28 / 14490 Results
  • April 29, 2022

    In the West Bank, 1 Israeli settlement security guard was shot and killed by 2 assailants at the entrance to the Ariel settlement. Israel said it arrested the alleged attackers on 4/30 in Qarawat...

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  • March 27, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers set up caravans near Qusra. Israeli settlers also threw stones at commercial structures and vehicles in Burqa, causing damage. Israeli forces delivered stop-work...

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  • August 7, 2021

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers from the Mevo Dotan settlement assaulted 1 Palestinian farmer in Kafr Rai and vandalized his car. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at...

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  • October 11, 2015

    For a 3d day in a row in Gaza, Israeli forces open fire on hundreds of Palestinians protesting and throwing stones nr. the Erez border crossing and e. of al-Bureij r.c., injuring 17 Palestinians (...

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  • August 4, 2006

    The IDF continues operations al-Shuka, making air and artillery strikes on buildings allegedly housing Hamas and Islamic Jihad weapons caches, exchanging fire with Palestinian gunmen, conducting...

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  • October 27, 2005

    By morning, the IDF imposes a general curfew across the West Bank, sealing all Palestinian-controlled areas (including the northern villages of Alar, Qabatya, Sa‘ida, al-Til, Yabad, which are...

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  • October 26, 2005

    Early in the morning, Palestinians fire 2 rockets fr. Bayt Hanun into Israel, causing no damage or injuries; IDF artillery responds, shelling a road and an open field n. Gaza where Palestinians...

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  • November 10, 2002

    The IDF pulls back to the outskirts of Jenin, ending its 2-wk.-old Operation Vanguard (see 10/25); bulldozes 8 Palestinian homes in Rafah; directs shells, heavy machine gun fire at residential...

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  • October 25, 2002

    The IDF launches Operation Vanguard in response to the 10/21 Hadera bombing, sending 100s of troops (including 90 snipers), heavy vehicles into Jenin town and r.c., where the bombers lived. Troops...

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  • October 22, 2002

    Israel says it will delay its military response to the 10/21 Hadera bombing in deference to U.S. regional concerns, but will reimpose curfews, blockades across the Palestinian territories and...

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  • October 21, 2002

    Outside Hadera, 2 Islamic Jihad suicide bombers detonate a car bomb next to a bus, killing 14 Israelis, wounding 40. The IDF fatally shoots 2 Palestinians nr. Kefar Darom; bulldozes a Palestinian...

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  • February 17, 2002

    For the 1st time, the IDF erects portable housing for soldiers in PA-controlled areas of the West Bank nr. Jenin. Israeli police halt a vehicle outside an IDF training base nr. Hadera, Israel. 1...

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  • January 17, 2002

    Early this morning, the Israeli inner cabinet orders the IDF to seal Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, Qalqilya, Tulkarm. The IDF also fatally shoots wanted AMB mbr. Khamis Abdallah in an apparent...

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  • November 30, 2001

    In response to the 11/29 Hadera bombing, Israeli DM Benjamin Ben-Eliezer authorizes the IDF to step up assassinations, tighten blockades on PA areas. The IDF encircles, takes up positions just...

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  • November 29, 2001

    As U.S. envoy Zinni meets with PA officials, an Islamic Jihad suicide bomber detonates a device on a bus in Hadera, Israel, killing 3 Israelis, wounding 7. The bomber reportedly boarded the bus in...

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  • October 30, 2001

    Peres says that he is preparing a personal peace initiative, that he will probably meet with Arafat on the sidelines of a 2-day economic conference that opens in Spain on 11/2. Sharon, expressing...

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  • October 28, 2001

    Under U.S. pressure, Sharon pulls the IDF out of Bethlehem, Bayt Jala. Jewish settlers assault journalists covering the pullout. Islamic Jihad gunmen kill 4 Israelis, wound 30 in a drive-by...

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  • June 20, 2001

    IDF soldiers fatally shoot 1 Palestinian at a roadblock nr. Ramallah. (Soldiers say the man was "moving suspiciously," they fired at his legs but "somehow struck" him in the heart.) IDF sends...

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  • May 25, 2001

    As Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, 2 Islamic Jihad suicide bombers detonate a car bomb in Hadera, Israel, wounding 67. A Hamas suicide bomber attempts to ram an IDF post in Gaza, but...

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  • November 27, 2000

    On this 1st day of Ramadan, Israeli-Palestinian clashes abate; 1 Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. The PA announces it has arrested 2 Hamas mbrs. in connection with the...

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  • November 23, 2000

    Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving at least 2 Palestinians dead, including Hamas mbr. Ibrahim Bani Odeh, who dies when a car bomb rigged by the IDF explodes in Nablus. The...

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  • November 22, 2000

    Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, leaving 9 Palestinians dead, including senior Fatah official Jamal `Abd al-Razik, whose car is ambushed and strafed by IDF troops. Hrs. later, a...

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  • February 23, 2000

    In a speech to the Knesset, Israeli FM Levy, using particularly violent language, threatens Lebanon that if n. Israel is attacked, the IDF will retaliate "blood for blood, soul for...

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  • January 17, 2000

    The U.S. puts the 2d round Syrian-Israeli talks on hold, saying Israel, Syria have fundamental differences that must be resolved for the next round to be substantive. Both sides agree to send...

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  • November 24, 1994

    PM Rabin, Arafat, in Spain to receive prize for international cooperation, discuss elections. (MM 11/24, 11/25; AFP 11/24 in FBIS 11/25)

    Israeli military court in Jenin sentences to death...

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  • April 14, 1994

    Hamas issues leaflet saying Hadera bombing "2d in a series of 5 attacks" on Israelis, warning Palestinians to avoid "crowded Israeli areas." Leaflet also criticizes PLO Chmn. Arafat's denunciation...

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  • April 13, 1994

    Suicide bomb explodes in bus in Hadera, Israel, killing 6, including bomber, and wounding 28, including 2 Israeli Arabs and 18 IDF soldiers. Hamas claims responsibility. PM Rabin redeploys IDF to...

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  • July 11, 1985

    Social/Economic/Political

    Occupied Palestine/Israel: The Daily Telegraph reports depleted uranium, potential material for making nuclear explosives, was exported to Israel last...

