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  • October 24, 2023

    In the West Bank, a Palestinian teenager succumbed to injuries sustained from Israeli forces last week in Anabta. Israeli settlers assaulted a Palestinian man and threatened to demolish his family...

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  • July 21, 2018

    Along Gaza’s border fence, a number of Palestinians cross the fence into Israel near Gaza City. They return after stealing some IDF equipment. Taking the incident as a violation of the cease-fire...

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  • December 24, 2013

    In the Gaza Strip, a Palestinian sniper shoots and kills an Israeli Ministry of Defense contractor working on the border fence nr. kibbutz Nahal Oz, an attack claimed by the Popular Resistance...

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  • August 9, 2011

    IDF troops on the c. Gaza border e. of Juhur al-Dik fire on a Palestinian shepherd who strays nr. the border fence, wounding her and killing 8 sheep. Israeli bulldozers working nr. the fmr. Nahal...

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  • January 8, 2011

    Islamic Jihad mbrs. fire 6 mortars fr. Gaza at the IDF base at the fmr. Nahal Oz crossing (closed in 1/2010), injuring 3 Thai workers (1 seriously) at a kibbutz nearby. Late in the evening,...

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  • May 27, 2010

    Israel warns that it will not allow passage to a flotilla of 8 boats organized by the Free Gaza Movement (FGM) and a Turkish organization, Humanitarian Relief Fund (going by the acronym IHH),...

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  • April 28, 2010

    IDF troops on the Israeli side of Gaza’s former Nahal Oz crossing fire on Palestinian, international activists, some of whom throw stones at IDF troops, taking part in a march to the border fence...

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  • January 1, 2010

    Overnight, the IDF carries out air strikes on smuggling tunnels on the Rafah border in retaliation for the PFLP’s 12/31 Grad strikes, lightly injuring 4 Palestinians. Later in the day, after the...

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  • June 8, 2009

    Before dawn, 10 gunmen fr. the militant Salafist group Soldiers of the Companions of God (SCG) approach the Gaza side of the Nahal Oz crossing in several trucks and on 5 horses and begin laying...

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  • May 16, 2009

    As the quarter opens, Israeli-Palestinian cross-border violence in Gaza is moderate and rising, while, in the West Bank, violence remains low. Israel’s siege of Gaza, intended to pressure the...

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  • April 28, 2009

    The UN reports that in the previous wk., Palestinians and the IDF exchanged gunfire across the border nr. the Nahal Oz crossing (causing no injuries) and that the IDF fired “randomly” into Gaza nr...

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  • February 1, 2009

    Palestinians fire at least 4 rockets and several mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, lightly injuring 2 IDF soldiers and 1 Israeli civilian nr. Nahal Oz. For a 3d day, the IDF relays automated phone...

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  • January 13, 2009

    The IDF significantly increases attacks on Gaza for the 2d straight day, as international mediation efforts led by Egypt to secure a cease-fire also intensify.

    Combat notes: The IDF...

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  • January 4, 2009

    IDF ground forces backed by naval and air support continue to enter Gaza overnight, with troops taking up positions across n. Gaza (from which most Palestinian rockets have been fired),...

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  • December 29, 2008

    As Israel continues widespread air and naval bombardment of Gaza for a 3d day, Israeli DM Barak declares “all-out war” on Hamas. The IDF declares a 2-mi. buffer zone around the Strip a closed...

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  • November 28, 2008

    IDF troops along the s. Gaza border e. of Khan Yunis fire on a group of armed Palestinians inside Gaza, causing no injuries; troops then cross into Gaza, exchange fire with armed Palestinians,...

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  • September 17, 2008

    Israeli FM Tzipi Livni narrowly wins Kadima party elections to replace Ehud Olmert as party head. Olmert, Israel’s current PM, called for party elections on 6/11/08, after government investigators...

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  • August 2, 2008

    In the West Bank, Jewish settlers in Hebron attack Palestinians and their property in Wadi al-Nassara, severely beating 2 Palestinians. Separately, Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba stone...

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  • June 4, 2008

    In Gaza, Hamas mbrs. fire 5 mortars at an IDF unit that enters Gaza nr. al-Bureij r.c., forcing the soldiers to retreat. Palestinians fire 4 mortars at the Nahal Oz crossing, seriously injuring a...

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  • May 28, 2008

    Overnight, the IDF sends troops back into Shuka (see 5/27) to bulldoze 200 d. of agricultural land, demolish 4Palestinian homes, and arrest 12 Palestinians; IDF aircraft supporting the ground...

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  • May 4, 2008

    Overnight, the IDF sends troops into Khuza, imposing a curfew, firing on residential areas (killing 1 Palestinian, wounding 2 inside their homes), exchanging gunfire with armed Palestinians (...

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  • April 17, 2008

    The IDF fires on PRC mbrs. nr. the Gaza border nr. Jabaliya r.c., killing 1 PRC mbr. Later, the IDF closes the Kerem Shalom crossing after fatally shooting an armed Palestinian who approached the...

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  • April 16, 2008

    Israel resumes shipments (suspended 4/9) of industrial gasoline for Gaza’s power plant but continues to suspend gasoline and diesel for cars and generators. The UNOCHA calls the fuel supplies for...

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  • April 14, 2008

    The IDF makes an air strike assassinating DFLP military cmdr. Ibrahim Abu Olba as he walks in Bayt Lahiya, wounding 2 bystanders, including a child; bulldozes land on the Palestinian side of the...

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  • April 9, 2008

    Four Palestinian gunmen representing Islamic Jihad, the PRCs, and the Mujahiddin Brigades (an AMB offshoot) raid the Nahal Oz fuel depot on the Gaza-Israel border under cover of mortar fire,...

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  • October 12, 2007

    IDF troops at the Nahal Oz crossing shell an alleged rocket-launching site e. of Gaza City, damaging several homes, killing 1 Hamas mbr., wounding 3 Hamas mbrs., a woman, 5 children. The IDF also...

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  • September 17, 2007

    Gaza nr. the Nahal Oz crossing triggers a roadside bomb, causing damage but no injuries. Palestinians fire 2 RPGs at an IDF patrol inside Israel e. of al-Qarara; the IDF then sends undercover...

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  • August 19, 2007

    In Gaza, the IDF sends tanks, bulldozers into al-Bureij r.c. to level land, sparking an exchange of gunfire that leaves 1 Palestinian bystander wounded. Israel authorizes the Nahal Oz fuel...

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  • August 17, 2007

    In Gaza, Palestinians begin experiencing longer blackouts resulting fr. fuel shortages since Israel closed the Nahal Oz pipeline on 8/15. Hamas volunteers undertake a clean-up campaign in Khan...

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  • August 15, 2007

    Israel cuts off fuel imports into Gaza through the Nahal Oz crossing, citing “specific terror warnings.” Palestinians fire mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, lightly injuring 1 Israeli. In the West...

