air missile fired at an Israeli drone. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, HA, NYT, NYT, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 11/24; AJ, AJ 11/25; HA 11/27)

The Gaza Media Office did not update the casualty numbers, leaving the comprehensive death toll as of 11/23 at around 14,800 Palestinians, including 6,000 children and 4,000 women, and around 35,000 injured in Israeli airstrikes on Gaza since 10/7. At least 7,000 people were missing in rubble, including 1,700 children. 222 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7, including 54 children. More than 2,885 people have been injured. Israel reported that 1,200 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed and 5,431 have been injured since 10/7. 75 Israeli soldiers have been killed in Gaza since the ground invasion began on 10/27. Over 1.7 million Palestinians, more than 70% of the population of Gaza, have been displaced since 10/7. There has been a complete electricity blackout in Gaza since 10/12 due to the Israel blockade. As of 11/18, at least 45,000 housing units had been destroyed and 233,000 had been damaged in Israeli airstrikes since 10/7, constituting 60% of all housing units. 2 ambulances, 4 trucks carrying diesel, 4 trucks carrying cooking oil, and 137 trucks carrying aid entered Gaza via the Rafah crossing. The UN delivered flour to 2 UNRWA facilities in the north of Gaza, the first delivery of aid the north in more than 1 month. 40 people were evacuated from al-Ahli Baptist Hospital in Gaza City to a hospital in Khan Yunis. Al-Ahli started to admit new patients despite a lack of electricity and essential hospital supplies. Fewer than 400 people fled the northern part of Gaza to the south. 44 wounded Palestinians and their companions were evacuated to Egypt. Thousands of Palestinians stuck in Egypt began returning to Gaza. (AJ, HA, NYT, REU, UNOCHA, UNOCHA 11/24)

39 Palestinians were released from the Ofer Prison as part of the prisoner exchange, including 24 women and 15 children. 33 were released to the Beitunia checkpoint, while 6 were released to East Jerusalem. 13 Israelis, 10 Thai nationals, and 1 Filipino national held captive by Hamas were released to Israel via Egypt. Germany said 4 of the Israelis were also German nationals. The Thai and Filipino captives were released in a separate deal made between Hamas and Thailand, brokered by Iran. The director of the Schneider Children’s Medical center in Israel said the captives the hospital had received were in good physical condition. Hamas published videos of its militants handing over captives to the Red Cross. Hamas political leader Ismail Haniyeh said Hamas was committed to the ceasefire as long as Israel abides by the terms. Head of the Palestinian Prisoners’ Club Qadura Fares said Israel had violated the prisoner exchange terms by releasing 7 people who were arrested within the past year instead of prisoners who had been in prison for longer. The Prisoner’s Club also said Israel had imposed a ban on celebrating the release of Palestinian prisoners, imposing fines of $18,700 for public celebrations. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, AP, AX, HA, HA, NYT, NYT, NYT, NYT, NYT, NYT, NYT, NYT, REU, REU, REU, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA 11/24; AJ, AJ, AJ, HA, NYT, REU 11/25; HA 11/27)

UK foreign secretary David Cameron visited Ramallah, saying the UK has committed an additional $37.8 million in aid to Gaza. Cameron also said that Israel will not have long-term safety and security unless Palestinians have the same, calling settler violence “completely unacceptable” and urging Israel to prosecute the perpetrators. Cameron met with PA president Mahmoud Abbas, who called on the UK to help ensure that Israel will not succeed in separating the West Bank and Gaza or reoccupy it. PA prime minister Mohammed Shtayyeh also met with Cameron and met separately with the foreign ministers of Portugal and Slovenia. (HA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 11/24; AJ 11/25)

At a press conference held at the Rafah crossing, Spanish prime minister Pedro Sanchez said that a permanent ceasefire was required and said Spain may unilaterally recognize Palestine even if the EU does not. At the press conference, Belgian prime minister Alexander de Croo said “[w]ay too many people have died. The destruction of Gaza is unacceptable.” Israel subsequently summoned the Spanish and Belgian representatives in Israel for a reprimand, prompting Spain to do the same to the Israeli ambassador to Spain. Later in a meeting with de Croo and Sanchez in Cairo, Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi called for the establishment of a demilitarized Palestinian state with UN, Arab, or NATO forces guaranteeing the peace. (AJ, AJ, AP, HA, HA, REU 11/24; AJHA 11/25; HA 11/26)

U.S. president Joe Biden welcomed the release of the 24 captives from Gaza, saying that there was a chance that the temporary ceasefire could facilitate a longer ceasefire. (NYT 11/24)

European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen said at a press conference with Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau that there should be no forced displacement from occupied Palestine and that a reformed PA should govern Gaza and the West Bank. Von der Leyen also said settler violence had to stop. (HA 11/24)

An Israeli-owned cargo ship was attacked by a drone in the northern part of the Indian Ocean before the ceasefire agreement was implemented. The attack, which caused minor damage, was attributed to Iran by several media outlets. (AJ, AJ, HA, HA, REU 11/25)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers shot and killed 2 Palestinians during a funeral procession for 4 Palestinians killed by Israeli settlers in Qusra on 10/11. Israeli settlers also attacked Palestinians and Palestinian property in Nabi Salih, Huwwara, Abu Kabash, Khirbet Zanuta, Jaba’, and al-Twana, injuring at least 2. Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian minor in Jayyus. Israeli forces also shot and killed a Palestinian who allegedly shot and injured an Israeli soldier near Ibziq. Elsewhere, Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian woman traveling in a car with her son, who was injured, in Ein Yabrud. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters, injuring 7 with live ammunition in Nabi Ilyas, Sinjil, Bethlehem, and Beit Umar. Meanwhile, Israeli forces assaulted 2 Palestinians, including a 9-year-old, demolished a gate to a school, and seized a Palestinian flag in Khirbet Zanuta. Israeli forces also demolished 2 Palestinian homes in al-Janiya. Separately, Israeli forces sealed a pizzeria in Huwwara that had used a picture of one of the Israeli captives for an online ad; Israeli settlers had earlier tried to attack the pizzeria. 60 Palestinians were arrested during raids in and around Jenin, Jericho, Bethlehem, Hebron, Ramallah, Nablus, Qalandia, Qalqilya, and Tulkarm. The Palestinian Prisoner’s Society said Israel has arrested more than 200 people in the West Bank since 10/7. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces shot and killed a Palestinian after he allegedly shot and injured 2 Israeli police officers in near Bab al-Zahra. The PFLP said that the man was of a member of its organization. In Gaza, an Israeli airstrike killed at least 45 people in Jabalia refugee camp. Further airstrikes killed hundreds of Palestinians and destroyed at least 8 high-rise residential towers, with the most severely hit areas being Gaza City, Rafah Nuseirat, and Dayr al-Balah. The UN said that while rockets were still fired from Gaza they had dissipated in intensity. Rockets from Gaza killed 2 Israelis and wounded several others. In the Naqab, Israeli police shot and injured 2 Palestinian citizens of Israel in Rahat, claiming they were from Gaza. In Lebanon, militants killed an Israeli soldier using an anti-tank missile. A drone from Lebanon was shot down over Israel. In Syria, Israeli forces attacked the international airports in Damascus and Aleppo, damaging the runways. (AP 10/7; AJ 10/11; AJ, AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, AP, AP, AP, HA, HA, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/12; AJ, AJ, HA, WAFA 10/13; HA 10/14)

Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, and the Euro-Med Human Rights Monitor confirmed earlier reports that Israel had used white phosphorus munitions to attack Gaza and Lebanon. The Israeli military said that it was “currently not aware of the use” of white phosphorous munitions in Gaza. The Gaza Ministry of Health said at as of 2 p.m. least 1,417 Palestinians had been killed and 6,268 had been injured in Israeli airstrikes on Gaza since 10/7. In addition, Israeli media reported that 1,500 Palestinian militants have been killed near Gaza. 34 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7, including 6 children. More than 500 Palestinians had been injured, including at least 175 with live ammunition. Israeli media reported that around 1,300 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed and 3,391 injured in Israel since 10/7. The UN reported that 423,000 Palestinians have been displaced since 10/7 and that since 2 p.m. on 10/11 there has been a complete electricity blackout due to the Israeli blockade. At least 4,626 housing units have been destroyed in Israeli airstrikes since 10/7. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said hospitals in Gaza were turning to graveyards as medical equipment has stopped working due to the lack of power and that 3 out of 5 water plants in Gaza, serving 1.1 million people, were out of service due to the Israeli bombing and blockade. The ICRC also said it was in contact with Hamas and Israel about the captives held in Gaza. The Israeli Air Force bragged on X that Israel had dropped 6,000 bombs on Gaza since 10/7. (AJ 10/11; AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, AP, HA, HRW, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/12; AJ, AJ, AJ, HA, REU, WAFA 10/13)

Israeli energy minister Yisrael Katz said Israel would continue preventing energy, water, and fuel from entering Gaza until the Israeli captives are released. (AJ 10/11; AJ, REU 10/12)

UN secretary-general Antonio Guterres said that Israel must allow fuel, food, and water into Gaza. (AJ 10/11)

Jordan said it will send a military plane with humanitarian aid for Gaza to Egypt. (AJ 10/11; HA 10/12)

Egyptian president Abdel Fattah al-Sisi said Palestinians must “stay steadfast and remain on their land” as Egypt feared that allowing Palestinians to flee to Egypt would mean their permanent displacement from Gaza. Egypt also said planes carrying international aid to Gaza should use the al-Arish Airport 28 miles from the Gaza border. (AJ 10/11; REU 10/12; REU 10/14)

The UK said it had deployed 2 naval ships and a surveillance aircraft to the eastern Mediterranean to support Israel. (AJ 10/11; HA 10/12)

The Commission for Prisoners and Ex-Prisoners Affairs said that, starting on 10/11, Israel cut off water and electricity to Palestinian prisoners in the Naqab Prison. (WAFA 10/12)

Hamas military spokesperson Abu Obeida said Hamas began preparing for Operation Al-Aqsa Flood in 2022 and managed to recruit 4,500 fighters for the operation. He added that Hamas is prepared for an Israeli ground invasion. Hamas deputy political leader Salah al-Arouri called the operation a “preemptive strike” based on intelligence that Israel was planning to attack after the Sukkot holidays. Al-Aruri also said it initially only took soldiers as captives but that the entry of armed civilians resulted in chaos and that many of the Israeli deaths were the result of Israeli actions, citing the Hannibal Directive that allows Israeli forces to kill Israelis rather than allow enemies to hold them captive. Hamas also released a video produced last month of its training exercise “Strong Pillar” preparing militants for Operation Al-Aqsa Flood. (AJ 10/11; AP, HA 10/12)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas met with Jordanian king Abdullah II in Amman, saying that he rejects the killing of civilians by Israel and Hamas. (AJ 10/11; HA, REU, REU, WAFA 10/12)

The Knesset approved the new war cabinet and swore-in National Unity Party members Benny Gantz, Gadi Eisenkot, Gideon Sa’ar, Chili Tropper, and Yifat Shasha-Biton as ministers without portfolio. (HA 10/12)

U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken landed in Israel for meetings with Israeli leaders. In a meeting with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Blinken invoked the Holocaust and said he was in Israel to support the country “as the United States Secretary of State, but also as a Jew.” Blinken and Netanyahu compared Hamas to ISIS, with Blinken saying the Israeli government had showed him pictures and videos of infants shot, soldiers beheaded, and people burned alive. Israeli military spokesperson Daniel Hagari claimed that a guide by ISIS and al-Qaeda on producing IEDs was left behind by militants near Gaza. Blinken is expected to meet with PA president Mahmoud Abbas and King Abdullah II of Jordan in Amman on 10/13 and later travel to Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, and Qatar. The Wall Street Journal reported that the U.S. is in contact with Egyptian and Israeli officials to help evacuate around 500-600 U.S. citizens living in Gaza via the Rafah crossing. 17 members of Congress, led by Sara Jacobs (D-CA), signed a letter to the State Department urging it to evacuate Palestinian Americans from Gaza and the West Bank.  (AJ 10/11; AJ, HA, HA, HA, REU, REU, REU 10/12; REU 10/13)

Israeli defense minister Yoav Gallant spoke to NATO defense ministers, claiming Israeli women were raped and dragged to Gaza and that the Hamas operation was the worst for the Jewish people since the Holocaust. These widely circulated rape claims have not been verified. (HA, HA 10/12)

Lebanese caretaker prime minister Najib Mikati urged all Lebanese groups not to get pulled into “Israel’s plans,” and condemned the Israeli attacks. (AJ 10/11)

The OIC condemned Israel’s attacks on Gaza. (WAFA 10/12)

South Africa offered to help mediate a “conflict resolution,” calling for the immediate and unconditional opening of “humanitarian corridors.” (AJ 10/11; HA 10/12)

Brazilian president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva called on Israeli president Isaac Herzog to establish a humanitarian corridor to Egypt and to end the total blockade of Gaza, allowing electricity, water, and medicine in hospitals. (AJ 10/13)

German chancellor Olaf Scholz criticized PA president Mahmoud Abbas for not speaking out against the Hamas operation on 10/7 and said Germany will suspend all development aid to Palestine until Germany has completed a review of its aid. Scholz also said Germany would ban the organization Samidoun because it handed out pastries at a pro-Palestinian protest on 10/7. (AP, HA 10/12; HA 10/16)

The Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee said it had received multiple calls about Palestinians being detained by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement or receiving visits from the FBI, and that the FBI visited several mosques in the U.S. (AJ 10/11; REU 10/13)

France banned pro-Palestinian protests, claiming they would “generate disturbances to public order.” When protesters took to the street in Paris in defiance of the ban, French police assaulted them using water cannons and tear gas. More than 1,000 Tunisians also protested in Tunis. (AJ 10/11; AJ, AP, HA 10/12; REU 10/13)

ICC prosecutor Karim Khan spoke for the first time since Operation Al-Aqsa Flood, saying the ICC does have jurisdiction over potential war crimes carried out by either Israel or Palestinian militants in the current war. (REU 10/12; AJ 10/18)

Former U.S. president and current Republican front-runner for the next presidential election, Donald Trump, said that he will “never forget that Bibi Netanyahu let us down,” and called Defense Minister Gallant “a jerk.” Trump complained that Netanyahu tried to take credit for killing Iranian general Qassem Soleimani in 2020, saying that “did not make me feel too good.” Rolling Stone reported that Trump had told allies that he wants Netanyahu impeached. (HA, HA, HA 10/12; REU 10/13)

In the West Bank, PA security forces, dressed in civilian clothes, violently dispersed Palestinian students and staff protesting the dismissal of 10 students from the Islamic bloc and 5 employees at An-Najah National University in Nablus, causing several injuries from beatings and pepper spray. The Iranian news agency Tansim said 1 of its Palestinian reporters was abducted by Palestinian gunmen while covering the events before being beaten and warned against writing negatively about the PA. Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling between Nablus and Jenin. Israeli settlers also vandalized 8 olive trees in Qaryut. Israeli forces evicted 4 Palestinians from their land in Wadi Fukin. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ramallah, Tuqu‘, Bethlehem, Surif, al-Tabaqa, Nablus, Far‘un, Rumana, and Aqabat Jaber refugee camp; Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians protesting the raid in Nablus, injuring 2 with shrapnel. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces assaulted and arrested 2 Palestinians in Silwan and arrested 1 other in Isawiya. (MEE, WAFA, WAFA 6/14; PCHR 6/15; PCHR 6/16; AP, HA 6/17; UNOCHA 7/2)