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In the West Bank, 1 Israeli settlement security guard was shot and killed by 2 assailants at the entrance to the Ariel settlement. Israel said it arrested the alleged attackers on 4/30 in Qarawat Bani Hassan and identified them as Palestinians. Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ brigade took responsibility for the attack. Israeli settlers razed farmland in al-Farisiya. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 9 with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also placed dirt mounds at the northern entrance to Salfit, blocking access. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Beit Dajan, causing tear-gas related injuries. 3 Palestinians were arrested, including 2 during late-night raids in Bil‘in and Tulkarm and 1 at the Qalandia checkpoint. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers threw stones and bottles at a bus carrying Palestinians in the French Hill neighborhood. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters at the Haram al-Sharif compound, injuring 42 with baton rounds and tear gas; 22 were hospitalized for their injuries. 1 Palestinian was arrested in the Old City. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 6 nautical miles northwest of Rafah; no injuries were reported. In Israel, 1 mosque in Jaffa was vandalized with spray paint depicting the Star of David and the Israeli flag. (AJ, HA, HA, MEE, MEMO, MEMO, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/29; AJ, AP, AP, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 4/30; PCHR 5/12; UNOCHA 5/13)

The head of Bisan Center for Research and Development Ubai Aboudi said Israel had prevented him from traveling to a conference in Mexico via the Allenby bridge. Aboudi, who is a U.S. citizen, said the Israeli officers refused to tell him why they prevented him from traveling abroad. The Bisan Center is 1 of 6 Palestinian rights organizations that was placed on Israel’s terrorism list in October. 1 day later, on 4/30, Israel prevented the director of Addameer, Sahar Francis, from traveling to the same conference from Ben Gurion airport. (MDW 4/29; AA, AP 5/1; TOI 5/2)

Israel charged 2 Palestinians from Umm al-Fahm for having prior knowledge of an attack in Hadera on 3/27, in which 2 were killed by a Palestinian citizen of Israel. (HA 4/29)

The student newspaper at Harvard University, The Harvard Crimson, endorsed the BDS movement in an editorial. (JDF 4/29; MDW, TOI 4/30; HA, MEMO 5/1)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers set up caravans near Qusra. Israeli settlers also threw stones at commercial structures and vehicles in Burqa, causing damage. Israeli forces delivered stop-work orders for 1 house and electricity cables in al-Twana. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire on Palestinian fishermen northwest of Rafah; no injuries were reported. In Israel, 2 Palestinian citizens of Israel opened fire on Israelis in Hadera, killing 2 Israeli soldiers and wounding 5 others, including 1 soldier, before being shot and killed by Israeli undercover police. Israel said that the 2 attackers were affiliated of ISIS. 5 Palestinian citizens of Israel were arrested during subsequent raids in Umm al-Fahm under suspicion of having prior knowledge of the attack. (AJ, AP, DW, HA, HILL, MEE, NYT, TOI, WAFA, WAFA 3/27; ABC, AP, AX, CNN, GDN, HA, HA, HA, JP, MEMO, NPR, REU, SKY, TOI, WSJ 3/28; ALM, ALM 3/29; F24, PCHR 3/31; UNOCHA 4/10)

Members of the settler organization Ateret Cohanim entered the 1st floor of the Little Petra Hotel in East Jerusalem with Israeli police escort in an effort to cement the organization’s hold of the building. The ownership of the building is part of an ongoing legal case at the Israeli supreme court between the Greek Orthodox patriarchate in Jerusalem and Ateret Cohanim. The lawyers of the Palestinian family that runs the hotel were attacked with pepper spray by the Israeli settlers when they entered the building and Israeli police detained 1 of the 2 lawyers present at the site. (HA 3/27; MEE, WAFA 3/28; WAFA 3/29; WAFA, WAFA 3/30; PCHR 3/31)

The Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories announced that Israel will approve up to 20,000 work permits for Palestinians in Gaza for workers in construction and agriculture. The International Committee of the Red Cross in Israel also announced that Israel will allow family visits by Palestinians in Gaza to Palestinian prisoners in Israeli prisoners, for the 1st time since March 2020. (ALM 3/31)

U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken met with PA president Mahmoud Abbas in Ramallah. During the meeting, President Abbas called on the U.S. to help curb settler violence and end settlement expansion. Abbas warned Blinken that the PA may rescind its recognition of Israel and end security cooperation if Israeli unilateral actions are not curbed. Abbas also criticized the U.S. and its allies for its double standards in not applying sanctions against Israel for its violations of international law as they have done against Russia. (HA, MEE, WAFA 3/27; JP 3/28; AX 3/30)

The foreign ministers of the U.S., UAE, Morocco, Egypt, Bahrain, and Israel met in Sde Boker for the 1st day of a 2-day summit comprised of countries that have normalized ties with Israel with U.S. support. Among the subjects discussed at the summit were the perceived threat from Iran and the U.S.’s efforts to reenter the Iran Nuclear deal. The 1st day of the summit coincided with the 20th anniversary of the Arab Peace Initiative. Secretary Blinken also met with Israel’s prime minister Naftali Bennett, who shortly after, tested positive for the COVID-19 virus. (AJ, AP, GDN, HA, HA, HA, HA, JP, JP, REU, TOI, WP 3/27; HA, MEMO 3/28; AX, AX 3/30)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers from the Mevo Dotan settlement assaulted 1 Palestinian farmer in Kafr Rai and vandalized his car. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen west of Jabalia refugee camp; no injuries were reported. (WAFA 8/7; PCHR 8/12)

Adalah sent a letter to the Israeli attorney general Avichai Mendelblit demanding clarification about the municipalities of Natanya, Acre, and Hadera and their efforts to block Palestinians’ access to beaches there. The municipality in Acre said on 8/10 that it would remove the fences around Argaman Beach. Acre’s municipality had cited buses from the West Bank as a COVID-19-related health hazard and the reason for the new fencing. This was done despite encouraging locals to go to the beach on Facebook. (WAFA 8/7; HA 8/12)

