8974 / 14704 Results
  • July 11, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers uprooted 200 olive trees and saplings and 250 almond, plum, peach, and grape trees in Turmus ‘Ayya and al-Mughayyir. Israeli forces violently dispersed...

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  • July 10, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man near al-Mughayyir, who was taken to a hospital for treatment of his injuries. (...

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  • July 9, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man near Turmus ‘Ayya. In East Jerusalem, some 150,000 Palestinian worshippers performed prayers at the Haram al-Sharif compound for Eid...

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  • July 8, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Beita and Bayt Dajan, injuring 16 with tear gas. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in...

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  • July 7, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian family in their home in Burin, causing injuries. Israeli forces delivered a stop-work order for 1 house in Khirbet Atuf. Officials from...

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  • July 5, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces razed a water pipeline connecting homes in Duma to a well. Israeli forces also razed 6 dunams (1.5 acres) of Palestinian-owned land near Ni‘lin. Elsewhere, Israeli...

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  • July 4, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces beat 1 Palestinian man to death at the separation wall near Tulkarm after he tried to enter Israel for work. The body of the man, who was from Gaza, was returned...

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  • July 3, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man working his land near Kafr al-Labad; the man was hospitalized for treatment of his injuries. Israeli forces shot and injured 1...

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  • July 2, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor during a raid in Jaba‘, claiming that the teenager had thrown a Molotov cocktail at the forces. Israeli forces also violently...

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  • June 30, 2022

    In the West Bank, settlers with military protection toured Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus, leading to a confrontation with Palestinians protesting the incursion; 3 Israelis were shot and injured by...

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  • June 29, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers and soldiers violently dispersed Palestinian and Israel activists during a tree-planting event in the Masafer Yatta area. Israeli forces shot and killed 1...

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  • June 27, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers raided Yatma before being repelled by Palestinians. Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian with live ammunition during a raid in Jenin. Israeli forces...

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  • June 26, 2022

    In the West Bank, the Shin Bet arrested 3 Palestinian relatives of the Palestinian man who was stabbed to death by an Israeli settler on 6/21 near the Ariel settlement. The 3 were also...

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  • June 24, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized 1 mosque in Kisan and placed an Israeli flag on top of the mosque. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor near Silwad, claiming he had...

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  • June 23, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians using live ammunition during a raid in Dheisheh refugee camp. 11 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ramallah,...

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  • June 22, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces violently dispersed activists protesting Israeli military drills in Masafer Yatta. Israeli forces also demolished parts of road used to access agricultural lands...

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  • June 20, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers razed 2 dunums (0.5 acres) of Palestinian farmland near Kisan. Israeli settlers also threw stones at Palestinians at the Deir Sharaf junction, injuring 1....

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  • June 19, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers erected an outpost near al-Lubban ash-Sharqiya. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man trying to enter Israel for work at the separation wall near...

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  • June 16, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers raided Huwwara, spraying pepper spray at 1 Palestinian man confronting the settlers who were trying to steal Palestinian flags. Israeli settlers also assaulted 2...

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  • June 15, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces delivered demolition notices for 6 houses and 2 commercial structures in Ar-Rafaiya in the Masafer Yatta area and stop-work orders for 7 houses under construction...

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  • June 14, 2022

    In the West Bank, PA security forces, dressed in civilian clothes, violently dispersed Palestinian students and staff protesting the dismissal of 10 students from the Islamic bloc and 5 employees...

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  • June 13, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian with live ammunition during a late-night raid in al-Bireh. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinians protesting a raid in...

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  • June 12, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces razed farmland in al-Khader, uprooting 95 olive trees. Israeli forces also seized 4 tents and delivered a stop-work order for a house near Yatta. Elsewhere, 1...

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  • June 9, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers destroyed a memorial for 1 Palestinian rights activist who was killed by Israeli forces on 1/5 in Umm al-Khair. Israeli settlers also assaulted 1 Palestinian...

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  • June 8, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers re-erected a settlement outpost near al-Lubban ash-Sharqiya; the settlement outpost was dismantled by Israeli forces on 6/7. 18 Palestinians were arrested during...

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  • June 7, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli forces delivered demolition notices for 4 houses, 8 water wells, and 1 agricultural structure in a-Tabban in the Masafer Yatta area and stop-work notices for 2 water...