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In the West Bank, a Palestinian teenager succumbed to injuries sustained from Israeli forces last week in Anabta. Israeli settlers assaulted a Palestinian man and threatened to demolish his family’s home in the Masafer Yatta area. Israeli settlers also rammed a Palestinian vehicle in Ras Karkar, opening fire at the driver and passengers, injuring 3, including 2 with live ammunition. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers set fire to a Palestinian home in Talfit and vandalized 10 vehicles in Beit Iksa. Israeli forces shot and injured 3 Palestinians in Ras Karkar. 51 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in and around Hebron, Ramallah, Bethlehem, Qalqilya, and Jenin, including Hamas member Adnan Hamarsheh. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities closed the Haram al-Sharif compound for Muslim worshippers, allowing Israeli settlers to tour the compound. Israeli forces also demolished a house in Jabel Mukaber and a commercial structure in Sur Baher. In Gaza, Israeli airstrikes killed 704 Palestinians, including 305 children. Israel said that its military has attacked 400 sites in Gaza and assassinated 3 members of Hamas. Rockets were fired at Israel, causing damage. Israel said it killed 10 militants who had tried to enter Zikim by sea. In Syria, Israeli forces fired artillery at what it said were militants near the Golan Heights. (AJ 10/23; AJ, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 10/24; WAFA 10/25)

The Gaza Ministry of Health said as of 5.pm. at least 5,791 Palestinians had been killed, including at least 3,600 women and children, and 16,297 had been injured in Israeli airstrikes on Gaza since 10/7. It is estimated that 1,500 were trapped in rubble. In addition, Israeli media reported that 1,500 Palestinian militants have been killed near Gaza. 95 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem since 10/7, including 27 children. More than 1,833 have been injured, including at least 360 with live ammunition. Israeli officials recorded no new fatalities, leaving the Israeli death toll at around 1,400 Israelis and foreign nationals; 5,431 have been injured since 10/7. The UN reported that over 1.4 million Palestinians, more than half the population in Gaza, have been displaced since 10/7 and that since 11 p.m. on 10/12 there has been a complete electricity blackout due to the Israeli blockade. At least 27,781 housing units have been destroyed and 150,000 have been damaged in Israeli airstrikes since 10/7. At least 45% of all housing units have been either destroyed or damaged in Israeli airstrikes. The Indonesian Hospital, the largest hospital in northern Gaza, lost power for a period of time overnight. 8 trucks carrying aid, including 5 with water, 2 with food, and 1 with medical supplies, entered Gaza (AJ 10/23; AJ, AJ, HA, UNOCHA, WAFA, WAFA 10/24; AJ 10/25)

25-year-old Palestinian Arafat Hamdan died in the Ofer Prison, a day after Omar Daraghmeh died at the Megiddo Prison. Hamdan was arrested by Israeli forces on 10/22. The Palestinian Human Rights Organizations Council urged the Red Cross to visit the 2 Israeli prisons and investigate the deaths. (AJ 10/23; HA, WAFA 10/24; WAFA, WAFA 10/25)

PA health minister Mai al-Kaila said hospitals in Gaza were no longer able to receive new patients, saying 12 hospitals were no longer operational due to Israeli airstrikes or lack of fuel and that 65 doctors and nurses have been killed by Israel since 10/7. (AJ 10/23)

Israel dropped leaflets in Gaza saying Israel will provide security and monetary rewards for information on where Israeli and foreign captives are being kept. (AJ 10/23; HA 10/24)

Israeli attorney general Galia Baharav-Miara approved an emergency regulation to allow Israel to detain members of Hamas for 90 days without access to a lawyer. (HA 10/24)

The New York Times published an investigation into what Israel called evidence that an errant rocket caused the explosion at al-Ahli Arab Hospital in Gaza City on 10/17, finding that the Israeli-presented video did not prove that a rocket fired by Islamic Jihad caused the explosion. The Times suggested that the video footage pointed to a projectile fired from the Nahal Oz area of Israel at Gaza as the cause. (NYT 10/24)

French president Emmanuel Macron visited PA president Mahmoud Abbas in Ramallah, who called for an immediate end to the Israeli aggression. Macron had visited Israel earlier in the day, meeting with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Macron called for the international coalition fighting ISIS to also fight Hamas and said that 30 French nationals were killed by militants during Operation Al-Aqsa Flood. (AJ 10/23; AJ, AP, HA, WAFA 10/24; AP 10/25; HA 10/26)

Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi spoke with PA foreign minister Riyad al-Maliki and Israeli foreign minister Eli Cohen, urging steps be undertaken to prevent further escalation and establish a lasting peace. (AJ, WAFA 10/24)

U.S. president Joe Biden spoke with Prime Minister Netanyahu, urging him to not interfere with humanitarian aid for Gaza. Biden also spoke with Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman. National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby said the U.S. is not calling for a ceasefire as a “ceasefire right now really only benefits Hamas.” (AJ, HA 10/23; HA, NYT, REU 10/24)

UN secretary-general Antonio Guterres said the Hamas operation did not happen in a vacuum, referring to “56 years of suffocating occupation” and that the Hamas operation did not justify Israeli “collective punishment of the Palestinian people.” Israeli UN ambassador Gilad Erdan called on Guterres to resign. Foreign Minister Cohen canceled a meeting with Guterres. Israel also said it would refuse visas to UN officials. (AJ 10/23; AJ, AJ, HA, HA, NYT, WAFA 10/24; AJ, REU, WAFA 10/25; AP, WAFA 10/26)

At the UN Security Council, Foreign Minister al-Maliki called on the council to act to stop Israeli massacres of Palestinians, labelling them savage and systematic. Iranian UN ambassador Saeed Iravani said the U.S. was exacerbating the conflict by providing “unwavering support for the [Israeli] occupation.” Egyptian foreign minister Sameh Shoukry said the governments that remain silent on Israeli attacks on civilians are “participating in the crimes.” Saudi foreign minister Faisal bin Farhan Al Saud called for an immediate ceasefire and for Israel to lift its siege on Gaza. Foreign Minister Cohen rejected calls for a ceasefire. (AJ 10/23; HA, NYT, WAFA, WAFA 10/24; AP, AP 10/25)

NBC News reported that 24 U.S. soldiers suffered minor injuries in attacks on U.S. bases in Syria and Iraq on 10/18. (AJ 10/24)

Florida governor, and republican presidential candidate, Ron DeSantis, banned the group Students for Justice in Palestine, falsely claiming it supports terrorism. (HA 10/24; AJ 10/25)

The Council on American-Islamic Relations called the Biden administration’s refusal to call for a ceasefire “unacceptable.” (AJ 10/23; HA 10/25)

Palestine Legal said it has responded to 260 incidents of people in the U.S. being targeted for supporting Palestine, including people being fired and losing job opportunities. (AJ 10/24)

Japan donated $10 million in humanitarian aid to Gaza, including $7 million to UNRWA and $3 million to the International Committee of the Red Cross. (WAFA 10/24)

