7 / 15237 Results
  • September 21, 1983

    Military Action:

    Fighting continues around Souq al-Gharb, with anti-government forces, reportedly including Hitten and Yarmouk brigades of PLA, using tanks and smokescreens; artillery and...

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  • September 20, 1983

    Military Action:

    US Marines, Army officers make first reported visit to LAF positions at Souq al-Gharb, gather intelligence, consult on target coordinates; LAF adds 2 battalions to 4...

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  • September 8, 1983

    Military Action:

    Fighting continues at Souq al-Gharb, Aley, Beit Eddine and Deir al-Qamar; PSP forces capture Qabr Chamoun junction; shells fall in Khaldeh, Yarze, Baabda and other suburbs...

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  • December 9, 1982

    Military Action:

    Syrian soldiers ambushed near border, setting off clashes in Tripoli; sectarian kidnappings touch off artillery, rocket duels in Souk al-Gharb and Aitat, IDF fires warning...

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  • November 16, 1982

    Military Action:

    IDF jeeps and APCs come under RPG attack near Shuweifat; artillery, machine gun exchanges between Druze and Phalange in Aley, IDF rushes 50 APCs and tanks, 500 troops to...

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  • August 4, 1982

    Military Action:

    IDF attacks West Beirut by land, sea, air as IDF armored units advance on Palestinian areas on southern edge of city (negotiations broght to standstill; PLO puts up fierce...

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  • July 7, 1982

    Military Action:

    IDF shelling and blockade maintained for fifth day as negotiations deadlocked; water and electricity are partially restored; IDF artillery and gunboats blast Palestinian...

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Military Action:

Fighting continues around Souq al-Gharb, with anti-government forces, reportedly including Hitten and Yarmouk brigades of PLA, using tanks and smokescreens; artillery and rocket fire hits Yarze and Baabda areas; US ships fire salvos for third consecutive day; Gemayel tours LAF positions along Souq al-Gharb-Kaifun ridge.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Shamir, with majority in Knesset, is invited to form new government, extends invitation to Labor Alignment to join government of national unity; Sharon calls on US to send Marines into Chouf, use naval and air power to stop Druze forces, send warning to Syria and Soviet Union; Israeli acting mayor cancels Hebron council's successful petition to High Court for injunction against expansion of Jewish settlements in town's center.

US and Other Countries: Reagan says Marines' participation in MNF is absolutely crucial to ending Soviet-sponsored aggression against Lebanon; House Appropriations Committee votes 20-16 to cut off funds for Marines in MNF on December 1 unless Reagan invokes War Powers Act.

Military Action:

US Marines, Army officers make first reported visit to LAF positions at Souq al-Gharb, gather intelligence, consult on target coordinates; LAF adds 2 battalions to 4 already at Souq al-Gharb, US ships fire 40+ rounds at anti-government artillery and rocket batteries east of Yarze; SAM-5 reportedly fired at US Navy F-14 on reconnaissance flight over Beirut, no damage; Amal militia continues attack on LAF units south of Beirut.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: IDF reportedly will intervene in Lebanon fighting if PLO seeks to gain foothold south of Damour River line.

US and Other Countries: Reagan administration and Congressional leaders of both parties agree on compromise formula to authorize Marines to remain in Lebanon for further 18 months under War Powers Act, no change in number, role or deployment; US names new ambassadors to Lebanon, Saudi Arabia; Italy positions warplanes at British base on Cyprus to support its MNF contingent; British naval task force begins assembling in eastern Mediterranean.

Military Action:

Fighting continues at Souq al-Gharb, Aley, Beit Eddine and Deir al-Qamar; PSP forces capture Qabr Chamoun junction; shells fall in Khaldeh, Yarze, Baabda and other suburbs, and around airport, near US Marine positions; LAF engages Shi'ite militiamen in Beirut district of Chiah; US Navy warship fires first rounds of 5-inch shells at PSP artillery position near Chemlan, southeast of Beirut, Marines also return fire; US jet overflies village of Deir al-Qamar; IDF patrol crosses Awali River, removes roadblock at village of Amayle.