Hamas released a statement accusing PA forces in the West Bank of torturing Hamas supporters. (ALM 7/2)

EU commission president Ursula von der Leyen announced that the frozen $224 million in economic aid to the PA from 2021 had been unfrozen and would be transferred to the PA. The announcement came ahead of a meeting between President von der Leyen and PA prime minister Mohammed Shtayyeh in Ramallah. Von der Leyen later met with Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett and president Isaac Herzog. The EU funding to the PA was frozen due to 1 Hungarian commissioner’s concern over “incitement” in PA schoolbooks. Prime Minister Shtayyeh also met with his Italian counterpart Mario Draghi. (AA, HA, JP, POL, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/14; AJ, WAFA 6/15)

Israel’s deputy religious affairs minister Matan Kahana of the Yamina party was filmed telling Israeli high schoolers in the Efrat settlement that “if there was a button that could be pressed, that would remove all the Arabs from here, send them on an express train to Switzerland—where they would live an amazing life, I wish them all the best in Switzerland—I would press that button. . . . there is no such button. We were probably meant to [co]exist here on this land in some form,” Palestinian members of the Israeli parliament attacked Kahana for his remarks and he later apologized for wording his statements poorly. (AJ, AP, HA, MEE 6/14; HA, MDW, TOI 6/15)

The U.S. White House expressed concern over negotiations between the Israeli spyware company NSO Group and the American defense contractor L3Harris for the latter to buy technology from the former. The deal would see NSO Group removed from the U.S. department of commerce’s blacklist and would transfer NSO’s clients in the U.S., UK, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, and possibly EU and NATO countries to L3Harris. The New York Times later reported that the negotiations had collapsed after they were made public and that U.S. intelligence officials had backed L3Harris’s potential acquisition of NSO Group. (HA 6/14; MEE, REU 6/15; NYT, WP 7/10; HA, TOI 7/11)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 3 Palestinians in Burqa and threw stones at vehicles and homes in the town. Israeli forces closed the main road between Nablus and Qalqilya, impeding Palestinian movement. Israeli forces also leveled 3 dunams (0.75 acres) of land planted with olive trees near Wadi Rahal. 24 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Silwad, Ramallah, Huwwara, Qalqilya, Ya‘bad, Yatta, Sa‘ir, and Bani Na‘im. In East Jerusalem, 5 Palestinians were arrested during raids. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinians east of Khuza‘a and Maghazi; no injuries were reported. (MEE, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 5/26; UNOCHA 6/4)

The PA announced it had finished its investigation into the killing of Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh, concluding that Israel deliberately killed her. The PA findings are aligned with investigations made by AP and CNN, and with eyewitness accounts. Israel called the PA conclusion “a blatant lie.” The investigation found that the bullet that hit Abu Akleh was a 5.56 mm round used by NATO forces and that it was fired from 186 yards. The PA will not hand over the bullet to Israel, as Israel had requested. The PA handed a copy of its investigation to the U.S. (AJ, AP, AX, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA 5/26)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas appointed PA minister for civil affairs Hussein al-Sheikh the new secretary-general of the PLO Executive Committee. The position of secretary-general had been vacant since Saeb Erakat passed due to complications from the COVID-19 virus on 11/10/2020. (HA, MEE, WAFA 5/26)

Al Jazeera said it was preparing a file to be sent to the ICC pertaining to the Israeli killing of its journalist Abu Akleh and the Israeli bombing their offices in Gaza in May 2021. (AJ, MEE, REU 5/26; AP, HA 5/27)

The Iraqi parliament approved a law criminalizing the normalization of Israel, with 275 out of 329 votes in favor. The law applied to all Iraqi citizens, state and independent institutions, and foreigners working in Iraq. Violations of the law can be punishable by death sentences or life imprisonment. (AJ, HA, WAFA 5/26; NYT 5/27; MEMO 5/30)

83 Democrats in the U.S. house and senate signed a letter to U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken urging him to intervene against Israeli plans to forcefully displace more than 1,000 Palestinians living in Masafer Yatta, an area Israel has converted into a firing zone. The letter underscored that the Israeli move “could further undermine efforts to reach a two-state solution” and contravenes international law. (ALM, HA 5/26; MDW, MEE, WAFA 5/27; TOI 5/31)

The U.S. company Meta, which operates Facebook, turned down an Israeli request to block a Facebook page Israel claims is “clearly linked to Hamas.” Meta said that the Israeli claim did not hold any merit. (HA 5/26)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces demolished 5 agricultural structures in Wadi Rahal and demolished 1 house, agricultural structures, water tanks, and solar panels, and confiscated 1 tractor and 1 vehicle in Ibziq. Israeli forces also demolished 1 agricultural structure in Sabastia and 3 residential structures near Bayt Dajan. 10 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in and around Sa‘ir, Hebron, Deir ‘Ammar, Kobar, Deir Istiya, and Balata refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces demolished 10 shops and razed land near Hizma. 2 Palestinian children were arrested during late-night raids in Silwan. In Israel, 3 rockets were launched from Lebanon at Israel; no damage was reported. Israel subsequently fired missiles at Lebanon; no damage was reported. Israeli defense minister Benny Gantz said Israel held Lebanon responsible for any attacks on Israel from its territory. (AJ, MEE, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 8/4; HA, MEMO, PCHR, REU 8/5; ALM, HA, MEMO 8/6)

1 Palestinian prisoner held in administrative detention ended a 21-day hunger strike after the Israeli prison service promised him a court hearing on 8/5. (WAFA 8/4)

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) said it would resume its work in the occupied Palestinian territories. The Trump administration had ended USAID’s work in Palestine during its tenure. (MEMO 8/5)

At a UN security council briefing on the attack of a Japanese-owned vessel off the coast of Oman on 7/29, Defense Minister Gantz attacked NATO for shying away from action and doing nothing. (REU 8/4; MEMO, REU 8/5; HA 8/11)

In the Gaza Strip, IDF troops on the e. border fence twice open fire on Palestinian agricultural lands, causing no injuries. Late at night, Israeli naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishing boats off the coast nr. alSudaniyya, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, PA security forces enter the H2 area of c. Hebron and arrest 2 Palestinians. IDF troops deliver demolition orders to several homes, tents, and other residential structures in 2 bedouin communities s. of Hebron. The IDF conducts house searches in Jalazun r.c., as well as nr. Hebron and Bethlehem; patrols nr. Salfit, Hebron, Tulkarm, Jenin, and in al-‘Arub r.c. An IDF raid in ‘Askar r.c. nr. Nablus sparks clashes with stone-throwing residents; 1 Palestinian is injured. In East Jerusalem, Israeli security forces enter Shu‘fat r.c. and clashes break out with residents, causing no injuries; conduct house searches in Ras al-Amud and Jabal Mukabir. An unknown assailant throws a firebomb at a bus nr. the Old City, causing some damage. (IMEMC, JP, MNA 12/2; MNA 12/3; PCHR 12/4)

Israeli PM Netanyahu fires Fin. Min. Lapid and Justice Minister Livni from his cabinet. Netanyahu criticizes the 2 ministers for disloyalty, citing their opposition to his “nation-state” bill, and tells the press that he will soon call for the 19th Knesset to be dissolved. Meanwhile, reps. of the 4 nonZionist parties in the Knesset, Balad, Hadash, Ra’am, and Ta’al, meet to discuss running as a joint list in the upcoming elections. (AFP, FP, HA, JP 12/2; AFP, REU, YA 12/3)

U.S. Secy. of State Kerry holds talks with European FMs at a NATO meeting in Brussels. They discuss France’s draft UNSC res., which sets a timetable on IsraeliPalestinian peace negotiations. (AFP, REU 12/2; AFP, HA 12/3)