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  • June 6, 2022

    In the West Bank, PA forces arrested 9 Palestinian protesters during a general strike in Hebron over rising food prices. Food prices have been rising throughout the world due to Russia’s blockade...

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  • June 5, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attempted to enter Nabi Salih but were repelled by Palestinians. Israeli forces raided Shufa, seizing Palestinian flags from poles and houses. Israeli forces...

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  • June 3, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military escort raided Nabi Salih and attempted to steal a Palestinian flag, leading to a confrontation between Israeli forces and Palestinians; 1 was...

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  • June 2, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized Palestinian vehicles in al-Bireh with graffiti. Israeli settlers also vandalized Palestinian vehicles in Deir Istya. Israeli forces shot and killed 1...

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In the West Bank, Israeli settlers uprooted 200 olive trees and saplings and 250 almond, plum, peach, and grape trees in Turmus ‘Ayya and al-Mughayyir. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Bani Na‘im, assaulting several and firing tear gas. Israeli forces also confiscated 1 tractor in Deir Balut. 3 Palestinians were arrested, including 2 during a late-night raid in Silwad and 1 near the separation wall. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/11; PCHR 7/21; UNOCHA 7/22)

An Israeli court sentenced 1 Israeli man to 2.5 years in prison for the assault on 1 Palestinian citizen of Israel in May 2021. The Israeli man entered a plea deal to have charges related to terrorism removed, which would have doubled his sentence. (HA 7/11)

U.S. national security advisor Jake Sullivan confirmed that president Joe Biden will seek to facilitate a normalization of relations between Saudi Arabia and Israel during his trip to both countries this week and that President Biden will partake in a virtual summit with India, Israel, and the UAE during his Middle East trip. (REU, REU 7/11)

Axios reported that the U.S. had rejected Israeli requests for Israeli officials to join Biden on his planned visit to the Augusta Victoria hospital in East Jerusalem. Biden is expected to visit the East Jerusalem hospital on 7/15 before heading to the West Bank for a meeting with PA president Mahmoud Abbas. According to Axios, the Biden administration told Israel that his visit to the hospital is private and not political. (AX 7/11)

Pew Research Center released a poll finding that 56% of Americans between the age of 18-29 hold unfavorable views of Israel, while the overall number among the people polled was 41%. The poll also found that 71% of Republicans hold favorable views of Israel while 44% of Democrats do. The Pew polling also found that 84% of Americans had little to no knowledge about the BDS movement. (AX, PEW 7/11)

In its annual report “Children and Armed Conflict,” the UN found that Israel killed 78 Palestinian children during 2021, injured 982, and detained 637. In response, UN secretary-general António Guterres said that if Israel repeats the high number of killings of Palestinian children in 2022, it should be added to the list of parties committing grave violations against children in situations of armed conflict. (UN 6/23; AJ, REU, UN 7/11; WAFA 7/12; WAFA 7/13)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man near al-Mughayyir, who was taken to a hospital for treatment of his injuries. (WAFA 7/10; PCHR 7/21; UNOCHA 7/22)

Adalah published documents showing that the plot of land that the U.S. is planning to build its embassy to Israel in Jerusalem is confiscated Palestinian-owned property. The plot of land in the Allenby Complex was leased by 5 Palestinian landowning families to the British Mandate authorities before 1948 and confiscated by Israel using the Absentees’ Property Law after the Nakba. The U.S. state department and the Israel Land Authority submitted plans to build the new embassy on the land in February 2021. (Adalah, Adalah, HA, WAFA 7/10; JP, MEE 7/11)

Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid spoke to Egyptian president Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi, promising that he will launch an investigation into Haaretz reporting that Israel has covered up the existence of a mass grave near Jerusalem of Egyptian soldiers who were killed in the 1967 war. (HA 7/8; HA, REU 7/10; AJ, TOI 7/11; HA 7/12)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man near Turmus ‘Ayya. In East Jerusalem, some 150,000 Palestinian worshippers performed prayers at the Haram al-Sharif compound for Eid al-Adha. 2 Palestinians were arrested, including 1 at the Haram al-Sharif compound and 1 at the Damascus Gate plaza. (WAFA, WAFA 7/9; PCHR 7/21; UNOCHA 7/22)

Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid spoke to Jordanian king Abdullah II. (HA 7/9)