Along Gaza’s border fence, a number of Palestinians cross the fence into Israel near Gaza City. They return after stealing some IDF equipment. Taking the incident as a violation of the cease-fire reached late on 7/20, Israeli forces shell a Hamas position near Gaza City, causing damage. Later, an incendiary device flown from Gaza into Israel sparks a small fire at Kibbutz Nahal Oz, causing minor damage. An Israeli tank then shells a Hamas post near Gaza City for the second time today, causing damage. In the West Bank, IDF troops arrest a Palestinian activist at Khan al-Ahmar, a Bedouin village near Jerusalem that is slated for evacuation and demolition. They arrest 2 more Palestinians during late-night raids near Hebron and Jenin, and patrol near Hebron. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces arrest 7 Palestinians during late-night raids in Ras al-Amud, Hizma, Silwan, al-Suwana, and the Old City. (HA, JP, MNA, TOI, WAFA 7/21; PCHR 7/26)

While no Israeli official has confirmed the terms of the 7/20 cease-fire on the record, a senior Israeli official says that Hamas offered to put a stop to “the fire terror” and the “terror at the fence” in exchange for an end to the air strikes, contradicting a Hamas official’s depiction of the deal on 7/20. “Hamas suffered a serious blow yesterday, and requested a cease-fire via Egypt, while promising to stop the arson terror and terror at the border fence,” the official says. “If Hamas violates the truce they will pay an even heavier price.” Later, Hamas officials say that they will not work to stop the incendiary kite and balloon attacks until Israel lifts restrictions on Gaza. (HA, TOI 7/21)

In the Gaza Strip, a Palestinian sniper shoots and kills an Israeli Ministry of Defense contractor working on the border fence nr. kibbutz Nahal Oz, an attack claimed by the Popular Resistance Cmtes. In response, the Israeli military launches attacks on 6 separate sites across the Gaza Strip, killing 1 child in al-Maghazi r.c. and wounding a total of 10. Separately, Israeli forces open fire on Palestinians collecting scrap metal close to the border fence nr. Bayt Lahiya, wounding 1 with live ammunition. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 2 villages and al-‘Arub r.c. nr. Hebron at night. The IDF also demolishes 15 houses in Ras Karkar and Dayr Ammar villages nr. Ramallah, as well as properties in Fasayil village in the n. Jordan Valley. Meanwhile, Palestinians throw stones at a bus carrying Israelis nr. Qalqilya, wounding 1. (HA, MNA, REU 12/24; YA 12/25; PCHR 12/26)

In an attack on a police headquarters in Egypt’s Nile Delta, a bomb kills 15 people and wounds more than 100. Authorities blame the Muslim Brotherhood, which for their part condemn the attack and deny any connection to it. The attack is subsequently claimed by Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis. Following the attack, Dep. PM Hossam Eissa reads a govt. statement declaring the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization. In response to developments, the U.S. State Dept. condemns the bombing but also urges Egypt to have an “inclusive political process,” noting the Brotherhood’s condemnation of the attack. (AP, REU 12/24; AP, REU 12/25)

IDF troops on the c. Gaza border e. of Juhur al-Dik fire on a Palestinian shepherd who strays nr. the border fence, wounding her and killing 8 sheep. Israeli bulldozers working nr. the fmr. Nahal Oz crossing sever fiber-optic lines providing all mobile, landline, and Internet service to Gaza; Hamas authorities blame the IDF, but the IDF says it was not responsible. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in al-‘Arub r.c. and Bayt Umar. Jewish settlers escorted by the IDF enter Palestinian areas nr. Bethlehem and in Hebron to hold religious services. (Press TV [Tehran] 8/10; PCHR 8/11; OCHA 8/12)

The U.S. says it is “deeply concerned” by Israel’s 8/4 approval of 930 new settlement housing units in Har Homa/Jabal Abu Ghunaym in East Jerusalem, stating “such unilateral actions work against efforts to resume direct negotiations.” (WT 8/10)

Islamic Jihad mbrs. fire 6 mortars fr. Gaza at the IDF base at the fmr. Nahal Oz crossing (closed in 1/2010), injuring 3 Thai workers (1 seriously) at a kibbutz nearby. Late in the evening, unidentified Palestinians fire 1 mortar, 2 Qassam rockets fr. Gaza into Israel in 3 barrages; 1 rocket lands nr. a truck, causing light damage and lightly injuring the driver. In the West Bank, IDF troops fatally shoot a Palestinian who runs toward a checkpoint nr. Nablus (the same one where another Palestinian was fatally shot on 1/2) and ignores orders to halt; the IDF says he was carrying a bag that contained a pipe bomb and other explosives, but Palestinian witnesses say he was not carrying anything. The IDF also patrols in villages nr. Jenin and Salfit in the morning; conducts late-night arrest raids, searches in and around Qalqilya; conducts late-night patrols in 3 villages nr. Salfit, summoning 2 Palestinians for questioning. Jewish settlers fr. Gilad settlement nr. Qalqilya vandalize nearby Palestinian agricultural land and damage a well. Israeli authorities conduct late-night arrest raids, house searches in Silwan neighborhood in East Jerusalem. (HA, JP, MNA 1/8; WP, UPI 1/9; NYT 1/11; PCHR 1/13; OCHA 1/14)

Israel warns that it will not allow passage to a flotilla of 8 boats organized by the Free Gaza Movement (FGM) and a Turkish organization, Humanitarian Relief Fund (going by the acronym IHH), currently en route to Gaza in an effort to defy Israel’s siege and deliver 10,000 tons of humanitarian aid, saying it will send Israeli naval commandos to intercept the boats and escort them to Ashdod port, where the 100s of activists onboard would be deported. The U.S. urges restraint. (NYT, WP, WT 5/28)

IDF troops on the Gaza border nr. the former Nahal Oz crossing fire on armed Palestinians laying a roadside bomb nr. the border fence, injuring 7; the Palestinians respond with mortar fire, causing no injuries. The IDF also makes air strikes, directs tank fire at an area s. of Qarni crossing in response to mortar fire fr. the area; 2 Palestinian civilians, no Israelis are injured in the exchange. In the West Bank, the IDF makes a predawn raid on a Palestinian home in ‘Arab al-Ramadin village nr. Hebron, firing tear gas in the home (8 family mbrs. are evacuated to a medical center for treatment); conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Hebron (including arresting a 12-yr.-old boy, who is released on 5/28). (YA 5/28; PCHR 6/3; OCHA 6/4)

Israel charges 2 Israeli Palestinians, Ameer Makhoul (dir. of Ittijah, a union of Arab organizations in Israel) and Omar Said (also a pro-Arab advocate), with espionage for allegedly passing information on the location of IDF facilities to Hizballah, a charge the men deny. (WP, WT 5/28)

IDF troops on the Israeli side of Gaza’s former Nahal Oz crossing fire on Palestinian, international activists, some of whom throw stones at IDF troops, taking part in a march to the border fence to protest Israel’s imposition of a no-go zone, killing a 15- yr.-old Palestinian. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Bethlehem, Ni‘lin and nr. Jenin, Jericho. (PCHR 4/29; OCHA, PCHR 5/6)