The UNGA passes a res. introduced by Egypt, which calls on Israel to give up its nuclear weapons and put its nuclear facilities under international oversight. (YA 12/2; EI 12/4)

The French parliament passes a symbolic res. that facilitates recognition of Palestinian statehood. The res. “invites the French govt. to use the recognition of the State of Palestine as an instrument to gain a definitive res. of the conflict,” and sets a 2-year deadline for the creation of an independent Palestinian state. (AFP, IMEMC, MEMO, REU, RT 12/2; WAFA 12/3)

Off the coast of the Gaza Strip nr. Bayt Lahiya, Israeli naval vessels open fire on Palestinian fishermen, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, Israeli forces clash with residents in Nabi Salih village nr. Ramallah during a patrol, wounding 2 (1 with rubber-coated metal bullets, 1 struck by a tear gas canister). The IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in 1 village nr. Qalqilya in the morning, and in al-‘Arub r.c. and 1 village nr. Hebron, Qalqilya, Jenin, and Jalazun r.c. n. Ramallah at night; patrols in 1 village nr. Hebron in the afternoon, and in 3 villages and al-‘Arub r.c. nr. Hebron at night. Jewish settlers uproot around 1,200 olive and almond tree seedlings in Sinjil village nr. Ramallah. Meanwhile, activists establish a new protest encampment, named “al-Awda,” in the Jordan Valley 2 days after activists set up something similar at ‘Ayn Hiljeh. (MNA 2/2; PCHR 2/6)

U.S. Secy. of State Kerry and Israeli PM Netanyahu talk on the phone about the ongoing negotiations, especially in light of controversy surrounding Kerry’s reference to boycotts at the Munich Security Conference on 2/1. Still in Munich, Kerry meets with Israel’s Justice Minister Livni and Special Envoy Molcho to discuss his framework deal. Meanwhile, PA Pres. Abbas calls for a U.S.-led NATO presence in a future Palestinian state to secure the borders. (HA, NYT 2/2)

U.S. Secy. of State Kerry holds a meeting with Iranian FM Zarif on the sidelines of the Munich conference, a rare face-to-face encounter that focuses on the ongoing nuclear talks. No details are released about the contents of the discussions. (AFP, AP 2/2)

U.S. Secy. of State John Kerry holds separate talks with Israeli and Palestinian leaders, on his 4th visit to the region in 4 mos. Kerry meets with Israeli PM Netanyahu, Justice Minister Tzipi Livni, and separately with Pres. Shimon Peres in Jerusalem, and then with Palestinian pres. Mahmud Abbas in Ramallah. Kerry praises Netanyahu for his “seriousness” in looking for ways to return to direct negotiations and expresses optimism but no concrete strategy for moving things forward. Meanwhile, U.S. Defense Secy. Chuck Hagel appoints retired Gen. John Allen as special envoy on security issues in talks between Israel and the PA. Allen’s final post before retirement from the military was as commander of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. (AP, HA, JP, REU 5/23)

In the Gaza Strip, the IDF conducts an incursion nr. Khan Yunis, moving 300 meters past the border fence and raising land with bulldozers, a common occurrence justified by the military on security grounds. Israeli naval vessels also open fire on Palestinian fishermen off the coast nr. Bayt Lahiya, causing no damage or injuries. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts house searches and arrest raids in 1 village nr. Bethlehem at night; patrols in 2 villages nr. Salfit in the morning, 1 village nr. Salfit in the afternoon, and in 2 villages nr. Jenin, 1 village nr. Jericho and 1 village nr. Qalqilya at night. In East Jerusalem, 5 cars are vandalized with “price-tag” graffiti. (YA 5/23; PCHR 5/30)

Five are killed and more than 50 wounded in clashes in Tripoli between Lebanese gunmen from Sunni and Alawite communities. The death toll since the latest bout of fighting in the city began on 5/19 is now at least 18, with more than 170 wounded. The violence is linked to a Syrian govt. offensive that is being supported by Hizballah fighters. (AP, REU 5/23)

In the Gaza Strip, the IDF opens fire on Palestinians nr. Dayr al-Balah, seriously wounding 2. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 1 village nr. Ramallah and 3 villages nr. Qalqilya in the morning, in 2 villages nr. Ramallah and 1 village nr. Qalqilya in the afternoon, and in 3 villages nr. Qalqilya, 1 village nr. Ramallah, and 1 village nr. Jenin at night; conducts house searches and arrest raids in 1 village nr. Qalqilya in the afternoon, and 1 village each nr. Hebron and Jenin at night. (AP 12/23; PCHR 12/27)

Israeli PM Netanyahu and DM Barak receive a briefing from the IDF’s Central Command regarding what the army describes as a recent ‘‘escalation of Palestinian violence’’ in East Jerusalem and the West Bank. (JP 12/23)

Turkey lifts its veto of military cooperation between Israel and NATO, which began in the aftermath of Israel’s attack on the Gaza flotilla in 2010. (JP, ToI 12/23)

The IDF patrols in Tulkarm, 2 villages nr. Ramallah, 1 nr. Qalqilya, 1 nr. Tulkarm during the day; conducts late-night patrols in Jericho, Tulkarm, and Bayt Liqya nr. Ramallah (where stone-throwing Palestinians confront IDF troops, who respond with tear gas, rubber-coated steel bullets, and percussion grenades, causing no serious injuries). (PCHR 10/27; OCHA 10/28)

Libyan leader Mu‘ammar Qaddafi is captured and killed by rebels in Sirte, after a NATO attack in which U.S. drones and French warplanes bomb his convoy. Qaddafi’s son Mutassim and his army chief of staff are also killed. Rebels secure Sirte by the end of the day. (JAZ 10/20; NYT, WP, WT 10/21) 

On the anniversary of the Nakba, 1,000s of Palestinians fr. the West Bank, Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria stage marches (mostly nonviolent, though some stone throwing) toward the Israeli border. In Lebanon, though troops, riot police, and UNIFIL soldiers deploy to prevent marchers fr. reaching the border, a large group succeeds in reaching the border fence nr. Hizballah-controlled Maroun al-Ras village, where they throw stones at IDF troops. IDF troops open fire into Lebanon, leaving 10 Palestinians dead and at least 112 wounded. Palestinians refugees marching fr. Syria knock down the border fence into the Golan Heights, enter the Druze village of Majdal Shams, and rally in the village square, erecting Palestinian flags. IDF troops open fire to drive them back across the border, killing 4 Palestinians and wounding around 200. On the border with Jordan, Jordanian troops fired tear gas and scuffle with some 800 Palestinians, preventing them fr. reaching the border, leaving 14 demonstrators and 3 police officers lightly injured. In Egypt, govt. forces reinforce their border, preventing some 250 Palestinians fr. marching to the Rafah crossing. In Cairo, riot police fire tear gas, disperse protesters converging on the Israeli embassy, injuring around 120. On the Gaza border, IDF troops fire live ammunition and artillery at Gazans marching toward the border, wounding at least 125. In the West Bank, IDF troops fire tear gas, rubber-coated steel bullets to disperse around 1,000 stone-throwing Palestinians marching toward the Qalandia crossing (injuring 10s) and violently beat scores of Palestinians marching fr. Palestinian-controlled area A toward Israeli security-controlled area B in Hebron (injuring 10s). A large peaceful rally commemorating the Nakba is held in Ramallah. Numerous smaller and protests clashes are also reported in the West Bank and East Jerusalem; rights groups say some 185 Palestinians have been injured in these clashes over the past 3 days, 153 of them in Jerusalem. Netanyahu accuses the demonstrators of “incitement” and challenging “the very existence of Israel.” Other Israeli officials accuse Iran and Syria of instigating the Palestinians, noting that Syrian security did nothing to prevent Palestinians fr. approaching the border. (DS, IFM, IsRN, JAZ, JP, MA, YA 5/15; Christian Science Monitor, NYT, PCHR, WP, WT 5/16)