U.S. president Joe Biden published an op-ed in the Washington Post defending his decision to visit Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman in Jeddah next week. Among President Biden’s arguments was working toward normalization between Israel and Saudi Arabia. (WP 7/9; AP, MEE 7/10; HA 7/11)

The UAE announced it will donate $25 million to the Makassed hospital in East Jerusalem. According to Axios reporting, the Biden administration had asked the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar to donate $100 million in total to Palestinian hospitals in East Jerusalem ahead of Biden’s visit where he is expected to announce a U.S. donation of $100 million to hospitals serving Palestinians in East Jerusalem. (AX 7/10)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Beita and Bayt Dajan, injuring 16 with tear gas. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 8 with baton rounds. 1 Palestinian was arrested at the Qalandia checkpoint. (WAFA 7/8; WAFA 7/9; PCHR 7/21; UNOCHA 7/22)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke to Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid and Israeli president Isaac Herzog in phone calls. The phone calls come 1 day after defense minister Benny Gantz visited President Abbas in Ramallah and 1 week ahead of U.S. president Joe Biden’s visit to Palestine and Israel. It was the 1st direct call between Abbas and an Israeli prime minister since 2017. The PA said that Prime Minister Lapid extended his wishes for Eid al-Adha and that Abbas congratulated Lapid on becoming Israel’s new prime minister. (AP, AX, HA, MEE, REU, WAFA 7/8; ALM 7/11)

Middle East Eye reported that Israeli military officials have been traveling to the U.S. air base al-Udeid in Qatar as part of the U.S. defense department 2021 decision to transfer Israel to the Central Command. (MEE 7/8)

The Presbyterian Church in the U.S. voted 266-166 on a resolution declaring that Israel practices apartheid against the Palestinian people and voted to add May 15 as a day to commemorate the Nakba. (WP 7/15)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian family in their home in Burin, causing injuries. Israeli forces delivered a stop-work order for 1 house in Khirbet Atuf. Officials from the EU and UN visited the Masafer Yatta area, meeting with Palestinians threated by forced displacement. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces razed a plot of land and a car wash shop in Nabi Samwil. In Gaza, Israeli forces made incursions and leveled land east of Maghazi refugee camp. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/7; PCHR 7/21; UNOCHA 7/22)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas met with Israel’s defense minister Benny Gantz in Ramallah. According to sources familiar with the meeting, the 2 spoke about U.S. president Joe Biden’s upcoming visit to the 2 countries, easing Israeli restrictions on the West Bank, and Israel’s killing of journalist Shireen Abu Akleh. (AJ, AP, HA, JP, MEE, REU, TOI, WAFA 7/8)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces razed a water pipeline connecting homes in Duma to a well. Israeli forces also razed 6 dunams (1.5 acres) of Palestinian-owned land near Ni‘lin. Elsewhere, Israeli forces razed agricultural lands near Burin, uprooting some 50 olive trees. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/5; PCHR, WAFA 7/7; UNOCHA 7/22)

Haaretz reported that Israeli police downgraded the charge against the Israeli settler who stabbed 1 Palestinian to death on 6/21 from murder to reckless homicide, which carries a maximum sentence of 12 years. (HA 7/5)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas and political chief of Hamas Ismail Haniyeh met in Algiers at a meeting hosted by Algerian president Abdelmadjid Tebboune. The 2 leaders were in Algeria for the celebration of the 60th anniversary of Algeria’s independence. Aside from a picture of the 2 shaking hands, there was no information about what was discussed during the meeting, which was the 1st between the 2 since 2016 during reconciliation efforts in Doha. (WAFA 7/4; TOI 7/5; AJ, WAFA 7/6; ALM 7/8)

Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid met with French president Emmanuel Macron in Paris. President Macron urged Lapid to restart peace talks with Palestinians, saying that there is no alternative to political dialogue. (REU 7/5; ALM, AP 7/6)