For a 3d day in a row in Gaza, Israeli forces open fire on hundreds of Palestinians protesting and throwing stones nr. the Erez border crossing and e. of al-Bureij r.c., injuring 17 Palestinians (1 will succumb to injuries on 10/24). Separately, unknown persons fire a rocket into Israel, causing no damage or injuries. Palestinians open fire on Israeli construction vehicles working on the border fence, causing no injuries. (HA, JP, MNA, WAFA 10/11; PCHR 10/15)

Small-scale attacks continue amid the ongoing wave of violence in Israel and the rest of the oPt. In Israel, a Palestinian citizen is arrested after he rams an Israeli woman with his car nr. Hadera, then stabs her and 3 other Jewish Israelis, injuring all 4. In West Jerusalem, 3 Israeli settlers pepper-spray a Palestinian youth, causing minor injuries. In the West Bank, a car catches fire at the al-Za’ayem checkpoint, severely injuring the Palestinian driver and lighly injuring an Israeli police officer. Witnesses report that it was an electrical fire while the IDF describes it as an attempted car bombing. Outside Hebron, Palestinian youths throw stones at Israeli drivers, injuring 1 settler. Nearby, the IDF violently disperses the funeral procession of the Palestinian who succumbed, on 10/10, to injuries sustained in clashes with Israeli soldiers on 10/8. Throughout the day, IDF troops clash with and violently disperse Palestinians protesting and throwing stones across the West Bank and East Jerusalem, killing 1 Palestinian youth and injuring 129 others, including 1 photojournalist. The IDF also continues raids and house searches throughout the region, arresting 45 Palestinians. In Israel, dozens of Palestinians gather in Kafr Kanna and 3 other Palestinian municipalities to protest the recent Israeli crackdown. In East Jerusalem, several groups of right-wing Jewish activists tour Haram al-Sharif. Meanwhile, the Higher Follow-Up Comm. for Arab Citizens of Israel calls for a general strike and a mass demonstration on 10/13 in protest of the recent Israeli access restrictions at Haram al-Sharif. (HA, JP, MNA, TOI, WAFA, YA 10/11; HA, MNA, YA 10/12; MNA 10/13; PCHR 10/14)

A Palestinian administrative detainee suffers a stroke, and Israeli doctors in Soroka Medical Center declare him “brain dead.” The Palestinian Prisoners Society responds, accusing the Israel Prison Service of medical negligence. He will die of related complications on 10/14. (HA, MNA 10/12)

The Israeli cabinet unanimously approves a series of measures designed to deter stone-throwing, including mandatory minimum sentences and the imposition of penalties on parents of minors convicted of such crimes. The security cabinet previously approved the measures on 9/24 (they will pass a 1st reading in the Knesset on 10/12). (HA, JP 10/11; HA, JP 10/12; JP 10/13)

The IDF continues operations al-Shuka, making air and artillery strikes on buildings allegedly housing Hamas and Islamic Jihad weapons caches, exchanging fire with Palestinian gunmen, conducting house-tohouse searches, prompting residents to flee, leaving 2 Palestinian civilians, 1 Palestinian militant dead, at least 1 Palestinian wounded. Late in the evening, the IDF expands operations deeper into Rafah, making air strikes on militant targets in heavily residential areas, killing 1 Islamic Jihad mbr., 2 other armed Palestinians, a Palestinian woman and her 2 children, wounding at least 3 Palestinians; also destroys the remaining parts of a PA security barracks. Also in Gaza, the IDF makes an air strike destroying a home in Shatti r.c. nr. Gaza City after warning residents to evacuate. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts arrest raids in Tulkarm town; patrols in Tulkarm r.c.; conducts random ID checks in Hebron. The IDF also bars Palestinians under age 45 fr. attending Friday prayers at al-Aqsa Mosque. (NYT 8/4; WP 8/5; PCHR 8/10)

The IDF calls up more reservists (no details reported), moves additional artillery to the border with Lebanon; escalates air strikes on s. Beirut (killing at least 1 Lebanese soldier, wounding 2 soldiers, 4 civilians), hitting bridges and roads in Christian areas n. of the capital along the coast for the 1st time (killing a least 5 Lebanese civilians, wounding 19; hitting an 8-truck UN convoy, preventing the movement of other aid convoys south); also strikes targets in s. Lebanon (flattening 2 houses, leaving 50 Lebanese missing) as well as in Baalbek, Hermel, Qana (killing at least 28 farm workers, mostly Syrian Kurds) in the Biqa‘ Valley. Ground operations in s. Lebanon continue, with especially intense fighting in Aita al-Sha‘b, Markaba (where at least 3 IDF soldiers are killed and 1 tank is destroyed), Taybeh. Hizballah fires 195 rockets into n. Israel, hitting Buaineh, Carmiel, Hadera (50 mi. fr. the border, the deepest strike to date), Kiryat Shimona (hit by 60 missiles), Ma’alot, Migdal Hamek, Nahariya, Qunaytra, Safad, Shar Yishuv; killing 4 Israelis (including 3 Druze; 1 in Maghir, 2 in Majd al-Krum) wounding 8. (AP, NYT 8/4; NYT, WP, WT 8/5)

By morning, the IDF imposes a general curfew across the West Bank, sealing all Palestinian-controlled areas (including the northern villages of Alar, Qabatya, Sa‘ida, al-Til, Yabad, which are considered Islamic Jihad strongholds), cutting off the n. West Bank from the rest of the West Bank, barring all Palestinian private vehicles in the n. West Bank; recommends that Palestinians leave the n. Gaza border area nr. Bayt Hanun; reshuts the Erez, Qarni crossings (opened 10/26). Overnight IDF air strikes on suspected rocket launching sites in n. Gaza damage a bridge but cause no injuries. During the day, the IDF continues mock air raids, sonic booms over Gaza; sends 35 jeeps, Apache helicopters into Jenin to arrest local Islamic Jihad leader ‘Abd al-Halim Izzeddin (a leading moderate in the group), 3 other Islamic Jihad mbrs.; also arrests the father of the 10/26 bomber, 13 suspected Islamic Jihad mbrs. in raids across the n. West Bank in connection with the Hadera bombing; 3 Hamas mbrs. are also arrested. In addition, the IDF clashes with more than 150 radical settler youths while evacuating 5 unauthorized settlement outposts nr. Efrat, Elon Moreh, Keddumim, Kiryat Arba, Worshippers Way in Hebron, leaving 1 IDF soldier hospitalized. Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba harass Palestinians in Hebron. In the evening, the IDF assassinates Islamic Jihad n. Gaza cmdr. Shadi Muhanna, Muhanna deputy Muhammad Qandil, 5 others (including at least 3 bystanders), wounding 19 in an air strike on Muhanna’s car as he drives in Jabaliya r.c. just as evening prayers let out; also conducts several F-16 air strikes on open areas in n. Gaza (in 1 instance possibly targeting Abu Rish Brigades and Hamas positions in the area, but causing no injuries); conducts patrols, arrest raids, house searches in Dura, Jenin town and r.c., and nearby Kefar Rai. (AP, HA, YA 10/27; CSM, HA, JT, NYT, PCHR, WP, WT 10/28; NYT 10/29; PCHR 11/10)