Unrelated to the “March to Palestine,” IDF troops fired across the border into Gaza, killing a Palestinian who allegedly was planting an explosive device. Inside Israel, an Israeli Palestinian drives his truck into several cars, a bus, and pedestrians in Tel Aviv, killing 1 Israeli and injuring 17 in what Israeli police say was a deliberate terrorist attack; the driver, who is arrested, strongly denies deliberately harming anyone, saying he lost control of his vehicle when a tire blew. The IDF also patrols in 2 village nr. Qalqilya (arresting 1 Palestinian teenager for throwing stones) and 2 nr. Tulkarm; sends undercover units into Nur al-Shams r.c. nr. Tulkarm late at night, surrounding and raiding a house and arresting 1 Palestinian; conducts other late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around al-‘Arub r.c. and Hebron, and nr. Salfit. Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba settlement in Hebron throw 4 Molotov cocktails at a nearby Palestinian home, causing minor damage. Israel resumes transferring VAT taxes to the PA (see 5/1), having received PA assurances that none of the money would be accessible to Hamas under the new Fatah-Hamas unity deal, but warning that it would reconsider suspending transfers if Hamas was allowed to join a PA govt. (NYT 5/16; PCHR 5/19; OCHA 5/20)

At quarter’s end, fierce fighting is ongoing in Libya and NATO intervention continues. Rebel-held areas increasingly report shortages of food and medical supplies. No reliable figures on casualties are available since independent media access and communications are extremely difficult. Deaths are thought to be well into the 1,000s and perhaps as high as 10,000. (WP 5/16; REU 6/9)

Palestinians fire at least 7 mortars, 6 homemade Qassam rockets, and 2 manufactured Grad rockets fr. Gaza into Israel during the day, causing no injuries. Israel retaliates with several air strikes and tank fire on Hamas buildings and a launching site, lightly injuring 3 Palestinians. The largest strike (4 missiles) targets the fmr. PA General Intelligence building outside of Jabaliya in the evening, heavily damaging the building and collaterally damaging 30 homes, 4 businesses, and 2 schools. Sources say that Hamas seems to have stepped back fr. rocket and mortar fire since its large barrage on 3/19, with most fire now coming fr. Islamic Jihad and other groups. In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes 3 wells nr. Bethlehem (all more than 100 yrs. old); bulldozes a Palestinian road nr. Salfit for the 2d time in 3 mos. (Jewish settlers seek to annex the waterrich area to the Yakir and Revava settlements; Palestinian residents paved the road to claim ownership and repaved it after the IDF bulldozed the 1st time); patrols in 4 village nr. Qalqilya, 4 nr. Ramallah, and 2 each nr. Jenin (where troops fire tear gas at stone-throwing youths who confront them, causing no injuries) and Jericho, as well as searching 2 open areas nr. Tulkarm. (HA, IsRN, JP, JTA 3/24; NYT, WP, WT 3/25; PCHR 3/31; OCHA 4/1)

By this date, allied air strikes on Libya have reportedly “all but destroyed” the Libyan air force and air defenses and the focus has shifted to targeting Qaddafi’s ground forces. At this stage, NATO takes the lead fr. the U.S. in enforcing the no-fly zone. The intervention is not enough to give Libyan rebels the upper hand, however; fierce fighting continues nationwide through the end of the quarter. (NYT 3/24, 3/25)

In Yemen, Pres. Saleh, responding to growing pressure (see 3/18), reins in the military and states that he would step down if he could arrange “an honorable transfer of power” that would keep the govt. in “safe hands.” Over next 2 wks., Saleh and the opposition hold talks but cannot reach an agreement. Meanwhile, protests continue (mostly nonviolent, ranging in size fr. the 1,000s to around 100,000). (NYT, WP, WT 3/25; NYT, WP 3/26–27; WP 3/28, 3/29; NYT 3/29; NYT, WP 3/31–4/1;NYT 4/3)

In the West Bank, the IDF raids and searches Palestinian villages around Itamar settlement, particularly in Awarta village, in search for the killers of 5 settlers found murdered on 3/11, detaining at least 20 young men for questioning. At least 27 attacks on Palestinians and their property by armed Jewish settlers retaliating for the Itamar murders are reported in Nablus (10), Hebron (9), Qalqilya (6), and Ramallah (2). Incidents involved: rampaging through Palestinian areas (6 cases, including an attempt to kidnap 2 children); vandalizing homes, businesses, and community buildings (11, including an attempt to set fire to a mosque); stoning and vandalizing cars (10); and cutting down olive trees (1). Meanwhile, a statement released to the press claims responsibility in the name of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade of Imad Mughniyah; AMB officials deny any connection to the purported offshoot group. Netanyahu makes a televised address calling on settlers not to take matters into their own hands and to allow the IDF to search for the assailants, also calling on the PA to halt the incitement that encourages such attacks. Abbas issues a statement denouncing the killings. The IDF also conducts late-night patrols in Qalqilya and 3 nearby villages. (HA, JP 3/12; al-Hayat, JP, JTA, NYT, WP 3/13; PCHR 3/17; OCHA 3/18)

The Arab League calls on the UN to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and recognizes the rebels’ provisional govt., steps that NATO had requested as a precondition for Western intervention in Libya, where extremely heavy fighting continues. (NYT, WP, WT 3/13)

After Yemen’s opposition rejected (3/10) as insufficient a proposal by Pres. Saleh to discuss constitutional reform and again demanded he immediately step down, Saleh deploys troops to crush growing antigovernment protests, authorizing them to use water cannons, tear gas, live ammunition, and sniper fire. Over the next few days, injuries quickly rise into the 100s but demonstrations only grow, now involving 10,000s of protesters. (NYT, WP 3/13; WT 3/14; NYT 3/15, 3/16; NYT, WP, WT 3/17; WP 3/18; see also NYT, WP, WT 3/11)

Last Serbian troops pull out of Kosovo. NATO declares air war over. (NYT, WP, WT 6/21) (see 6/10)

Rival Christian sects who divide caretaking of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem agree to build a 2d door to the shrine to ease passage of millions of pilgrims expected to visit in 2000; will decide door's location by 7/99. The Nuseibeh and Joudeh families, who have held the key to the existing entrance for the past 800 yrs., will relinquish their gate-keeping duties. (WP, WT 6/21; JP 6/25)

Israeli authorities demolish a Palestinian home in the Israeli Arab section of Lod, Israel. (NYT 6/23)

In s. Lebanon, an IDF shell hits a Lebanese home, wounding 3 civilians. (RL, VOL 6/20 in WNC 6/21; MM 6/21)

NATO halts its air campaign, as Yugoslav forces begin pullout fr. Kosovo. Yugoslav military has 11 days to fully withdraw or face renewed bombing. As they evacuate, 50,000 NATO troops will move in to set up a peace-keeping force. (AYM 6/10 in WNC 6/14; NYT, WP, WT 6/11; MEI 6/18)

PA security officials report that a statement attacking PA officials for financial, moral corruption has been circulating in the West Bank, Gaza. The tract, signed by a group calling itself the Free Officers, also threatens to overthrow, execute Arafat. Security officials do not know who is behind the statement and differ on how much importance to give it, but agree that it contains details that only well-placed insiders would know. (SA 6/10 in WNC 6/11; al-Ittihad 6/18 in WNC 6/21; al-Ahram 6/21 in WNC 6/23)

In Tehran, Egyptian, Iranian officials discuss expanding economic relations. (IRNA 6/10 in WNC 6/14)