Overnight, the IDF carries out air strikes on smuggling tunnels on the Rafah border in retaliation for the PFLP’s 12/31 Grad strikes, lightly injuring 4 Palestinians. Later in the day, after the Popular Resistance Committees (PRCs) fire at least 2 mortars toward the Kerem Shalom crossing (the IDF records 2, while the PRCs claim 5; only 1 lands inside Israel, causing no damage or injuries), the IDF carries out air strikes on an open area e. of Jabaliya in n. Gaza and on a farm in al-Qarara in s. Gaza, causing no damage or injuries. Of note: Israel permanently closes the Nahal Oz crossing, meaning that with the exception of the grain belt operating at Qarni crossing, Kerem Shalom will be the sole transit point for goods coming in and out of Gaza; all fuel shipments will also henceforth go through Kerem Shalom. In the West Bank, the IDF fires rubber-coated steel bullets, stun grenades, tear gas at stone-throwing Palestinians and nonviolent international (and, in the case of Bil‘in, Israeli) activists taking part in protests against the separation wall in Bil‘in (injuring 1 Palestinian) and Ni‘lin (injuring 2 Palestinians); prevents Palestinian and international activists fr. planting trees on Palestinian land declared a closed military zone by the IDF, confiscating the trees; patrols in al-‘Arub r.c. in the evening, stopping and questioning a group of Palestinian children, arresting 3 teenagers; conducts synchronized late-night house searches in 3 villages southwest of Jenin, making no arrests; later makes a raid on a 4th village in the same area, also making no arrests. Jewish settlers fr. Yakir nr. Salfit stone a Palestinian car driving on the road to Qalqilya, injuring 2 Palestinians. (YA 1/1; HA 1/2; OCHA, PCHR 1/6)

Before dawn, 10 gunmen fr. the militant Salafist group Soldiers of the Companions of God (SCG) approach the Gaza side of the Nahal Oz crossing in several trucks and on 5 horses and begin laying roadside bombs when they are fired upon by IDF troops on the Israeli side, sparking an exchange of fire that leaves 4 SCG gunmen dead; no IDF soldiers are injured. The IDF briefly sends tanks and helicopters into Gaza to clear the area. In the West Bank, the IDF bulldozes 40 d. of Palestinian agricultural land, 7 wells, and several greenhouses e. of Hebron; patrols in Sa‘ir village nr. Hebron at midday, chasing and detaining 4 stone-throwing youths who confront them; conducts synchronized late-night house searches in ‘Aida r.c. and al-Duha village nr. Bethlehem. (NYT 6/9; OCHA, PCHR 6/11; JPI 6/19; REU 8/15; OCHA Humanitarian Monitor 8/09)

As the quarter opens, Israeli-Palestinian cross-border violence in Gaza is moderate and rising, while, in the West Bank, violence remains low. Israel’s siege of Gaza, intended to pressure the Hamas government there, enters its 24th month, hampering efforts to maintain basic services and repair infrastructure and other damages fr. Israel’s Operation Cast Lead (OCL, 12/27/08– 1/18/09; see JPS 151). Israel allows an average of 106 truckloads/day of humanitarian goods and commodities into Gaza through Kerem Shalom crossing 6 days/ week (far less than the 500 truckloads/day the UN estimates are necessary to meet Gazans’ basic needs); limited fodder and seed through the Qarni crossing; and enough fuel through the Nahal Oz crossing to maintain emergency services and run Gaza’s electricity plant at 69% capacity, as well as some cooking gas. Only very limited numbers of medical cases, employees of international organizations, and VIPs are allowed to transit through the Rafah and Erez crossings. Restrictions on Palestinian movement and access in the West Bank remain tight, with some 630 Israel Defense Forces (IDF) checkpoints and roadblocks dividing the territory into 3 cantons, and strictly limiting Palestinian access to Jerusalem and the Jordan Valley. Today, the IDF demolishes a Palestinian home in East Jerusalem; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Hebron. (OCHA 5/20; PCHR 5/21)

The UN reports that in the previous wk., Palestinians and the IDF exchanged gunfire across the border nr. the Nahal Oz crossing (causing no injuries) and that the IDF fired “randomly” into Gaza nr. the Qarni and Sufa crossings (causing no injuries). In the West Bank, the IDF makes synchronized daytime raids on 4 villages s. of Jenin, patrolling in the streets, firing live ammunition and percussion grenades at residential areas, causing no injuries and making no arrests. The UN reports that over the previous wk. Jewish settlers have razed 200 d. of Palestinian land (including 50 d. of olive groves) w. of Salfit to expand Burkan settlement. A PA court sentences Hebron resident Anwar Breghit to death by hanging, convicting him of selling private Palestinian land to Israelis when he sold a plot in Bayt Umar village to Karme Tzur settlement; the sentence must be approved by PA Pres. Mahmud Abbas. (NYT, OCHA, PCHR 4/29; PCHR 5/7)

Palestinians fire at least 4 rockets and several mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, lightly injuring 2 IDF soldiers and 1 Israeli civilian nr. Nahal Oz. For a 3d day, the IDF relays automated phone messages to Rafah residents ordering them to evacuate houses nr. the border. The Israeli cabinet discusses the recent rocket fire at its regular weekly session, stating afterward that while Israel believes small Palestinian factions (including the AMB) are responsible for the fire, Israel would hold Hamas responsible and would respond “disproportionately” to each attack. After the cabinet session, Israeli warplanes fly over Gaza, setting off sonic bombs as a warning. Soon after, the IDF makes massive air strikes (apparently using GBU-39 bunker-busting munitions) on 6 smuggling tunnels on the Rafah border, and a smaller air strike on a Hamas-affiliated police station in c. Gaza (targeted previously); no injuries were reported. During the day, Israel allows 193 truckloads of goods (much of it seed and fodder) and 45 tons of medicine and medical equipment into Gaza during the day. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night house searches in ‘Askar r.c. nr. Nablus, Bayt Sahur, Tulkarm r.c. and nr. Jenin, making no arrests. (AP 2/1; HA, IDF Radio, MM, NYT, WP 2/2; MM, YA 2/3; NYT 2/4; PCHR 2/5)

The IDF significantly increases attacks on Gaza for the 2d straight day, as international mediation efforts led by Egypt to secure a cease-fire also intensify.

Combat notes: The IDF tightens the cordon around Gaza City (focusing attacks on the outlying neighborhoods of Shaykh Ajlin, Tal al-Hawa, and al-Zaytun and open areas n. of the city), with troops reportedly taking fire from Palestinian rocket-propelled grenade antitank missiles and mortars. The IDF also launches a major incursion into Jabaliya under heavy shelling, engaging in heavy exchanges of fire with Palestinian gunmen, killing at least 13. In s. Gaza, the IDF continues heavy attacks on Khuza, including air strikes, intense shelling, and widespread bulldozing of some 50 houses and farms; Israeli fire is so heavy and constant that residents report being unable to reach the injured or flee their homes to seek shelter outside the village; IDF troops pull back fr. Khuza after nightfall.