Ben & Jerry’s sued its parent company Unilever to block the sale of Ben & Jerry’s business interests in Israel to the Israeli company American Quality Products. Ben & Jerry’s complaint in U.S. court said that the sale undermines the company’s brand integrity. (AJ, HA, MDW, REU 7/5; AJ, AP, CBS 7/6; HA 7/31)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces beat 1 Palestinian man to death at the separation wall near Tulkarm after he tried to enter Israel for work. The body of the man, who was from Gaza, was returned to his family on 7/5. Israeli forces also shot and injured 6 Palestinians during a raid in Dura, including 5 with live ammunition and 1 with a baton round. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians in Abu Dis, injuring 1 with live ammunition. Israeli forces also demolished 1 residential structure in Umm Qassa in the Masafer Yatta area, displacing 15. Meanwhile, Israeli forces demolished 1 3-story building in Sawahara al-Sharqiyya and assaulted the Palestinian owner trying to prevent the demolition. Israeli forces also delivered stop-work notices for some 30 structures in Humsa al-Tahta. 19 Palestinians were arrested, including 18 during late-night raids in Beit Sira, Beitunia, Ramallah, Abu Nujaym, Dahariya, Beit Umar, al-Arroub refugee camp, Iskaka, and Nablus; 1 was arrested at a checkpoint near Nablus. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities demolished 1 house in Jabel Mukaber and 1 nursery in Isawiya; 2 Palestinians were arrested during the demolition in Jabel Mukaber. 6 others were arrested during raids in the Old City and Isawiya. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/4; MEE, WAFA 7/5; PCHR 7/7; UNOCHA 7/22)

U.S. state department spokesperson Ned Price said that the U.S. had determined that the ballistic analysis of the bullet that killed Palestinian American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh was inconclusive, saying the bullet was badly damaged. The U.S. said it had “concluded that gunfire from IDF positions was likely responsible for the death” of Abu Akleh but that the U.S. “found no reason to believe that this was intentional but rather the result of tragic circumstances during an IDF-led military operation against factions of Palestinian Islamic Jihad.” Several independent investigations, eyewitnesses, and the PA have concluded that Israeli forces deliberately targeted Abu Akleh given the bullet’s trajectory where she was killed. Member of the PLO executive committee Wasel Abu Yousef accused the U.S. of protecting Israel. Secretary general of the PLO Hussein al-Sheikh said the PA rejected the U.S. findings and would seek justice at the ICC. The family of Abu Akleh expressed disbelief that the U.S. was unable to conclude with certainty Israel had killed Shireen, given the evidence available. (AJ, AJ, AJ, AP, AX, DOS, HA, HA, MEE, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/4; AJ, HA, WAFA, WAFA 7/5; ALM, ALM, AX, MDW, PCHR, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/6; HA, MEE, MEE 7/7; AJ, AJ, AP, HA, MDW, MEE, REU 7/8; WAFA 7/10; GDN 7/12)

1 Palestinian man from Gaza died after being denied cancer treatment by Israeli authorities, claiming his 2 travel permits for treatment were under security check. The man had applied to travel to Nablus for treatment on 3 occasions since April, but his applications remained pending when he passed. (PCHR 7/6)

PA prime minister Mohammed Shtayyeh accused Israel of using the corpses of Palestinians killed by Israel in Israeli medical schools. (WAFA 7/4)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers assaulted 1 Palestinian man working his land near Kafr al-Labad; the man was hospitalized for treatment of his injuries. Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian at the al-Hamra checkpoint in Jericho. Israeli forces also delivered stop-work notices for 2 houses under construction near Yatta. 11 Palestinians were arrested, including 10 during late-night raids in Silwad, Yabrud, and Nabi Salih; 1 was arrested after returning from Jordan at the Allenby Bridge crossing. In Gaza, Israeli forces arrested 2 Palestinians for attempting to cross into Israel via the Gaza fence. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 3 nautical miles west of al-Sudaniyya; no injuries were reported. (MEMO, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 7/3; PCHR 7/7; UNOCHA 7/22)

Israel announced that it will allow 400 Palestinians living in Gaza—only men over the age of 55 and women over 50—to visit Jerusalem for the celebration of Eid al-Adha, and 500 Palestinians in the West Bank will be given permits to travel through Ben-Gurion airport. (HA 7/3)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor during a raid in Jaba‘, claiming that the teenager had thrown a Molotov cocktail at the forces. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 8 with baton rounds. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians in Hebron, injuring 2 with live ammunition. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinians with tear gas in Ein al-Beida. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen northwest of Khan Yunis; no injuries were reported. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinians working their land east of Jabalia; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA 7/2; AA, AJ, AP, HA, MEE, WAFA 7/3; PCHR 7/4; PCHR 7/7; UNOCHA 7/22)