Sen. Larry Craig (R-ID), the no. 3 ranking Republican in the Senate, rejects calls fr. the Muslim community to fire his foreign policy analyst James Jatras, citing the right to free speech. In 5/98, Jatras publicly stated that Islam has a "fraudulent self-depiction as a pacific creed," arises fr. "the darkness of Araby," rivals communism as one of the "gigantic Christian-killing machines." (WP 6/11; MEI 6/18)

An IDF helicopter crash lands in s. Lebanon during a clash with Hizballah, causing no injuries. Hizballah claims it brought down the helicopter; IDF does not comment. (RL 6/10 in WNC 6/11; MEI 6/18)

Yugoslavia accepts an international peace plan negotiated by Russia, Finland (acting for NATO) for ending Kosovo conflict. The plan provides "substantial autonomy" for Kosovo, return of all 850,000 ethnic Albanian refugees. U.S. expresses cautious optimism, says air war, which began 3/24, will continue until treaty is fully implemented. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 6/4; WP 6/5; GIU 6/7; MM 6/11; GIU 6/14)

In Damascus, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Abdallah holds a 2d round of talks with Pres. Asad before leaving for Amman, where he meets with King Abdallah. (`Ukaz 6/2 in WNC 6/8; MM 6/4)

SLA completes withdrawal fr. Jazzin. Lebanese government says it will not grant amnesty to the 203 SLA mbrs. who elected to surrender to Lebanese authorities rather than evacuate. (MM 6/3; RL 6/3 in WNC 6/8; NYT, WT 6/4; JP 6/11)

Fewer than 3,000 Palestinians across the territories observe the PA's "day of rage" to protest Israeli settlement expansion. In Bethlehem, Gaza, Hebron, Nablus, and Tulkarm, demonstrators clash with IDF soldiers, who respond with tear gas and rubber bullets, in total injuring 36 Palestinians, killing 1. (MM 6/3; HJ 6/3 in WNC 6/8; al-Akhbar, al-Quds 6/3 in WNC 6/9; CSM, NYT 6/4; al-Quds 6/4 in WNC 6/11; LAW 6/6; MM 6/7; JP 6/11; MEI 6/18) (see 5/30)

At a roadblock nr. Yattir settlement in the West Bank, an IDF soldier fatally shoots a Palestinian motorist who allegedly tried to run him over. (CSM, NYT 6/4)

In Moscow, Arafat meets with Russian pres. Boris Yeltsin, who calls for extension of the Oslo interim period. Arafat then leaves for the Ukraine for talks on the declaration of state issue. (ITAR-TASS 4/6 in WNC 4/7)

In Beirut, the Higher Palestinian-Lebanese Joint Comm. opens several days of talks ways of improving conditions Palestinian refugees in Lebanon. (al-Hayat al-Jadida 4/8 in WNC 4/14; al-Hayat al-Jadida 4/17 in WNC 4/21)

PM Netanyahu speaks in support of NATO airstrikes on Yugoslavia, while Israeli FM Sharon separately warns that an independent Kosovo could become a base for Islamist terrorism. (MM 4/6; NYT 4/7; MM, NYT 4/8; WP 4/9; YA 4/9 in WNC 4/15; JP 4/16)

IDF expels 25 civilians, including women, children, elderly, fr. Shab`a in s. Lebanon. (RL 4/6 in WNC 4/7; RL 4/7 in WNC 4/8; RL 4/15 in WNC 4/19)

Israel releases 14 Palestinian prisoners as a good-faith gesture to mark Id al-Adha. (MM 3/30; YA 3/30 in WNC 3/31; PR 4/9)

U.S. intelligence officials say that in 2/99, when the U.S. 1st threatened airstrikes against Serbian forces, a Yugoslavian military delegation went to Iraq to discuss sharing information, equipment to target U.S. warplanes. Currently, NATO attacks on Milosevic's forces continue as 10,000s of Kosovar ethnic Albanians flee to Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro to escape Serbian attacks, which have intensified since strikes began 3/24. NATO has moved into the 2d stage of its attack, targeting Serb troops in Kosovo, but member states are debating whether ground troops will be needed to control the situation. The U.S. says it will not deploy ground troops except to monitor a peace agmt. (GIU, WT 3/31; WP 4/2; JP 4/9) (see 3/24)

To date, Middle Eastern states are divided on whether or not to support NATO actions in Yugoslavia. Some, like Jordan and Saudi Arabia, support the NATO intervention as an effort to protect Kosovo's Muslims. Others, like Iran and Iraq, denounce it as a dangerous exercise in Western hegemony. Egypt, UAE are providing aid refugees but saying little. Jordan has recalled its amb. to Belgrade. (WP 4/2)

Criticized for his government's muted response to the expulsion and killings of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, PM Netanyahu condemns mass murder by anyone in the Yugoslavian conflict; says Israel will send $100,000 worth of tents, medicine, clothing to the refugees, but rejects any comparison btwn. Kosovo, Israel. Netanyahu aides say that Israel--motivated by a historic debt to Yugoslavia, whose partisans helped Jews escape the Nazis during World War II, and by an interest in smoothing relations with Russia--does not want to take sides in the conflict. (NYT 3/31; Tishrin 3/31, al-Hayat al-Jadida 4/1, ATA [Tirana], YA 4/2, al-Akhbar al-Yawm 4/3 in WNC 4/5; MM, WP 4/1; MM 4/2; WT 4/3; Xinhua 4/3, MA 4/4 in WNC 4/5; AFP 4/5, AFP, IDF Radio, Xinhua 4/6 in WNC 4/7; al-Hayat al-Jadida 4/5, al-Ayyam 4/6 in WNC 4/8; CSM 4/8; MEI 4/9)

Israeli helicopters fire on Lebanese troops in s. Lebanon, wounding an officer, 3 soldiers. IDF says the troops were on a route usually used by Hizballah mbrs. (RL 3/30 in WNC 3/31; NYT 3/31)

Led by the U.S., NATO forces begin air strikes on military installations of Yugoslavian pres. Slobodan Milosevic to prevent further Serbian attacks on the Kosovo province's ethnic Albanian guerillas, civilians. 13 of NATO's 19 mbr. states participate in this 1st NATO attack on a sovereign state. Russia suspends coordination with NATO in protest. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 3/25, 3/26; al-Quds 3/26, al-Ahram 3/27 in WNC 3/29; MEI 4/9) (see 3/17)

Arafat meets with Canadian PM Jean Chretien in Ottawa. (MM 3/25)

Israeli MK Azmi Bishara announces that he will run for PM even though as an Arab he cannot legally hold the job. (MM, NYT 3/25; YA 3/28 in WNC 3/29; NYT 4/1; JP 4/2; PR 4/6; MEI 5/7)

Fmr. PM Yitzhak Shamir quits the Likud, joins Begin's new right-wing coalition. (NYT, WP 3/25; WP 3/26) (see 3/12)

In Israel, 400,000 unionized government workers go on strike to demand a 14% wage increase. (MM 3/24; MM, NYT 3/25)

Syria, Israel end 3 days of talks in Maryland, reportedly hit an impasse. Israeli Environmental M Sarid blames FM Barak. (MM 1/25, 1/26; QY, SARR 1/26, IDF Radio 1/27, HA, MA, QY, YA 1/28 in FBIS 1/29; WT 1/27; MM 1/29; JP 2/3)

Without admitting responsibility, Israel gives $400,000 in restitution to widow of Moroccan man (mistakenly believed to be PLO intelligence chief Hassan Salameh) allegedly killed by Mossad agents in Norway in 1973. (NYT, WP 1/27)

Congress passes (371-42 House, 82-8 Senate) 1996 foreign appropriations bill as part of continuing resolution to fund the government through 3/15. Resolution allows full payment to Israel within 2 wks. of $3 b. in civilian and military aid, $80 m. for refugee resettlement; includes provisions giving Israel equal-to-NATO status for stockpiling of U.S. weapons, preventing U.S. defense contractors fr. legally overcharging Israel. (QY 1/28 in FBIS 1/29; JP 2/3, 2/10)