The IDF reports carrying out more than 160 air strikes across Gaza. Air strike target areas include Bayt Hanun, Bayt Lahiya, Gaza City (al-Sabra, Shaykh Ridwan, al-Zaytun), Jabaliya r.c., Khan Yunis, Khuza, Nussayrat r.c., Rafah, al-Shuka, Tal al-Za‘atar, and the Twam area. Israeli gunboats shell Nussayrat r.c. Heavy tank and artillery fire are reported nr. Bayt Lahiya (white phosphorous suspected) and in Dayr al-Balah, Jabaliya town, Khan Yunis (white phosphorous suspected), Khuza, Nussayrat r.c. (confirmed use of flechette shells). For a 2d day, nearly half of the air strikes take place after nightfall, targeting Gaza City. Palestinians report 12 hrs. of constant Israeli bombardment of the Rafah border, with the IDF claiming to destroy 90 smuggling tunnels. (The IDF also demolishes 1 tunnel on the Gaza–Israel border nr. the Nahal Oz crossing.) Specific targets include a Hamas police headquarters in Gaza City, 31 groups of armed men, 25 rocket-launching sites, and 13 suspected weapons manufacturing and storage facilities.

On the ground, the IDF reports a total of 6 soldiers wounded (2 moderately, 4 lightly) in 2 exchanges of gunfire with Palestinians. In a 3d incident, IDF reservists open fire on an IDF paratrooper unit, seriously wounding 1 and moderately wounding 3. Palestinians report around 70 Gazans killed today, putting the estimated Palestinian toll at 971 dead and 4,400 wounded. The Israeli toll stands at 13–14 dead, more than 125 injured. (Israeli military intelligence confirms that 1 soldier killed on 1/6 or 1/8 was targeted by a suicide bomber, stating that several Palestinian suicide bombers, including some women and some dressed as IDF soldiers, have approached combat units.)

Palestinians fire about 11 rockets and 6 mortars into Israel, causing no reported damage or injuries.

Humanitarian notes: The IDF observes another 3-hr. lull, allowing 102 truckloads of aid into Gaza. (The IDF states that 1,028 truckloads of humanitarian goods have been allowed into Gaza since 12/27.) During the lull the ICRC rescues 100 Palestinians trapped in Jabaliya. Heavy IDF attacks in Rafah force UNRWA to close a medical center just n. of the border to ensure the safety of patients and to open more shelters for displaced residents. Human Rights Watch calls Israel’s 3-hr./day breaks to facilitate humanitarian aid “woefully insufficient.” Other aid groups (including Doctors Without Borders, the ICRC, the UN) complain that they are still able to import and distribute only a fraction of the emergency supplies available for Gaza because of Israeli delays and restrictions. (BBC, HA, IDF, IFM, MA, MM, REU, YA 1/13; AYM, IDF, IFM, MM, NYT, WP, WT, YA 1/14; NYT, PCHR, WP, XIN 1/15; ITIC 1/19)

In the West Bank, IDF troops at the Tarqumiyya crossing nr. Hebron fatally shoot a Palestinian who allegedly attempts to grab the gun of a border patrol officer after being denied permission to cross the checkpoint. Late in the evening, the IDF conducts arrest raids, house searches in Bayt Awa, Dura, and Kafr Khalil (all nr. Hebron). A Jewish settler driving nr. Azun village e. of Qalqilya opens fire on Palestinian youths who stone his car, killing 1 Palestinian teenager, wounding 2. (HA 1/13; PCHR 1/15)

A Jordanian soldier fires on an Israeli border patrol unit operating along the Negev border with Jordan n. of Elat. The border police return fire. No injuries are reported. (MM 1/13; WT 1/14; JPI 1/23)

IDF ground forces backed by naval and air support continue to enter Gaza overnight, with troops taking up positions across n. Gaza (from which most Palestinian rockets have been fired), surrounding Gaza City, retaking the former Netzarim settlement site nr. the Gaza coast south of Gaza City, and bifurcating the Strip into e. and w. (cutting a swath roughly from the Qarni and Nahal Oz crossings to Netzarim on the coast, driving 1,000s of residents from Juhur al-Dik, al-Mughraqa, and al-Zahra’ with heavy artillery and tank fire), but not entering dense urban areas.

Combat notes: IDF-Palestinian ground fighting is described as “fierce,” characterized by heavy IDF artillery fire and heavy Palestinian sniping and mortar fire. Because the IDF stays out of built-up areas, there are few reports of close-quarter combat or heavy exchanges of gunfire. While ground troops concentrate in the north, Israeli air strikes and naval bombardment focus equally on the north and south, hitting more tunnels on the Rafah border and targeting Hamas leaders for assassination. (The IDF claims to assassinate Hamas rocket cmdr. Hussam Hamdan and IQB and long-range rocket cmdr. Muhammad Hilu in Khan Yunis, senior IQB mbr. Muhammad Shalbush in Jabaliya, but there is no independent confirmation.)

The IDF reports hitting 45 sites and carrying out 40 air strikes during the day, striking a produce market in Gaza City, several mosques, a medical building and 3 mobile clinics in Shati’ r.c. run by a Danish charity, homes of at least 4 Hamas mbrs. (most of whom have gone into hiding), and suspected weapons depots across Gaza. Target areas include Abasan, Bayt Hanun, Bayt Lahiya, al-Bureij r.c., Dayr al-Balah, Gaza City (al-Daraj, Tal al-Hawa, al-Tuffah, al-Yarmuk, al-Zaytun), Jabaliya, Juhur al-Dik, Khan Yunis, al-Mughraqa, al-Nasser (n. of Rafah), Rafah, Shati’ r.c., al-Shuka, al-Zahra’. After dark, IDF troops conduct door-to-door searches on the outskirts of Gaza City.

Palestinians fire 29 rockets (including at least 12 Grads) and 5 mortars into Israel, hitting Ashdod, Ashqelon, Netivot, Ofakim, and Sederot; 1 house in Sederot is damaged and 1 Israeli woman lightly injured. 

At least 47 Palestinians (including 4 paramedics) are killed and 400 wounded (including 3 paramedics) during the day; 1 IDF soldier is killed, 1 is seriously wounded in a heavy exchange of gunfire nr. Jabaliya; 15 IDF soldiers are wounded (3 seriously) by Palestinian mortar fire inside Gaza. The UN and Palestinian medical workers estimate the Palestinian toll to have reached at least 507 dead, 2,400 injured. The Israeli toll stands at 5–6 killed, more than 40 injured.

Humanitarian notes: The Israeli FMin. announced a new joint office of the FMin. and Israel’s Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories, called the Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Center (HACC), to coordinate humanitarian organizations operating on aid transfers to the Strip. The UN reports that shortages of fuel, electricity, and water are worsening. Gazan hospitals report drastic shortages of anesthesia, surgical equipment, heaters, spare parts. (AP, BBC, IDF, JAZ, National Public Radio, OCHA, REU, WT 1/4; IDF, IFM, NYT, RFM, UNOSAT, WP, WT 1/5; BBC 1/6; IFM, PCHR 1/8; WP 1/27)

In the West Bank, the IDF fatally shoots 1 Palestinian demonstrator who attempts to climb the separation wall nr. Qalqilya; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in al-Arub r.c. nr. Hebron, nr. Jenin. Israel’s High Court rules that the IDF may seal 2 floors of the home of the East Jerusalem Palestinian who killed 8 students at the Mercaz HaRava yeshiva in Jerusalem in 3/6/08, even though the gunman was killed during the attack and sealing the home would serve only to punish his extended family; another floor of the home will not be sealed because it is being rented to an unrelated family. (PCHR 1/8)

As Israel continues widespread air and naval bombardment of Gaza for a 3d day, Israeli DM Barak declares “all-out war” on Hamas. The IDF declares a 2-mi. buffer zone around the Strip a closed military zone and continues amassing tanks and troops there, indicating further preparations for a ground invasion. Israeli military officials speaking anonymously say they have expanded the IDF’s target list to include Hamas’s support network and symbols of Hamas power, stating that “there are many aspects of Hamas, and we are trying to hit the whole spectrum, because everything is connected and everything supports terrorists against Israel” and that “anything affiliated with Hamas is a legitimate target.”