Early in the morning, Palestinians fire 2 rockets fr. Bayt Hanun into Israel, causing no damage or injuries; IDF artillery responds, shelling a road and an open field n. Gaza where Palestinians have launched rockets, causing no injuries. Despite the exchange, the IDF partially reopens the Erez and Qarni crossings. In the afternoon, an Islamic Jihad suicide bomber retaliating for the 10/24 Saadi assassination detonates a bomb in an open-air market in Hadera, killing 5 Israelis, wounding 6 seriously, 14 moderately. Palestinians also fire another rocket at the Negev (no damage or injuries), a mortar at an IDF post on the s. Gaza border (no damage or injuries). Israel immediately cancels a planned mtg. btwn. Israeli, PA cabinet mbrs.; Sharon says he will not meet with Abbas until he takes “serious action” against militants. Late in the evening, the Israeli cabinet approves Operation Starting All Over Again—a “broad and nonstop” offensive (including assassinations) against “terrorism” in the West Bank and Gaza that will continue until “terrorism” ends; says there are no plans for a ground offensive into Gaza at present, but restrictions on Palestinian movement across the West Bank will be tightened, diplomatic offensives will be raised to pressure Syria over its hosting of Islamic Jihad in Damascus. Meanwhile, right-wing Jewish settler youths occupy abandoned buildings nr. Elon Moreh, Keddumim settlements and site on Worshippers Way in Hebron, declaring new unauthorized outposts. (HA, WP, YA 10/26; HA, NYT, PCHR, WP, WT, YA 10/27; HA 10/28; IMEMC 10/31; PCHR 11/10)

The IDF pulls back to the outskirts of Jenin, ending its 2-wk.-old Operation Vanguard (see 10/25); bulldozes 8 Palestinian homes in Rafah; directs shells, heavy machine gun fire at residential areas of Khan Yunis, al-Qarara, al-Rabwat al-Gharbiyya, Rafah, Tal al-Sultan; bulldozes 7 dunams of land s. of Khan Yunis. Just inside Israel nr. Hadera, an IDF patrol halts a suspicious Palestinian vehicle; the 2 occupants, apparently en route to stage a suicide bombing, detonate an explosive device in the car, killing themselves. In the same area late in the evening, an AMB gunman sneaks into a kibbutz in n. Israel, fires on residents, killing 5 Israelis before escaping. (GS, MEZ, MM, PM, NYT, WP, WT 11/11; Interfax 11/11 in WNC 11/12; MM, WP 11/12; LAW, PCHR 11/13)

The IDF launches Operation Vanguard in response to the 10/21 Hadera bombing, sending 100s of troops (including 90 snipers), heavy vehicles into Jenin town and r.c., where the bombers lived. Troops occupy 50 buildings; conduct house-to-house searches, arrest raids; meet some resistance in the r.c., exchanging gunfire with residents, leaving 6 Fatah mbrs. seriously wounded. The IDF says the incursion is expected to last several days, troops are prepared to stay indefinitely. The IDF also shells residential areas nr. Erez crossing; conducts arrest raids, house searches in Hebron; bulldozes 2 Palestinian homes in Rafah, 23 dunams of olive groves in Dayr al-Balah; begins construction of a new IDF post nr. Netzarim; makes a limited pullout fr. Palestinian areas of Hebron; eases curfews in Nablus, Qalqilya, Tulkarm. Palestinian residents of Yanun harvesting their olive groves are chased off by Jewish settlers just 2 days after the IDF promised them protection. Jewish settlers complete rebuilding Havat Gilad. (HA, MM, NYT, WP 10/25; NYT, WP, WT 10/26; MENA 10/27 in WNC 10/28; WP 10/28; LAW, PCHR 10/30)

Israel says it will delay its military response to the 10/21 Hadera bombing in deference to U.S. regional concerns, but will reimpose curfews, blockades across the Palestinian territories and suspend steps to ease restrictions. The IDF bars Palestinians across the West Bank fr. harvesting olives, saying troops cannot protect pickers fr. Jewish settlers; the ban is lifted late in the evening after Arab MKs file a petition with the Israeli High Court opposing the order. Israel's Infrastructure M Efi Eitam orders a halt to all drilling for water by West Bank Palestinians, freezes the issue of permits for future drilling. The IDF bars a Palestinian heart attack victim fr. crossing an IDF checkpoint to reach a hospital, allowing him to die; demolishes 3 Palestinian homes (Balata r.c., Nablus, Rafah); demolishes 4 barracks, 3 Palestinian homes, 3 bakeries, several cattle sheds in Yatta; bulldozes 10 dunams of land in Bayt Lahia; conducts arrest raids in Khan Yunis, Rafah. Israel releases AFP photographer Hussam Abu Alan, detained without charge on 4/24/02. (HA, PM, REU 10/22; LAW, NYT, PCHR, PR, WP 10/23; WT 10/24; AYM 10/24 in WNC 10/28; al-Quds 10/30 in WNC 10/31)