NATO opens talks with 5 North African, Middle Eastern nations (incl. Israel, Egypt) in Bonn as part of its new focus on maintaining Mediterranean security in the face of rising Islamist movements. (MM 2/20; CSM 2/24)

Lebanese Pres. Hrawi calls on U.S., Russia to pressure Israel stop naval blockade, shelling of s. Lebanon. (RL 2/24 in FBIS 2/27) (see 2/23)

Islamic Development Fund for Investment and Export Security of the Organization of Islamic Conference says it has earmarked $50 m. for agricultural development in autonomous areas. (VOP 2/24 in FBIS 2/28)

Frank Luntz, close advisor of House Speaker Newt Gingrich who masterminded Republican's 1994 victory, announces he will be advising Likud party leader Benjamin Netanyahu on his 1996 campaign for PM. (WT 2/24)

U.S. officials say 6 Iraqi helicopter pilots flew to Saudi Arabia in one of most significant defections since crisis began; Iraq denies defections occurred (cf. 1/8) [INA 1/7 in FBIS 1/8; NYT, LAT, WT, WP 1/8].

Sec. Baker meets with F.M.s of Britain, Spain, Luxembourg, and Sec.-Gen. of NATO; says that coalition will hold firm even in event of war [LAT, WP 1/8]; adds that UN deadline will not be extended [WT 1/8].

White House says it will work with Congress to draft measure on use of force that can be passed before 1/15 deadline [LAT 1/8].

In Baghdad, Yasir Arafat says PLO would side with Iraq in event of Gulf war, and that idea of linking Gulf crisis to Palestinian issue was his and not Saddam's [MEM, LAT 1/8]; PLO says in event of war, o.t. Palestinians would create internal disruption for Israel if Jewish state becomes involved [WT 1/8].

FBI agents, seeking to deter possible terrorist attacks resulting from any allied military action against Iraq, begin interviewing Arab-American business leaders (cf. 1/11, 1/14) [LAT 1/8; WP 1/9].

Israeli gov't. votes down 3 motions of noconfidence brought about by decision to resume deportations. Vote is 56 to 21 with 12 abstentions [JPD 1/8 in FBIS 1/14].

NATO announces that Germany, Belgium, and Italy will send 42 jet fighters with at least 470 support personnel to Turkey to reinforce that nation's border with Iraq [WP, LAT, NYT 1/3].

After meeting with Saddam Hussein, Yasir Arafat indicates in interview that neither he nor Saddam is insisting that Israel withdraw from o.t. as requirement for Iraq to leave Kuwait [BADS 1/2 in FBIS 1/3; NYT 1/3].

Senator Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.) releases letter signed by 127 law professors insisting Pres. Bush has constitutional obligation to "obtain prior express congressional authorization" before ordering U.S. troops into war in the Gulf [WP 1/3].

IDF troops shoot dead 30-year-old Palestinian, wound at least 16 others in Gaza clashes arising after curfew is lifted there [MEM 1/2; LAT 1/3].

Kuwaiti embassy in Washington reports about 500 Kuwaiti nationals in U.S. are being drafted by Kuwait's gov't.-in-exile for training as translators to be assigned with U.S. military units in the Gulf [LAT 1/3].

Foreign ministers of Egypt, Syria, and Libya meet in Cairo to discuss Gulf crisis [MENA 1/2 in FBIS 1/2, 1/3; WT 1/3].

Jordan's King Hussein arrives in London for talks with British PM John Major [MEM 1/2; WT 1/3].

Arab League ass't. sec.-gen., Salah al-Mukhtar, resigns in protest of League's move to Cairo; he is replaced by Egyptian Ahamd 'Adil [INA, MENA 1/2 in FBIS 1/3].

Maj. Gen. Antoine Lahad, commander of Israeli-backed South Lebanon Army, reaffirms SLA independence of newly strengthened gov't. of Elias Hrawi until gov't. shows it is free of Syrian control [LAT 1/3]. 

In Riyadh with Sec. Cheney, Lt. Gen. Cal- vin Waller, deputy commander of U.S. forces in Gulf, tells reporters American-led forces would not be ready to attack Iraq by 1/15; Bush admin. says Waller remarks are undercutting U.S. Gulf strategy [SPA 12/19 in FBIS 12/20; MEM 12/19; NYT, LAT, WP, WT 12/20; MET 1/1].

Pres. Mitterrand says that partial Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait is unacceptable and that he believes chances of avoiding war are slight [NYT 12/20].

Japanese Vice-F.M. Kuriyama says in addition to Japan's $4-billion aid package, it must contribute personnel to coalition in order to fight growing criticism that Japan has not contributed enough to multinational effort [LAT, WT 12/20].

Turkish gov't. asks NATO allies to send air units to bases near Turkey-Iraq border [MEM 12/19; LAT, WT, WP 12/20].

Major scandal involving allegations of kickbacks and fraud in purchase of U.S. weapons rocks Israel's air force, implicating several senior officials [NYT, WP, MEM 12/20].

Kuwaiti Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) lends Egypt 20 million Kuwaiti dinars to finance land reclamation project in northern Sinai [MENA 12/19 in FBIS 12/20].

Sec. Baker tells NATO allies he expects Saddam Hussein to take dramatic step, such as partial pullout from Kuwait, just before UN resolution authorizing use of force goes into effect on 1/15. NATO ministers issue statement saying "there can be no partial solutions" [NYT, LAT, WT, WP 12/18; CSM 12/19].

Iraq asks European Community to go ahead with scheduled high-level meeting on 12/20 in Rome between European leaders and Iraqi F.M. Aziz [NYT, WP 12/18].

Fourteen former senior gov't. officials, including former NSC advisers Richard Allen and Robert McFarlane, urge Bush admin. to use military force shortly after 1/15 deadline if Iraq does not leave Kuwait [NYT 12/18].

After meeting with Algeria's Pres. Benjedid in Cairo on efforts to find Arab solution to Gulf crisis, Pres. Mubarak says "we have not yet found a way for a solution" [CDS 12/17 in FBIS 12/18; NYT 12/18]; Pres. Benjedid then travels to Libya, while Jordanian P.M. Mudar Badran goes to Syria in further diplomatic activity [APS, DDS 12/17 in FBIS 12/18; NYT 12/18].

Ishak Mousa Husseini, noted Palestinian writer and teacher who sought to explain Arab history to the West, dies in Jerusalem at age 86 [NYT 12/23; FJ 12/24].

Shmeul Goren, coordinator of gov't. activities in o.t., tells Knesset committee that Gulf crisis has cut in half annual aid of $140 million from Gulf Palestinians to o.t. Palestinians; that o.t. exports have been cut by 50%; and that citrus exports from Gaza have been reduced by 80% [IDF 12/17 in FBIS 12/20].

Senior Jordanian official says Amman has rejected proposal by Israel for bilateral negotiations on water and other territorial disputes, declaring Jordan would enter talks with Israel only in international peace conference on Middle East [MEM 12/18].

Israeli police bar thousands of Palestinians from entering Jerusalem and send hundreds of officers into the Old City to prevent clashes caused by heightened tensions [NYT, LAT, WT, WP, CSM 12/18; FJ 12/24; MET 12/25].

Jerusalem Post reports that the Jewish Agency about a month ago ordered all Agency and World Zionist Organization institutions to stop employing Palestinians from o.t. for "security considerations" [JPD 12/18 in FBIS 12/18; MEM 12/18]. 