The PA handed the bullet that killed Palestinian American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh to U.S. security envoy Mike Fenzel, who brought the bullet to the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem for forensic analysis with Israeli representatives present. It was reported that the PA was under intense pressure from the Biden administration to hand over the bullet and had not been told that the Israelis would partake in the forensics analysis. PA general prosecutor Akram al-Khatib later said that the U.S. had given guarantees that Israel would not take part in the analysis of the bullet. (AX 7/1; AA, AJ, AP, AX, MEE, REU, WAFA, WSJ 7/2; F24, HA, MEMO, REU 7/3; HA, JP, TOI 7/4)

1 68-year-old Palestinian woman died in an Israeli prison 6 months after being arrested for an alleged stabbing attempt in Hebron. The PA said it held Israel responsible for the death of the woman, who had yet to be sentenced. (HA, MEE, PCHR, WAFA, WAFA 7/2; AJ, WAFA 7/3; HA 7/9)

In Syria, Israeli forces fired missiles from northern Lebanese air space at chicken farms in Hamidiyeh, injuring 2 Syrians and causing damage. (AJ, AX, HA, MEE 7/2)

Israel said it had shot down 3 Hezbollah drones at a gas drilling rig in a maritime area disputed between Lebanon and Israel. Lebanese prime minister Najib Mikati later criticized Hezbollah in a statement for launching the drones without government coordination. (AJ, AP, HA, MEE, NAT, REU, REU, TOI 7/2; HA, HA 7/3; HA 7/4)

In the West Bank, settlers with military protection toured Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus, leading to a confrontation with Palestinians protesting the incursion; 3 Israelis were shot and injured by Palestinian gunmen, including 1 soldier, and Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian using live ammunition, 16 others with baton rounds, and 40 were injured with tear gas. Israeli settlers also set fire to Palestinian-owned land planted with grapes and olives in Husan and uprooted some 200 cucumber saplings in Halhul. Israeli forces rammed a motorcycle carrying 2 Palestinians with their car in al-Khader, injuring both. Israeli forces also delivered stop-work notices for 2 houses and 1 agricultural structure in Ma‘in in the Masafer Yatta area. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ni‘lin, al-Am‘ari refugee camp, Qarawat Bani Hassan, Anabta, Arrabah, Aida refugee camp, and al-Arroub refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, 2 Waqf guards were arrested at the Haram al-Sharif compound; 1 of them was later barred from entering the compound for 1 week. 2 others were arrested at the Bab al-Rahma area of the Haram al-Sharif compound and in Silwan. (AP, HA, JP, MEE, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/30; WAFA 7/1; PCHR 7/7; UNOCHA 7/22)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas spoke to U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken in a phone call. According to a statement by the PA, the 2 spoke about preparations for president Joe Biden’s upcoming trip to Palestine and Israel later this month. Secretary Blinken also spoke to the soon-to-be Israeli prime minister Yair Lapid, congratulating him on his appointment (see below). (HA, REU, WAFA 6/30; REU 7/1)

The members of the Knesset voted to dissolve the parliament, leading to a new round of Israeli elections on 11/1. Foreign minister Yair Lapid will be prime minister beginning at midnight until a new prime minister is elected. (HA 6/29; AJ, AJ, AP, AX, HA 6/30)

The EU sent a letter to Al Haq and the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR), informing the Palestinian rights organizations that it will reinstate EU funding that was cut after Israel alleged that Al Haq had financial ties to the PFLP. The EU anti-fraud agency OLAF did not find any indication that the Israeli allegations were true. The EU suspended funding to Al Haq and PCHR in May 2021. (AJ, HA 6/30; WAFA 7/2; MDW 7/5)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers and soldiers violently dispersed Palestinian and Israel activists during a tree-planting event in the Masafer Yatta area. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man during a raid in Jenin. Israeli forces also demolished 2 agricultural structures and razed a road used for agricultural purposes in Anzah, vending stalls near the al-Jalamah checkpoint, and 4 shacks and 3 agricultural structures in ‘Anata. Elsewhere, Israeli forces notified 6 Palestinian families in Khirbet Humsa that they must leave their homes from 7/4 to 7/7 between 7am and 11pm while Israeli forces conduct military exercises in the area. 13 Palestinians were arrested, including 12 during late-night raids in Silwad, Nablus, Jenin, and Azza refugee camp, and 1 at a flying checkpoint in ‘Azzun. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 6 nautical miles northwest of Rafah; no injuries were reported. (AJ, AP, HA, MEE, MEE, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/29; PCHR 6/30; UNOCHA 7/22)