Outside Hadera, 2 Islamic Jihad suicide bombers detonate a car bomb next to a bus, killing 14 Israelis, wounding 40. The IDF fatally shoots 2 Palestinians nr. Kefar Darom; bulldozes a Palestinian home in Qabatya, some agricultural land nr. Aley Sinai settlement; conducts arrest raids in Bethlehem, Qalqilya; bars an ambulance fr. crossing an IDF checkpoint, allowing an ailing Palestinian to die. Another Palestinian dies of injuries received on 12/10/01. Palestinians reportedly fire a mortar in Gaza, causing no damage or injuries. At Havat Gilad, Jewish settlers again try to rebuild sites demolished by the IDF. Jewish settlers fr. Shvut Rachel attack Palestinians harvesting olives nr. Nablus, setting 7 Palestinian cars and 50 trees afire, uprooting another 54 trees; in response, some 200 Palestinian start marching toward the settlement, but the IDF turns them away. Jewish settlers fr. Shilo fire on Palestinian farmers n. of Ramallah, wounding 4. (HA, MM, WP 10/21; Interfax 10/21 in WNC 10/22; MM, NYT, WP, WT 10/22; AFP, ATL, ITAR-TASS 10/22 in WNC 10/23; LAW, MM, PCHR 10/23; WJW 10/24; MEI 10/25)

For the 1st time, the IDF erects portable housing for soldiers in PA-controlled areas of the West Bank nr. Jenin. Israeli police halt a vehicle outside an IDF training base nr. Hadera, Israel. 1 Palestinian flees, is fatally shot by police; the 2d Palestinian detonates an explosive device, killing himself, injuring 3 policemen, 3 bystanders; al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (AMB) takes responsibility. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon meets with his cabinet to discuss how to respond; no decision is announced. IDF F-16s shell PA targets in Nablus (hitting a government building, PSF office, apartment building), Ramallah (hitting a PSF office); repeatedly break the sound barrier over Jenin. The IDF also conducts arrest raids in Umm al-Sharayit; demolishes a water network, digs a trench along a main road in Nablus; sets up observation towers with heavy machine gun emplacements, reinforces positions on the western border of Khan Yunis refugee camp (r.c.); tightens closures on Jenin, Nablus, Qalqilya, Ramallah. Jewish settlers attack Palestinian farmers in al-Tuwani, burn at least 200 dunams of wheat. A 3d Palestinian dies of injuries received on 2/16. (HA, HP, JP [Internet], al-Quds [Internet] 2/17; MA 2/18 in WNC 2/19; NYT, WP, WT 2/18)

Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Abdallah announces that he has drafted an initiative to be presented to the Arab League offering full Arab normalization with Israel in exchange for Israel's full withdrawal fr. all the occupied territories captured in 1967. (HA, NYT 2/17; MM 2/18; MENA, QA 2/18 in WNC 2/19; MM, WP, WT 2/19; MM 5/20; AYM 2/20 in WNC 2/25; MM 5/22, 5/25; WP 3/2; MEI 3/8)

Early this morning, the Israeli inner cabinet orders the IDF to seal Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, Qalqilya, Tulkarm. The IDF also fatally shoots wanted AMB mbr. Khamis Abdallah in an apparent assassination in Nablus; fires a tank shell at 3 teenagers trying to sneak across the Gaza border into Israel to work, killing 1 Palestinian, wounding 2. This evening, an AMB gunman opens fire with an M-16 on a bat mitzvah celebration in Hadera, Israel, killing 6 Israelis, wounding at least 25 before being beaten unconscious by the celebrants and then fatally shot by an Israeli policeman. In retaliation, the IDF sends 20 tanks, APCs, paratroopers into Ramallah to tighten the encirclement of Arafat's headquarters to within 100 yds., placing Arafat under de facto house arrest; sends F-16s to shell PA Interior Min., administrative, and security offices in Tulkarm, killing 2 PSF officers, injuring 61 officers and civilians, damaging 20 homes and 50 stores; reinforces troops nr. Jinin, fatally shooting 1 Palestinian. (AP 1/17; LAW, MM, NYT, WP, WT 1/18; AFP, Interfax 1/18 in WNC 1/22; CNN, WP, WT 1/19; MM 1/21; PCHR 1/23; WJW 1/24; JP, MEI 1/25; JP 2/1)

In response to the 11/29 Hadera bombing, Israeli DM Benjamin Ben-Eliezer authorizes the IDF to step up assassinations, tighten blockades on PA areas. The IDF encircles, takes up positions just inside PA-controlled areas of Jinin, Nablus, Tulkarm; directs machine gun fire at residential areas of Beitunia, Nablus; sends bulldozers into al-Bireh, temporarily occupy the roof of the PA Min. of Planning and International Cooperation while land in front of the building is razed; conducts an arrest raid in Hebron. 1,000 Palestinians demonstrate in Ramallah, 8 are injured when the IDF fires on the crowd. (MM 11/30; PMC, NYT, WP, WT 12/1; LAW 12/5)

As U.S. envoy Zinni meets with PA officials, an Islamic Jihad suicide bomber detonates a device on a bus in Hadera, Israel, killing 3 Israelis, wounding 7. The bomber reportedly boarded the bus in the Israeli Arab town of Umm al-Fahm. A Palestinian gunman also kills 1 IDF soldier in a drive-by shooting at a West Bank checkpoint. The IDF opens fire on a Palestinian car at a Jordan Valley checkpoint, killing 2 Palestinians that "acted suspiciously" by making a U-turn to avoid the congested crossing. The IDF also opens fire on a French delegation (135 politicians, journalists, intellectuals) touring homes demolished by the IDF in Khan Yunis; seals Hebron; sets up more roadblocks, especially on the road to Bethlehem; tightens the closure on Tulkarm, bulldozing areas along the Green Line; raids a Palestinian factory nr. Qarni crossing, confiscating electrical equipment; directs heavy machine gun fire on residential areas of Jinin; shells residential areas of Khan Yunis. Jewish settlers, under IDF protection, place caravans on a new settlement site nr. Dayr al-Balah. (AFP, HP 11/29; AFP, AP, HP, MM, NYT, WT 11/30; al-Quds 11/30 in WNC 12/3; LAW 12/5)

Sharon arrives in the U.S. on an official visit, accuses Arafat of having built a "coalition of terror" against Israel. (MM 11/30; NYT 12/1)

Peres says that he is preparing a personal peace initiative, that he will probably meet with Arafat on the sidelines of a 2-day economic conference that opens in Spain on 11/2. Sharon, expressing surprise, reminds Peres he must coordinate any mtgs. with Arafat with the PM's Office. (AP, MM 10/30; NYT, WP, WT 10/31; HA 11/6; HP 11/7; MENA 11/8 in WNC 11/9; JP 11/11 in WNC 11/14) (see Peace Monitor)