Saddam Hussein says he has decided to release all foreigners held hostage in Iraq and Kuwait; Bush admin. welcomes move, but reiterates that no concessions will be made and that Iraq must leave Kuwait [BADS 12/6 in FBIS 12/6; MEM 12/6; NYT, LAT, WT, WP, CSM 12/7; MET 12/18].

In Brussels Sec. Cheney asks NATO allies for additional troops, weapons, and money for Gulf buildup [LAT, WP 12/7; NYT 12/8].

General strike called for by Islamic Jihad is observed in o.t., selected Palestinian villages are placed under curfew in anticipation of intifada anniversary (cf. 12/7) [FJ 12/10].

After 2 days of talks in Iran, Iraqi delegation under F.M. Aziz (1st high-level visit since 1979 revolution) announces it will restore full diplomatic ties [NYT, LAT 9/11].

Sec. Baker calls on NATO members to send ground-based forces to join U.S. units in Saudi Arabia; announces he will visit Syria [LAT, NYT, WT, WP 9/11].

General Federation of Trade Unions in O.T. estimate 56,675 Palestinians have been deported from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, but urge them to try to return to their jobs as little work is available in O.T. [LAT, MEM 9/11; FJ 9/17].

In gesture to break embargo, Saddam Hussein offers free oil to developing nations that defy armada of international warships in the region [NYT, WT, MEM, WP 9/11; MET 9/18].

After much debate, foreign ministers of 12 of 21 Arab League members agree to move Arab League's headquarters to Cairo from Tunis (Iraq, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania, Jordan, Yemen, and PLO boycott meeting); 5-member committee supervising relocation given 60 days to complete move [MENA 9/9 in FBIS 9/11; WT, MEM 9/11; CSM 9/12; FJ 9/17; MET 9/18]. 

Military sources report Syrian air force has issued orders to allow NATO spy planes leaving British bases in Cyprus to overfly Syria as they monitor Iraqi troop positions [AVP 9/10 in FBIS 9/11].

3-day meeting of International Islamic Conference opens in Mecca; King Fahd sends message to conference stating foreign troops will be asked to leave Saudi Arabia after the crisis has ended (cf. 9/12) [RTS 9/11, SPA 9/13 in FBIS 9/13].

Trial of former IDF reservist Ami Popper, accused of murdering 8 Palestinians in Gaza on 5/20, opens in Tel Aviv [MET 9/18].

Speaking before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Sec. Baker tones down 9/4 suggestion of NATO-style security arrangement, which had touched off controversy, by saying "any such arrangement would have to fit regional realities. We have no particular model, such as NATO, in mind" [WP 9/6; FJ 9/10].

Britain agrees to contribute to U.S.-sponsored fund to aid Middle East countries hurt by the trade embargo against Iraq [LAT 9/6], while West German gov't decides not to supply funds for multinational force in Gulf, but will offer use of planes and ships to transport troops to the region [WP 9/5].

Iraqi F.M. Aziz meets with Pres. Gorbachev in Moscow over Gulf crisis amid signs Moscow is losing patience over Iraq's refusal to leave Kuwait [NYT, LAT, WT, WP 9/6; MET 9/18].

State Dep't reports U.S. citizen is shot and wounded trying to evade capture by Iraqi troops in Kuwait City [LAT, WT, WP 9/6; MET 9/18].

Bush admin. offers to mount international effort to provide economic aid to USSR in return for Moscow's pulling its military advisers out of Iraq and agreeing to join multinational force in Middle East [LAT 9/6].

Israeli and American sources report F.M. David Levy, visiting Washington for talks with Sec. Baker, asks Bush admin. to forgive Israel's $4.5 billion military debt and dramatically increase military aid [WT 9/6; JDS 9/6 in FBIS 9/6; JPI 9/15; MET 9/18]; Baker and Levy say U.S. and Israel will work to establish "credible" Arab-Israeli peace process to demonstrate alternative to Saddam Hussein [NYT 9/6].

King Hussein meets with British for. sec. Hurd in Amman [JTE 9/6 in FBIS 9/6], then flies to Baghdad to discuss Gulf crisis with Saddam [BADS 9/5 in FBIS 9/6; CSM 9/7].

Jerusalem Post reports 195,000 elementary school children begin year's studies in West Bank. Intermediate and high schools will open in stages over next 2 weeks [JPD 9/6 in FBIS 9/7]. 

In testimony to House Foreign Affairs Committee, Sec. Baker calls for creation of U.S.-led NATO-style security structure in Middle East to prevent renewed Iraqi aggression even if present crisis ends without warfare (cf. 9/5) [LAT, NYT, WP, MEM 9/5; CSM 9/6].

Speaking in Vladivostok, Soviet F.M. Shevardnadze calls for international conference on the Middle East that would include the Gulf crisis, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and Lebanon [WT, WP 9/5]; Israel sharply rejects the idea [JPI 9/15].

Washington Post reports that U.S. commander in Saudi Arabia Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf complained to Defense Dep't and White House about Saudi Lt. Gen. Khaled bin Sultan's remarks on 8/29 that any decision to use U.S. forces deployed in Kingdom would have to follow consultations between King Fahd and Pres. Bush. Bush conveyed to Saudi ambassador "military concern that U.S. forces be unquestionably under U.S. command," and ambassador reiterated what Saudis contend was original agreement between Fahd and Def. Sec. Cheney that U.S. forces were invited to Kingdom to defend Saudi Arabia from attack by Iraq [WP, MEM 9/4].

Cheney says U.S. would "consult closely" with Saudis before launching offensive action from Saudi territory, but stops short of saying whether Saudi approval would be required [MEM 9/5].

Bush admin. begins asking economic allies for at least $25 billion to help defray American military expenses and support countries that have been hurt by embargo on Iraq and Kuwait [LAT, WP 9/5].

Israeli finance minister Yitzhak Modai says if U.S. forgives Egypt's debt, Israel will demand that most of its $4.6 billion debt also be erased [LAT 9/5; MET 9/18].

Qatar expels more than 70 Palestinian families, including several PLO members, apparently because of Palestinian support for Iraq [NYT 9/5; MET 9/18].

Media report of growing crisis in Jordan as hundreds of thousands of refugees flee Kuwait and Iraq for the Hashemite kingdom [NYT, WP 9/5; MET 9/18].

As'ad al-As'ad, ass't sec.-gen. of Arab League, is named as acting sec.-gen. until replacement for Chedli Klibi is determined [TDS 9/4 in FBIS 9/5].

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Poice raid W. Jerusalem Alternative Information Center, confiscate material, arrest director, and order center closed for 6 months on charges center has been "rendering services" to PFLP [NYT 2/18; FJ 2/20]. Trial of John Demjanjuk, accused of being Treblinka concentration camp prison guard known as "Ivan the Terrible," opens in Jerusalem [GU 2/17].

Arab World: Washington Post describes Saudi Arabian arms build-up asresponse to Israeli military threat [WP 2/16]. Syria asks Amal to ease its siege of Burj al-Barajinah and Shatila refugee camps in Beirut and Rashidiyyah camp near Tyre [OB 2/17]. Kuwait announces plan to contribute $5 million to joint PLO-Jordanian fund [NYT 2/18].

Other Countries: Reports confirm U.S. has upgraded Israel's status to non-NATO ally [PI 2/16].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Soldiers shoot and wound 9 youths during 2 demonstrations in Gaza City. As punishment for campus demonstrations, military authorities order Islamic University of Gaza closed for 3 days. Demonstrations are also held in Khan Yunis and Rafah. Commercial strike closes most shops and students block roads in Jerusalem. Roger Heacock, American Birzeit University professor, isarrested on charges of incitement. Military attempto storm Ramallah's Teachers Training College and break up demonstration fails [FJ 2/20].

Arab World: At least 25 killed, 100 wounded in fierce street fighting between Amal, communist, Druze, Palestinian, and Murabitun forces in W. Beirut [BS 2/17].