Casualties:

LAF reports 2 killed, 6 wounded; PSP accuses Phalange militiamen of killing 40 Druze civilians in Abey, near Qabr Chamoun; bomb destroys Islamic lUnification Movement sports club in Tripoli, 5 killed, 25 wounded.

Political Responses:

Palestinians/ Lebanese: McFarlane meets Gemayel, Wazzan in Beirut, Jumblatt in Damascus; Jumblatt says PSP forces will not fire on targets endangering MNF units.

Arab Governments: Saudi Arabia renews its diplomatic efforts toward a ceasefire, sends Prince Bandar Ibn Sultan to Damascus.

US and Other Countries: Rep. Clarence Long (D-MD) says he will seek legislative cut-off of funds for US MNF contingent unless Reagan seeks formal Congressional authorization under 1973 War Powers Act.

Military Action:

Syrian soldiers ambushed near border, setting off clashes in Tripoli; sectarian kidnappings touch off artillery, rocket duels in Souk al-Gharb and Aitat, IDF fires warning shots in attempts to stop fighting, IDF APCs move through Aley streets, proclaim curfew; US Marines to expand patrols to include Yarze section of Beirut-Damascus road.

Casualties:

Tripoli casualties are 16 dead, 59 wounded; 6 killed in Chouf fighting, 4 Syria soldiers killed, 11 wounded in ambush.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Sharon, in New York, says Israel is close to a secdrity arrangement with Lebanon; Commission makes public Begin's letter in which he declines to reappear, and asserts he had "no grounds" to expect massacre, asserts Phalange entered camps to deal with estimated 2,000 PLO guerrillas remaining in camps-though Phalange let into camps numbered only 100-200; Shamir, and Yaron notify Commission they intend to submit written memoranda but not testify further; Drori, who plans to reappear before Commission, and Yaron reportedly retain lawyers; others request extension of time and Commission gives them until December 15; Israeli testimony indicates only two Phalange killed during massacre.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Arafat rejects Jordanian trusteeship role, says Hussein cannot represent Palestinians in peace negotiations; former Lebanese Prime Minister Karame appeals to Syrian President Assad to help stop fighting.

Arab Governments: Egypt urges US allies to pressure US to secure IDF withdrawal from Lebanon.

US and Other Countries: After meeting with Reagan and senior policy makers, Habib warns early withdrawal of foreign troops from Lebanon not likely, prepares to return to Mideast in renewe4 effort to bring about troop withdrawals; US Jewish groups warn Begin he may lose their support, but oppose using US aid to pressure his government; Honduran official says Sharon signed arms agreement, reportedly involving sale of Kfir jets; Thatcher sends envoy on secret visit to Morocco, raising hopes for ending crisis in UK/Arab relations.

Military Action:

IDF jeeps and APCs come under RPG attack near Shuweifat; artillery, machine gun exchanges between Druze and Phalange in Aley, IDF rushes 50 APCs and tanks, 500 troops to area, imposes curfew and cuts traffic between Chouf villages; IDF forces withdraw from Yarze area housing Lebanese Army command and home of US Ambassador Dillon.

Casualties:

UNRWA begins distributing cement and stoves in Ain el-Hilweh; 1 attacker killed, 1 IDF soldier wounded in Shuweifat.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Sharon tells Knesset committee Israel will withdraw to 40 miles above border only after PLO and Syria withdraw troops and Israeli prisoners are returned, but will stay there until Lebanon signs security agreement allowing direct IDF involvement in security arrangements; Shamir tells US Jewish leaders in Israel that multinational peacekeeping force is unnecessary for ensuring safety of South Lebanon; Jerusalem Post poll shows Sharon support dropping since massacre; Commission of Inquiry interviews Yiram Yair, IDF commander in area of camps during massacre, behind closed doors; Statistics Bureau puts price rise at 106 percent since start of year, and inflation rate may reach 138 percent by end of year; two week old memo revealed which ordered Israeli military governors to "neutralize to the maximum" pro-Jordanian elements among West Bank Arabs and to step up support for Village Leagues, in apparent attempt to block options for peace settlement involving Jordan; Likud MK Dror Zeigerman says government initiative in issuing memo would imply plan for ultimate annexation of occupied territories, and warns such a plan would turn the West Bank into "Israel's Viet Nam"; Peace Now issues statement condemning Civil Administrator for implementing "corrupt colonialist policies"; heads of Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Armenian churches in Jerusalem threaten to close holy places over Christmas unless expulsion order against Armenian Deputy Patriarch Karanjian is rescinded, but Interior Ministry refuses to reveal basis for decision to not renew visa; Tehiya Party, at annual meeting, demands that Israel annex West Bank and Gaza; Nahal plans five outposts, three settlements in West Bank in coming year; Bethlehem University student council leader put under town arrest for six months.

US and Other Countries: French President Mitterrand, in Paris meeting, tells Arab League delegation headed by King Hussein that Arabs and PLO should recognize Israel; State Department issues unusually strong 2 page statement that Israel's deportation of teachers from West Bank universities (which are partly funded by US foreign aid) undermines peace negotiations.

Military Action:

IDF attacks West Beirut by land, sea, air as IDF armored units advance on Palestinian areas on southern edge of city (negotiations broght to standstill; PLO puts up fierce resistance; all of West Beirut under rocket, artillery attack; offices of Wazzan, Lebanese Ministry of Information, Al-Nahar news-paper, UPI hit; Bristol, Commodore hotels hit; IDF takes up new positions in Lebanese army barracks, close to Bir Hassan-Kuwait Embassy junction; IDF tries to enter Sabra Shatila camps; IDF advances only 300-500 yards near Museum crossing); PLO fires on IDF forces backed up in East Beirut, shelling Ashrafiya, Yarze and Baabda areas.

Casualties:

Casualties estimated in hundreds, 80 percent civilian (American University Hospital alone receives 55 dead, 200 wounded; Beirut radio reports 300 killed, 670 wounded); fires rage throughout town; IDF maintains tight blockade; streets of East Beirut deserted; Islamic Asylum hit for third time; rescue capabilities deteriorate as fuel in short supply; only 80 firemen remain working (many casualties left to die in rubble); 19 IDF soldiers killed; 50 killed in East Beirut.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Begin tells 190 United Jewish Appeal contributors war will end soon because PLO cannot hold out., angrily attacks reported Percy statement asking Reagan to "bring Israel to its knees."

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Sarkis accuses Habib of stalling to allow IDF time to finish off PLO; volunteers in thousands flock to fight with PLO (most in eastern Lebanon).

Arab Govemments: Egyptian Ambassador to Israel called home "for consultations"; Egypt may not maintain diplomatic relations with Israel if IDF makes full-scale attack on Beirut.

Political Responses:

US and Other Countries: Reagan cables strong protest to Begin, saying attacks undermine Habib efforts (White House issues statement emphasizing necessity of re-establishing cease-fire); US discusses possible sanctions against Israel for first time in crisis management group and at session of National Security Council; France protests to IDF regarding attacks on embassy.

UN: Security Council draft resolution proposed by Spain, Jordan revised after US objections but still expected to be vetoed; Egypt, at UN, warns that Israeli actions threaten Camp David Accords.

Military Action:

IDF shelling and blockade maintained for fifth day as negotiations deadlocked; water and electricity are partially restored; IDF artillery and gunboats blast Palestinian neighborhoods, setting fires, with high casualties (other non-Palestinian areas hit); evening gunner duels mark IDF attempts to advance; IDF officers say IDF broke fifth cease-fire in retaliation for deaths of 5 IDF soldiers the night before; shells fall on US Ambassador's residence in Yarze; IDF shell hits nylon factory, igniting long fire and explosions; Israeli jets zoom over Beirut.