Israel demolishes 6 Palestinian homes in East Jerusalem. The U.S. condemns the action as highly provocative. The IDF conducts raids into Bayt Hanun, Bayt Lahia under intense shelling and heavy machine gun fire, hitting electricity generators, cutting power to the area; also makes arrest raids in Araba, Tulkarm; directs shells, heavy machine gun fire at residential areas of Khan Yunis; fires on Palestinian fishermen off Dayr al-Balah; bulldozes 10s of dunams of Palestinian land in Wadi Qana, reportedly to expand Ma'ale Shomron settlement; bulldozes 6 dunams of Palestinian land nr. Netzarim settlement; reinforces troops on the Nablus-Qalqilya road (cutting power to the area), around Tulkarm. Palestinians fire several mortars at a Jewish settlement in Gaza, causing no damage. The PA says it has arrested 2 Islamic Jihad mbrs. in connection with the Hadera attack on 10/28. Families of Palestinians placed under 6-mo. administrative detention by the PSF over the past 2 wks. hold a demonstration outside PSF offices in al-Bireh, Ramallah; scuffle with PSF officers. (LAW 10/30; HP, LAW, NYT, WT 10/31)

In the Galilee, 400 Israeli police clash with 1,000 Israeli Arabs residents of al-Tira and Taybeh protesting the government's expropriation of village lands for a highway, leaving more than 40 Israeli Arabs (including 3 MKs), 18 police officers injured. (JP [Internet] 10/30; HA 10/31)

Under U.S. pressure, Sharon pulls the IDF out of Bethlehem, Bayt Jala. Jewish settlers assault journalists covering the pullout. Islamic Jihad gunmen kill 4 Israelis, wound 30 in a drive-by shooting in Hadera, are fatally shot by Israeli police. AMB gunmen kill 1 IDF soldier on the West Bank-Israeli border, escape into the West Bank. The IDF also conducts arrest raids in Nablus, al-Ubayat; reinforces positions in Jinin, Tulkarm; opens fire on 9 Palestinian schools in the PA-controlled section of Hebron, injuring 4 students with rubber-coated metal bullets, 15 with tear gas; directs heavy machine gun fire at residential areas of Qalqilya. Jewish settlers stone Palestinian cars outside Silwad. (HP 10/28; MM, NYT, WP, WT 10/29; QA 10/29 in WNC 11/1; LAW 10/31)

IDF soldiers fatally shoot 1 Palestinian at a roadblock nr. Ramallah. (Soldiers say the man was "moving suspiciously," they fired at his legs but "somehow struck" him in the heart.) IDF sends troops into PA-controlled al-Qarara; flies low-level F-16 sorties over Jinin, breaking the sound barrier; bulldozes 3 Palestinian homes in Gaza City, nr. Netzarim settlement; tightens the closures on Ramallah, Tulkarm (digging more trenches across roads leading to the city). The PSF arrests 2 Palestinians in the shooting death of a Greek monk on 6/12. Inside Israel, a pipe bomb hidden in a trash can explodes in a bus station in Hadera, causing no injuries. A Palestinian sniper kills a Jewish settler nr. Nablus. In response, Jewish settlers enter a nearby Palestinian village, damage buildings, set fire to an olive grove. Settlers also raze an olive grove nr. Tulkarm. 10s of armed Jewish settlers protest outside Sharon's offices in Jerusalem. (HA, JP [Internet], PMC 6/20; MM, NYT, WP, WT 6/21; MA 6/21 in WNC 6/22; QA 6/21 in WNC 6/25; MEZ 6/24; MEI 6/29)

After further talks with his security cabinet, Sharon decides not to abandon the Tenet plan but says Arafat has "done nothing" to stop violence, warns that plans for a major military strike are ready but will be held in abeyance for now. Arafat accuses Israel of focusing on isolated incidents while ignoring PA successes in controlling violence; notes that the IDF has not stopped using tanks, machine guns against Palestinians or prevented Jewish settlers fr. harassing, attacking Palestinians. EU, U.S. say the PA is making a noticeable effort but should do more. (AP 6/20; NYT, WP, WT 6/21; DUS 6/25 in WNC 6/27)

At the weekly trilateral security comm. mtg., Israel presents a timetable for the IDF to completely lift its blockades in the West Bank, Gaza and to redeploy to 9/28/00 positions, but says it will not implement it until all violence ceases. Several District Coordination Offices (DCOs) have reopened in the West Bank as required in stage 2 of the cease-fire, which ends today. Israel has also reopened 5 mi. of sea off to Gaza fishermen; allowed 1,000s of Palestinian workers to return to an industrial park on the Gaza border; left 2 of 9 Palestinian homes in Rafah that the IDF occupied as security outposts. (NYT, WT 6/21; AYM 6/23 in WNC 6/26)

After phone calls to Arafat, Mubarak, and Sharon, Bush announces he will send Powell to the region next wk. to reinforce the shaky cease-fire. (MM 6/20; MENA 6/20 in WNC 6/21; MM, NYT, WP, WT 6/21; JT 6/22 in WNC 6/25)

As Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, 2 Islamic Jihad suicide bombers detonate a car bomb in Hadera, Israel, wounding 67. A Hamas suicide bomber attempts to ram an IDF post in Gaza, but soldiers fire on his approaching vehicle, detonating it; in response, the IDF demolishes a PA police station, shells residential areas of Rafah. Fatah activist Azzam `Abd al-Fatah Mezher is killed, 5 Fatah mbrs. are wounded when their car explodes. Israel says a grenade they were carrying exploded; the PA claims it is an assassination. (NYT, WP, WT 5/26; WT 5/27; MM 5/29; MEI 6/1; PCHR 6/4)

Lebanese celebrating the 1st anniversary of Israel's withdrawal fr. the south stage demonstrations along the blue line. A demonstrator is wounded when he tries to climb the border fence and is shot by IDF troops. (WP 5/26)