Israeli actions: The IDF reports hitting 100 sites today, including more Islamic University buildings (including the engineering dept., library); homes and offices of Hamas leaders; PA government buildings (including the Interior Min., Finance Min., Foreign Min., Labor Min., Construction and Housing Min., and a PA presidential guest house); Bani Suhayla’s municipal building; the alZawiyya Mosque in Jabaliya r.c. and Omar Bin al-Khattab Mosque in al-Bureij r.c.; more civil and naval police stations; more tunnels along the Rafah border; the headquarters of Hamas’s al-Aqsa TV; Gaza’s port (for a 2d day); and 1 Izzeddin al-Qassam Brigades training site. Target areas include Abasan, Bani Suhayla, Bayt Lahiya, al-Bureij r.c., Dayr al-Balah, Gaza City (city center, al-Rimal, al-Sabra, Shaykh Ajlin, Tal al-Hawa), Jabaliya town and r.c., Khan Yunis, Nussayrat r.c., al-Qarara, Rafah, Shati’ r.c., Tal al-Za‘atar. Just before strikes on Rafah, Israeli Military Intelligence makes 10,000 automated calls to Rafah residents warning of pending air strikes, breaks into Palestinian radio broadcasts to urge residents across Gaza to move to city centers. Palestinian medical officials report at least 364 Palestinians dead, 1,500 wounded since 12/27.

Palestinian actions: Palestinians fire 66 rockets, 14 mortars into Israel (twice as many as in the previous 24 hrs.), killing 3 Israeli civilians (1 each in Nahal Oz, Ashdod, Ashqelon; 1 of them an Israeli Palestinian) and wounding 5 (3 of them Israeli Palestinians), with 2 rockets hitting 23 mi. north in Gan Yavne/Ashdod. A Palestinian mortar hits an IDF base in Netivot, s. and e. of the Nahal Oz crossing, killing 1 IDF soldier (a Druze), seriously wounding 1, lightly injuring 4. The Israeli toll stands at 4–5 dead, about 20 injured. Reports circulate (e.g., NYT 12/30) of Hamas gunmen executing at least 5 accused collaborators with Israel inside hospitals; the 5 had been jailed for collaboration and transferred to hospitals after being wounded in IDF air strikes on jails.

Humanitarian notes: Israel allows 40 truckloads of humanitarian aid into Gaza; Egypt allows 23 truckloads of emergency goods in, some wounded out through Rafah. International aid groups (including Amnesty International, the UN) say aid transfers are insufficient, warn that the death toll is rising in part because of lack of medicines and medical supplies, food, and fuel.

Of note: One Israeli air strike heavily damages the UN Special Coordinator’s Office (UNSCO) headquarters in Gaza City, prompting the UN to issue a formal complaint. Egyptian TV reports that captured IDF Cpl. Gilad Shalit has been wounded in an Israeli air strike in recent days; Hamas does not comment. (BBC, CNN, HA, Houston Chronicle, IFM, REU, White House press briefing, YA 12/29; BBC, IDF, Independent, NYT, WP, WT 12/30; IDF, UNOSAT 12/31; JP, PCHR, WJW 1/1; ITV 1/2; IDF 1/3; NYT, WP 1/4; WT, UNOSAT 1/5; IFM 1/8; Committee to Protect Journalists 1/9)

In the West Bank, the IDF fires rubbercoated steel bullets, percussion grenades, tear gas at Palestinians demonstrating against OCL in Issawiyya, Shu‘fat r.c., al-Tur neighborhood in East Jerusalem, causing no serious injuries; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in East Tura village nr. Jenin, Hebron. (PCHR 1/1)

IDF troops along the s. Gaza border e. of Khan Yunis fire on a group of armed Palestinians inside Gaza, causing no injuries; troops then cross into Gaza, exchange fire with armed Palestinians, wounding 4. PRC mbrs. then fire 11 mortars fr. Gaza toward the IDF military post at Nahal Oz crossing; 3 mortars hit the base, wounding 6 IDF soldiers, 1 critically. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts an evening raid on an Internet cafe nr. Jenin, checking IDs and searching ´ the premises but making no arrests; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Hebron, Jerusalem, Qalqilya, Tulkarm; conducts synchronized, late-night house searches in Tubas and neighboring al-Fara‘ r.c., and in 8 villages s. of Jenin, making no arrests; fires rubber-coated steel bullets, tear gas, percussion grenades at Palestinian, Israeli, international peace activists taking part in nonviolent demonstrations against the separation wall in Bil‘in (injuring 1 Japanese activist), Jayyus nr. Qalqilya (injuring 2 Palestinians), and Ni‘lin (injuring 2 Danish activists, 1 Palestinian teenager). Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba and Beit Shalom attack Palestinians, vandalize property in nearby Palestinian areas, seriously injuring 4 Palestinians, including a 6-yr.-old boy. Later, IDF troops close the area, take up positions on surrounding rooftops, escort 5 busloads of settlers from other parts of the West Bank into the area to “defend” the illegal Beit Shalom outpost. In the evening, the settlers rampage through Palestinian areas, burning cars, slashing tires, breaking windows of cars and homes, destroying water tanks; the IDF does not intervene. (NYT 11/29; OCHA 12/3; PCHR 12/4)

Israeli FM Tzipi Livni narrowly wins Kadima party elections to replace Ehud Olmert as party head. Olmert, Israel’s current PM, called for party elections on 6/11/08, after government investigators turned up serious new evidence of his financial impropriety (see Quarterly Update in JPS 149). He vowed to resign as PM formally once a new party head was elected. (NYT 9/17; HA, NYT, WP, WT 9/18)

Israel reopens Gaza’s Kerem Shalom crossing for limited imports of humanitarian goods and the Nahal Oz crossing for limited fuel (see 9/14). In the West Bank, the IDF fires rubber-coated steel bullets, tear gas at Palestinian, Israeli, international peace activists taking part in a nonviolent demonstration against the separation wall in Ni‘lin, injuring 6; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus, in Azariyya nr. Jerusalem and al-Jalazun r.c. nr. Ramallah, and nr. Hebron. Jewish settlers fr. Yitzhar burn Palestinian olive trees nr. Nablus. (PCHR 9/18; OCHA 9/24; PCHR 9/25; AIC 11/9)