Casualties:

Beirut police estimate 22 killed, 38 wounded in the night (Beirut casualties now 2633 killed, 3612 wounded); appeals made for blood; 2 IDF soldiers found killed (armored personnel carrier hit near Tyre); even after water turned on again in West Beirut, so much of the pipeline is damaged, many residents still must get water in pails; one 23-ton shipment of foodstuffs by World Vision allowed in (no explanation of why others kept out); some Palestinians being allowed to return to camps in the south (mostly women and children, most men are in detention); 7000 new refugees reportedly have fled to Baalbek; 25-30,000 Shiites reportedly returning to Nabatiyeh area; water is still problem in South Lebanon (IDF destroyed water pumping station serving 120 villages in Tyre area, repairs to take 3 months); in Beirut, despite 5 centers for potable water distribution set up by UN, problem is dwindling gasoline for water trucks; IDF damage to Zahrani refinery will take 3 months to repair; ICRC estimates needs for next 3 months at $18 million, says 75 doctors/medical technicians have arrived to aid Lebanese Red Cross (LRC) and Palestine Red Crescent Society (PRCS); doctors say they are dealing with injuries hitherto unseen (dead to wounded ratio normally 1-5, now 50-50).

PLO displays to reporters extensive IDF anti-personnel weapons, most with US markings, including cluster bombs, canisters of hydrogen cyanide used against Syrians and in Burj al-Barajneh camp and neighborhood (other weapons used in Sabra and Shatila camps and Shia suburb of Ouzai); displayed also is slab of nougat with Hebrew markings, part of car bomb found in Beirut port area.

Israeli Cabinet spokesman Meridor says 331 Lebanese civilians killed, says IDF told him 1200 PLO "terrorists" and civilians killed in fighting in refugee camps (claims not much international aid needed, that international bodies agree with Israeli government figures, that Israeli ambulances sent to help wounded have come back to Israel as not needed); detention camps set up by IDF in southern Lebanon (fences, guard towers, earth embankments at Ansar, west of Nabatiyeh); Meridor says detainees will be treated as criminals, not POWs.

UN High Commission for Refugees, in Vienna, says IDF invasion has set back work in Lebanon by 32 years, destroying schools, camps, warehouses, clinics, leaving 175,000 of 237,000 registered refugees in urgent need of aid.

Political Responses:

Israel/ Occupied Territories: Cabinet hints PLO might be allowed to stay in Tripoli; government accepts only 7 of 9 points of reported US plan; Cabinet allows more time for negotiations; aide to Begin insists all PLO members must leave Beirut; Cabinet hears report from Sharon; Abba Eban disagrees with government rejection of political role for PLO; Kimche meets with Habib, who then calls Wazzan to contact Arafat; Mayor of Gaza warned that he and other elected town council members may be dismissed if they continue to refuse to cooperate with Israeli civil administration; IDF soldiers surround Bir Zeit campus, use tear gas, arrest 100 students in fourth day of protests against invasion.

Palestinians/ Lebanese: Habib informs Wazzan that US will not send US Marines until PLO leaves Beirut (Wazzan reported shocked, asks what good are troops at that point); PLO still insisting on some political presence in Beirut, armed units attached to Lebanese Army; Lebanese landowners who rented to Palestinians after 1948 are asking IDF governor of Sidon to evict Palestinians; in Tyre, Lebanese landowners are evicting Palestinian residents, forcing them to live on beaches, in groves.

US and Other Countries: US fears troops may get caught in crossfire and changes plan not to allow Marines to be sent until after PLO evacuates; US Congressional resistance to use of US troops grows; Jewish Affairs magazine issues public statement demanding removal of IDF troops, ending of US aid to Israel; US position reportedly is no PLO troops should remain, but political/informational office is OK; USSR warns US against military intervention in Lebanon; Pakistan president sends telegrams to Reagan, other members of the UN Security Council asking them to force IDF to withdraw; Turkey calls for IDF withdrawal, but reportedly cooperates with Israel on captured Turks and Armenians fighting with the PLO.

UN: UN Secretary General says UN must rethink "peacekeeping" role in wake of IDF invasion (and Cyprus incident several years ago).