On this 1st day of Ramadan, Israeli-Palestinian clashes abate; 1 Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. The PA announces it has arrested 2 Hamas mbrs. in connection with the 11/22 Hadera car bombing. In response, Israel eases restrictions on the passage of goods, fuel through Qarni crossing. The IDF opens heavy machine gun fire on Bayt Jala in response to Palestinian sniping toward the neighboring Jewish settlement of Gilo. IDF tanks fire on residential areas of Aida, Bayt Jala, Hebron. Jewish settlers bulldoze 40 dunams of Palestinian crop land nr. Khan Yunis. The IDF bulldozes 68 dunams of land, including 2 homes, nr. Netzarim Junction. (PCHR 11/27; LAW, MA [Internet], WP, WT 11/28; AYM 11/28 in WNC 11/29; PCHR 12/18)

The IDF completes an inquiry into the fatal shooting of 12-yr.-old Muhammad al-Dura in Gaza on 9/30, concluding that it was "quite plausible" that he was killed by PA gunfire. The PA, the France 2 cameraman who taped the incident reject the report. (NYT, WP, WT 11/28; AYM 11/28 in WNC 12/1; WJW 11/30; MM 12/8)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving at least 2 Palestinians dead, including Hamas mbr. Ibrahim Bani Odeh, who dies when a car bomb rigged by the IDF explodes in Nablus. The 2d Palestinian is shot dead by the IDF in Gaza after a roadside bomb detonates nr. an IDF patrol. Palestinian gunmen open fire on an IDF post in Gaza, killing 1 IDF soldier. A 2d IDF soldier is killed when a bomb explodes at a District Coordination Office (DCO) in Gaza, where PA-Israeli joint patrols are based. The IDF shells residential areas nr. Rafah border terminal, destroying 1 Palestinian home. (LAW 11/23; LAW, NYT, WP, WT 11/24; HA 12/1; WJW 12/28)

Barak's security cabinet continues discussions on how to respond to the 11/22 Hadera bombing, rejects a list of Palestinian targets for retaliatory strikes, arguing that air strikes have had little deterrent effect on the Palestinians while damaging Israel's public image, that Israel should switch to "precision operations against specific targets." Following the DCO bombing today, Israel evicts PSF officers fr. all DCOs, officially severing all security coordination. Later, however, senior PA and Israeli security officials meet at Erez to discuss ways of halting further escalation of violence. (MM 11/23; MENA 11/23 in WNC 11/24; MA [Internet], NYT, WP, WT, YA 11/24; al-Quds 11/26 in WNC 11/29)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, leaving 9 Palestinians dead, including senior Fatah official Jamal `Abd al-Razik, whose car is ambushed and strafed by IDF troops. Hrs. later, a remote-controlled car bomb explodes during rush hr. in Hadera, Israel, killing 2 Israelis, injuring 60. Although Arafat denounces the bombing, Barak blames the PA, vows Israel will "get even," convenes his security cabinet to discus how to respond; the cabinet recesses without taking a decision. The IDF sends more tanks into Gaza; dismantles the vegetable market in Hebron; bulldozes Palestinian land in Bayt Lahia, Dayr al-Balah, Hebron, Nablus; demolishes several homes nr. Kefar Darom, Gush Katif; takes over a home in Ajja for use as a new base. The IDF directs shells, heavy machine gun fire on residential areas of al-Bireh, Rafah (destroying 1 home, damaging 2). Jewish settlers bulldoze Palestinian land and set fire to 2 factories in Tura al-Sharqiyya; bulldoze land nr. Qalqilya, Salfit; fire on Palestinians nr. Jinin; attack Palestinians in Bayt Ilo, Bayt Rimia, Dayr `Amar, Qalqilya. The PSF successfully removes explosive devices found in schools in Balata camp, Nablus. (ADM, LAW, MEZ, MM 11/22; AFP 11/22 in WNC 11/24; MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/23; NYT, WP 11/24; MA, al-Quds 11/24 in WNC 11/29; Independent [Internet], JP 12/7; PCHR 12/18; WJW 12/28)

In response to the Hadera bombing, 10,000s of Israeli attend a "Let the Army Win!" rally in Jerusalem's Zion Square, calling for revenge attacks on Palestinian targets, tougher military action against the Palestinians. (AFP [Internet] 11/22; MM, NYT, WP 11/23; MEI 11/24; WP 11/27; MM 11/28)

At an emergency session of the UN Security Council (UNSC) in New York, Egyptian, Palestinian envoys call for international protection for the Palestinians. The U.S. says the emergency session, the call for international observers are inappropriate, unhelpful. (MM 11/22; JT, XIN 11/22, MENA 11/23 in WNC 11/24; MM 11/30)

The UN Economic and Social Council adopts (21-19 with 11 abstentions) a resolution by the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) ordering an investigation of Israeli violations of Palestinian human rights during the recent clashes. (MM 11/30)

In a speech to the Knesset, Israeli FM Levy, using particularly violent language, threatens Lebanon that if n. Israel is attacked, the IDF will retaliate "blood for blood, soul for soul, child for child." Israeli Arab and leftist MKs, Arab leaders denounce his statements. (MM, NYT 2/24; MENA 2/24 in WNC 2/28; WP 2/26; AYM 2/26 in WNC 2/29; JP, MM 3/3; JP, MEI 3/10) (see 2/16)

Israeli security officials say that in recent wks., Israel and the PA have arrested several Hamas mbrs. on charges of plotting to blow up a building in Jerusalem. Some of those arrested are also charged with planning the failed attacks in Natanya (11/7), Hadera (1/17). (MM 2/23; NYT 2/24)

The U.S. puts the 2d round Syrian-Israeli talks on hold, saying Israel, Syria have fundamental differences that must be resolved for the next round to be substantive. Both sides agree to send experts to Washington in the interim to discuss the U.S. working paper. (AFP, ANSA, al-Safir 1/17, al-Quds 1/18 in WNC 1/19; MM, NYT, WP, WT 1/18; NYT, WT 1/19; al-Quds 1/19 in WNC 1/24; MM, WJW 1/20; MEI 1/28)

In Tel Aviv, Barak holds a private mtg. with Arafat, asks for a 2-mo. extension to the 2/13 FAPS deadline. Arafat refuses. (AFP 1/17 in WNC 1/19; MM, WP, WT 1/18; CSM, MM, NYT 1/19; MENA 1/19 in WNC 1/21; MM 1/20; MEI 1/28)