In the West Bank, Jewish settlers in Hebron attack Palestinians and their property in Wadi al-Nassara, severely beating 2 Palestinians. Separately, Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba stone Palestinian cars driving nr. the settlement, causing no reported injuries. In Gaza, Hamas-affiliated police raid an area of Gaza City controlled by the Hillis family, which Hamas has accused of hiding suspects wanted in connection with the 7/25 bombings, sparking violent clashing involving exchanges of mortars and grenades that leave 11 Palestinians dead (2 policemen, 8 mbrs. of the Hillis clan, 1 bystander) and 88 injured (including 12 children), marking some of the heaviest intra-Palestinian fighting since 6/07. (A 12th Palestinian dies several days later.) By afternoon, Hamas forces seize control of the 100,000-resident Shijaiyah neighborhood, conduct house-to-house searches for weapons and suspects, arresting 50 people. During the fighting, 188 Fatah mbrs. fr. Gaza, including clan leader and senior Fatah mbr. Ahmad Hillis, flee to Nahal Oz crossing, where Israel grants them entry for transit to the West Bank; Hamas police fire on the fleeing men, injuring 22, who are treated in Israeli hospitals. Hamas also closes a PFLP radio station in Gaza for reporting sympathetic to Fatah. (NYT, WP, WT 8/3; WT 8/4; OCHA 8/6; PCHR 8/7; OCHA 8/20)

In Gaza, Hamas mbrs. fire 5 mortars at an IDF unit that enters Gaza nr. al-Bureij r.c., forcing the soldiers to retreat. Palestinians fire 4 mortars at the Nahal Oz crossing, seriously injuring a Palestinian worker. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols, sets up checkpoints in Tulkarm during the day; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, and Tulkarm, nr. Hebron (also raiding, sealing for 3 yrs. an Islamic Charity Society office and kindergarten). The PA opens 3 police stations manned by a total of 105 policemen in 3 villages surrounding Jenin (see 6/3). (IFM, WT 6/4; NYT, PCHR, WP 6/5; al-Akhbar [Cairo] 6/6; OCHA 6/11; PCHR 6/12)

Overnight, the IDF sends troops back into Shuka (see 5/27) to bulldoze 200 d. of agricultural land, demolish 4Palestinian homes, and arrest 12 Palestinians; IDF aircraft supporting the ground troops fire missiles at 2 groups of armed Palestinians who approach the area, killing 2 Palestinian gunmen, wounding 1 civilian. During the day, IDF troops stationed at Gaza’s Nahal Oz crossing fire on Palestinian children collecting scrap metal nearby, wounding 3. Israeli naval vessels fire at Palestinian fishing boats off the Bayt Lahiya, Gaza City, and Rafah coasts, forcing them to return to shore. Palestinians detonate a roadside bomb along the Gaza border e. of Dayr al-Balah as an IDF jeep patrolling inside Israel passes, causing no damage or injuries. Late in the evening, the IDF sends bulldozers, troops into Bayt Hanun in n. Gaza, conducting house searches, bulldozing 50 d. of agricultural land, detaining several Palestinians for questioning, releasing them, and withdrawing around midnight. In the West Bank, the IDF sends undercover units into Bethlehem to arrest a wanted Palestinian teenager; conducts evening arrest raids, house searches nr. Nablus; conducts similar late-night operations in Nur al-Shams r.c. nr. Tulkarm, and nr. Hebron, Jenin, Ramallah. A Palestinian civilian injured in an IDF air strike in al-Fukhari on 5/27 dies. In Gaza City, unidentified assailants detonate a bomb outside a store previously criticized for “immoral behavior,” causing no injuries. (PCHR 5/29; OCHA 6/4; PCHR 6/5)

Overnight, the IDF sends troops into Khuza, imposing a curfew, firing on residential areas (killing 1 Palestinian, wounding 2 inside their homes), exchanging gunfire with armed Palestinians (wounding 3), arresting 2 Palestinians, and bulldozing 106 d. of agricultural land, 1 Palestinian home, 4 greenhouses, 2 poultry farms before withdrawing late in the morning. The Israeli navy fires on Palestinian fishing boats off the Rafah coast, forcing them to return to shore but causing no reported damage or injuries. Palestinians fire at least 3 rockets fr. Gaza into Israel, causing damage but no injuries; fire 1 mortar at Nahal Oz crossing while an emergency fuel shipment to UNRWA is been transferred into Gaza, prompting the Israelis to close the terminal. In the West Bank, the IDF removes the tiny unauthorized settlement outpost of Hazon David nr. Kiryat Arba; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Bethlehem, Hebron, Nablus. Jewish settlers fr. Gil’ad Farm outpost nr. Qalqilya attack a Palestinian shepherd, steal a sheep. (NYT 5/5; OCHA 5/7; PCHR 5/8)

The IDF fires on PRC mbrs. nr. the Gaza border nr. Jabaliya r.c., killing 1 PRC mbr. Later, the IDF closes the Kerem Shalom crossing after fatally shooting an armed Palestinian who approached the area; closes the Nahal Oz crossing after Palestinian snipers fire on IDF troops there, causing no injuries. In Gaza City, 1,000s of Palestinians attend the funeral for Reuters cameraman Shana’a, killed on 4/16. In Rafah, 1 Islamic Jihad mbr. accidentally triggers explosives kept in his home, injuring himself, 2 bystanders. Two Hamas mbrs. die of injuries sustained on 4/13 when explosives they were handling detonated prematurely In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in Jenin town and r.c., and nr. Bethlehem, Nablus. (OCHA 4/17; NYT, WP 4/18; OCHA 4/23; PCHR 4/24)

Israel resumes shipments (suspended 4/9) of industrial gasoline for Gaza’s power plant but continues to suspend gasoline and diesel for cars and generators. The UNOCHA calls the fuel supplies for the power plant “insufficient” and urges Israel to resume shipment of all forms of fuel, saying that schools and clinics are unable to function normally without regular transportation. Overnight, the IDF sends troops into areas e. of Gaza City, sparking clashes that leave 4 armed Palestinians dead and 1 IDF soldier, 4 armed Palestinians wounded. In the morning, Hamas and Islamic Jihad mbrs. stage a diversion nr. the Nahal Oz crossing to lure IDF soldiers into Gaza, ambushing the unit once it enters the Strip, killing 3 IDF soldiers; the IDF responds with tank fire and air strikes, killing 4 Hamas and Islamic Jihad mbrs. The IDF increases tank fire, air strikes on Palestinian targets throughout the day, killing 14 Palestinian civilians, including 11 in a helicopter air strike on a mosque in Juhur al-Dik in c. Gaza, and Reuters cameraman Fadel Shana’a (his clearly marked Reuters press vehicle is hit directly by a flechette tank shell), wounding 34 (including 17 children, 1 woman); 2 IDF soldiers are also wounded. The IDF also bulldozes 6 Palestinian homes, 200 d. of agricultural land in Juhur al-Dik. An IDF infantry unit crosses into Gaza nr. Bayt Lahiya to engage armed Palestinians in the area, fires on a car of Palestinian farmers trying to fleeing the area, killing 1 Palestinian farmer, wounding 2. Palestinians fire 10 rockets, 2 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel during the day, causing no damage or injuries; 1 rocket fired toward Israel lands nr. Jabaliya r.c., injuring 2 Palestinians. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts arrest raids, house searches in Jenin r.c. (firing on residential areas, arresting an AMB mbr. granted amnesty by Israel in 7/07) during the day, and late at night in and around Jenin and Tulkarm, in Nablus, and nr. Hebron. In the evening (8:30 P.M. EST; 2:30 A.M. on 4/17 local time), IDF undercover units ambush a car in Qabatya, assassinating local Islamic Jihad cmdr. Bilal Zaalah (also reported as Bilal Kmayel) and a 2d Islamic Jihad mbr. (BBC, IFM, OCHA, REU 4/16; HA, NYT, PCHR, WP 4/17; OCHA 4/23; PCHR 4/24)

The IDF makes an air strike assassinating DFLP military cmdr. Ibrahim Abu Olba as he walks in Bayt Lahiya, wounding 2 bystanders, including a child; bulldozes land on the Palestinian side of the Nahal Oz crossing. In the West Bank, the IDF blocks 4 buses transporting Palestinian children home from a school outing deep in the West Bank to Azun Atma village (located between the separation wall and the Green Line), firing on angry parents gathered on the village side of the wall awaiting their children’s return, wounding 4, arresting 2, and imposing a curfew on the village until the morning of 4/15, when the buses are allowed to pass. The IDF also demolishes a Palestinian home in Anata in East Jerusalem, displacing 10 Palestinians (including 4 children); conducts arrest raids, house searches during the day nr. Salfit and late at night in Hebron, nr. Jenin. Jewish settlers gather nr. the Hawara checkpoint s. of Nablus, stone Palestinian vehicles, causing no injuries; the IDF does not intervene. Jewish settlers fr. Gilad uproot 30 Palestinian almond trees in nearby al-Til. (OCHA 3/16; PCHR 4/17)

Four Palestinian gunmen representing Islamic Jihad, the PRCs, and the Mujahiddin Brigades (an AMB offshoot) raid the Nahal Oz fuel depot on the Gaza-Israel border under cover of mortar fire, killing 2 Israeli civilian workers; IDF soldiers on site return fire, killing 2 gunmen; 2 escape back into Gaza. The IDF retaliates with air strikes and artillery fire, killing a 3d Palestinian gunman, 4 Palestinian civilians, wounding 2 armed Palestinians, 6 civilians (including 2 children), demolishing a Palestinian home. Israel also closes Nahal Oz until it reviews security procedures (Gaza’s electricity plant has enough fuel to last until 4/13). In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes a Palestinian home in Bayt Hanina in East Jerusalem, displacing 7 Palestinians (including 5 children); patrols in Bayt Rima nr. Ramallah, firing on stone-throwing youths who confront them, wounding 1; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around Hebron and Nablus, in Qalqilya and Tubas, and nr. Ramallah and Tulkarm, nr. Salfit. Jewish settlers stone a Palestinian family nr. Ramallah, injuring 2 women. Jewish settlers fr. Brakha nr. Nablus uproot Palestinian olive trees, vandalize a Palestinian home nearby. (AP, BBC, HA, IFM, Ma’ariv [Tel Aviv], REU, YA 4/9; NYT, WP, WT 4/10; WP 4/11; OCHA 3/16; PCHR 4/17)

IDF troops at the Nahal Oz crossing shell an alleged rocket-launching site e. of Gaza City, damaging several homes, killing 1 Hamas mbr., wounding 3 Hamas mbrs., a woman, 5 children. The IDF also bulldozes Palestinian land nr. the Qarni industrial zone. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts arrest raids, house searches nr. Bethlehem. (WP 10/13; OCHA 10/17; PCHR 10/18)

Gaza nr. the Nahal Oz crossing triggers a roadside bomb, causing damage but no injuries. Palestinians fire 2 RPGs at an IDF patrol inside Israel e. of al-Qarara; the IDF then sends undercover units, a tank into al-Qarara to search for the assailants, exchanging fire with Hamas mbrs.; no injuries are reported. IDF soldiers, Palestinian gunmen exchange fire across the border nr. the Erez crossing, causing no damage or injuries. Palestinians fire 2 mortars fr. the Bayt Hanun area toward Israel, but both land inside Palestinian territory, causing no damage or injuries. The IDF conducts arrest raids, house searches nr. Hebron, Qalqilya. A Jewish settler kills a 14-yr.- old Palestinian in a deliberate hit-and-run nr. Salfit. In Gaza, the Palestinian Union of Medical Professions ends the work slowdown started on 8/26. (OCHA 9/19; PCHR 9/20)

In Gaza, the IDF sends tanks, bulldozers into al-Bureij r.c. to level land, sparking an exchange of gunfire that leaves 1 Palestinian bystander wounded. Israel authorizes the Nahal Oz fuel pipeline to reopen, but the European Union (EU), which underwrites PA fuel imports, suspends payments for fuel supplies until it receives assurances that the Hamas government in Gaza will not receive tax revenues fr. the sale of electricity produced with the fuel imports. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts arrest raids, house searches nr. Jenin and in Bethlehem, Qalqilya, Tulkarm; patrols in al-Yamun nr. Jenin. In Gaza, unidentified gunmen raid Fatah’s Dayr al-Balah offices, confiscating computers, documents. (NYT 8/19; OCHA 8/22; PCHR 8/23)

In Gaza, Palestinians begin experiencing longer blackouts resulting fr. fuel shortages since Israel closed the Nahal Oz pipeline on 8/15. Hamas volunteers undertake a clean-up campaign in Khan Yunis, where municipal sanitation workers have been on strike over salary issues. The IDF makes an air strike on an Islamic Jihad rocketlaunching site nr. Bayt Lahiya in n. Gaza, causing no injuries. A 10-yr.-old Palestinian boy is injured when a Palestinian rocket fired fr. Gaza toward Israel hits a Palestinian home nr. Bayt Hanun, nr. the n. Gaza border. In the West Bank, the IDF kills 2 Islamic Jihad mbrs. in an exchange of fire nr. Jenin; sends troops into Kafr Dan nr. Jenin to patrol, firing on stone-throwing youths who confront them, killing a 14-yr.-old Palestinian boy, prompting an exchange of gunfire with Palestinian resistance mbrs. that leaves 1 armed Palestinian dead, 7 Palestinians wounded; conducts arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus (firing on residential areas, wounding a Palestinian woman in her home), in Qalqilya, nr. Hebron; fires rubber-coated steel bullets, percussion grenades, tear gas at Palestinian, Israeli, international activists taking part in the weekly nonviolent demonstration against the separation wall in Bil‘in, injuring 5. (BBC 8/17; NYT 8/19; OCHA 8/22; PCHR 8/23)

Israel cuts off fuel imports into Gaza through the Nahal Oz crossing, citing “specific terror warnings.” Palestinians fire mortars fr. Gaza into Israel, lightly injuring 1 Israeli. In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes a Palestinian home nr. East Jerusalem; conducts arrest raids, house searches in and around Nablus (1 IDF soldier is wounded when Palestinians detonate an explosive device nr. his patrol), nr. Bethlehem and Hebron. (PCHR 8/16; BBC 8/17; NYT 8/19; OCHA 8/22; PCHR 8/23)