An EU delegation meets separately with Arafat, Barak for talks on the Palestinian track, increasing the EU role in the peace process. The EU reps. express extreme concern by the slow movement on the Palestinian track. (ANSA 1/17 in WNC 1/19)

In Tel Aviv, Jordanian FM Khatib meets with FM Levy, urges Israel to implement the 1/20 FRD. (DUS 1/18 in WNC 1/19; JT 1/25 in WNC 1/27)

In Cairo, French FM Hubert Vedrine holds talks with Pres. Mubarak, FM Musa on the peace process, the Barcelona process. Egypt agrees to host a Euro-Mediterranean partnership mtg. on 10/3. (MENA 1/17 in WNC 1/19)

The PA for the 1st time turns over a Palestinian prisoner to Israel. The prisoner, Hisham Najim, is wanted for rape and murder of a child nr. Nablus. (al-Quds 1/18 in WNC 1/19; JP 2/11)

Turkey says that it wants to aid the peace process by selling water to Israel, Jordan. Jordan's water M arrives in Ankara today for 3 days of talks on importing 180 mcm of water over 2 yrs. (ATL, JT 1/17 in WNC 1/19; WP 1/18; MM 1/19; ATL, JT, Milliyet 1/19 in WNC 1/21; SA 1/28 in WNC 1/31)

In Hadera, Israel, a crude pipe bomb, similar to those used in Natanya on 11/7, explodes in a trash can. 22 Israelis seek medical attention, mostly for shock. Israel suspects Islamic Jihad (see 1/14). (MM, NYT, WP, WT 1/18; MM 1/19; WJW 1/20; JP 1/28)

In Nicosia, the Cyprus DMin. receives an Israeli DMin. delegation for exploratory talks on developing bilateral ties. (Cyprus News Agency 1/17 in WNC 1/19)

In s. Lebanon, a roadside bomb thought to have been planted by Hizballah explodes, injuring 1 civilian. (WP 1/18)

PM Rabin, Arafat, in Spain to receive prize for international cooperation, discuss elections. (MM 11/24, 11/25; AFP 11/24 in FBIS 11/25)

Israeli military court in Jenin sentences to death Palestinian who plotted Hadera bus bombing 4/13. Judges say long prison terms have failed to prevent Islamist suicide bombers. Peres opposes sentence. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/25; IDF Radio, ITV, QY 11/25 in FBIS 11/25; QY 11/25 in FBIS 11/28; JP 12/3)

Hamas issues leaflet saying Hadera bombing "2d in a series of 5 attacks" on Israelis, warning Palestinians to avoid "crowded Israeli areas." Leaflet also criticizes PLO Chmn. Arafat's denunciation of violence, asking, "Has appeasing America and Israel become more important to you than pleasing your own people and telling the word of truth?" Arafat calls PM Rabin to reject violence; FM Peres says "we appreciate the call. We would like to see some more definite language." (MM 4/14; CSM, NYT, WP, WT 4/15)

PM Rabin accuses Jordan of sheltering Hamas, calling Amman "a paradise for the activities of Hamas." Rabin says Israel has contacted Jordan over issue, alleges "direct contact" btwn. Hamas spokesmen in Amman, 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam militants in o.t. Jordanian Interior Min. summons Hamas rep. Muhammad Nazzal and spokesman Ibrahim Ghawsha, withdraws their passports and tells them to curb activities, reportedly before Rabin speaks. (MM 4/15, 4/18; NYT 4/15)

IDF arrests 18 Hamas mbrs. suspected of attacks on soldiers in Gaza; Hamas activist Mahmud Zahar says at least 40 Hamas mbrs. arrested since 4/11. (WT 4/15)

Roadside bomb nr. Rihan, southern Lebanon, kills 5 SIA mbrs. No group claims responsibility. IDF, SLA shell Sidon and 'Ayn al-Hilwa r.c. in retaliation, killing 3, wounding 12 in heaviest shelling since 7/93. (WP 4/15

Suicide bomb explodes in bus in Hadera, Israel, killing 6, including bomber, and wounding 28, including 2 Israeli Arabs and 18 IDF soldiers. Hamas claims responsibility. PM Rabin redeploys IDF to protect Israeli cities, rejects opposition calls to end talks with PLO. PLO Chmn. Arafat, speaking to Council of Europe in Strasbourg, condemns violence, faults Israeli collective punishments against Palestinians acontributing to violent atmosphere. U.S. State Dept. receives Arafat letter in which he "regretted and strongly rejected" violence against Israel. (MM 4/13; CSM, NYT, WP, WT 4/14; WP 4/17)

Maj. Gen. Ilan Biran named officer in command of IDF Central Command, including West Bank. Biran to take office 4/17, replacing Acting OC Central Command Maj. Gen. Dani Yatom, appointed temporarily to replace Maj. Gen. Nehemia Tamari, killed in helicopter crash 1/94. (MM 4/13)

Social/Economic/Political

Occupied Palestine/Israel: The Daily Telegraph reports depleted uranium, potential material for making nuclear explosives, was exported to Israel last autumn after it was bought from Luxembourg, in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty [DT 7/12, JW 8/1]. EEC spokesman reports private Luxembourg metals trading company imported 40 tons of depleted uranium from Britain and 7 tons from France; 47 tons then exported to Israel without required notification to Euratom (EEC agency charged with keeping track of trade of nuclear materials by EEC member states) [VO 8/1]. Foreign Min. Shamir calls Jewish underground defendants "excellent people who made a mistake" [JP 7/12]; vows to work for their release. Four Gazans are convicted of plotting to attack the U.S. embassy [JP 7/12].

Other Countries: U. S. House of Rep. passes fiscal 1985 Foreign Aid Authorization Bill on voice vote. Bill includes $3 billion in regular economic and military assistance for Israel, plus $1.5 billion in emergency supplemental economic aid; $400 million of military assistance is allocated to Lavi aircraft project, $150 million of which must be spent in the U.S. [NER 7/15].

Military Action

Occupied Palestine/Israel: Bombs go off in Ashkelon and Hadera; no injuries are reported [JP 7/12].