Israel’s prime minister Naftali Bennett told members of his party Yamina that he will not be running for the next Israeli elections. Interior minister Ayelet Shaked will lead Yamina in the Israeli elections in the fall. The Knesset is expected to dissolve in the coming days. (AJ, AP, AX, HA, MEE, MEMO, REU 6/29)

The parent company of Ben & Jerry’s, Unilever, said it had sold its Israeli business interests to the Israeli company American Quality Products Ltd, allowing the Israeli company to use the Ben & Jerry’s name to sell ice cream in Israel and Israeli settlements. Ben & Jerry’s released a statement saying it disagreed with Unilever’s decision. American Quality Products had earlier this year announced that it was suing Ben & Jerry’s and Unilever over Ben & Jerry’s decision to stop selling its ice cream in Israeli West Bank settlements and ending its licensing deal with American Quality Products to produce its ice cream in Israel. (AP, AX, CNN, HA, JP, MDW, MEE, MEMO, NYT, REU 6/29; AJ, HA, REU 6/30; MEE 7/1)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers raided Yatma before being repelled by Palestinians. Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian with live ammunition during a raid in Jenin. Israeli forces also demolished 1 residential structure, 1 village council building, 1 agricultural structure, and 1 water reservoir in Khirbet Izbek, and 1 irrigation pond in Birzeit. 22 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Jalazun refugee camp, Silwad, Dheisheh refugee camp, Hebron, Jenin, and Kafr Qaddum. In East Jerusalem, 1 Palestinian was arrested during a late-night raid in Silwan. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/27; PCHR 6/30;  UNOCHA 7/2)

Representatives from the U.S., Israel, the UAE, Egypt, Morocco, and Bahrain met in Manama to discuss the establishment of the Negev Forum based on a meeting between the parties in Israel in March. According to Axios, sources present at the meeting said Morocco and Egypt pushed for the inclusion of the PA in the plan regional cooperation; however, it is unclear if the PA wants to take part in the normalization-based cooperation. (AX 6/29; MEMO 6/30)

In the West Bank, the Shin Bet arrested 3 Palestinian relatives of the Palestinian man who was stabbed to death by an Israeli settler on 6/21 near the Ariel settlement. The 3 were also eyewitnesses to the killing and had given their testimony to Israeli police before being arrested. Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians at the Taibe checkpoint near Tulkarm. Elsewhere, Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian using a baton round during a raid in Nur Shams refugee camp. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Nur Shams refugee camp, Qaryut, Beit Umar, and al-Khader. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound. 1 Palestinian family demolished their own home in Wadi al-Juz, displacing 2. 2 Fatah activists were arrested. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen; no injuries were reported. (HA, MEMO, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/26; HA, HA 6/27; PCHR 6/30; UNOCHA 7/2)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas met with Jordan’s king Abdullah II in Amman. (WAFA, WAFA 6/26)

Israel’s economy ministry said the Israeli cabinet had approved issuing 3,500 additional permits for Palestinians to work in manufacturing and services to relieve an Israeli shortage of skilled workers. (REU 6/26)

The Wall Street Journal reported that senior Israeli military officials partook in a meeting in March this year with top officials from Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the U.S., and representatives from Bahrain and the UAE in Sharm El Sheikh. At the secretive meeting, the officials were reported to have discussed efforts to combat Iranian missile and drone capabilities. The reporting comes 1 week after Israel’s defense minister Benny Gantz said that Israel is working with Arab partners in what he called “Middle East Air Defense Alliance.” (HA, WSJ 6/26; HA, MEMO 6/27)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized 1 mosque in Kisan and placed an Israeli flag on top of the mosque. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor near Silwad, claiming he had thrown stones at vehicles traveling on Route 60. The PA called the killing an execution. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 9 with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Elsewhere, Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian with live ammunition and injured others with tear gas during a late-night raid in Jenin. Israeli forces also delivered a demolition notice for 1 house under construction in al-Farra in the Masafer Yatta area. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 6 nautical miles west of the shore; no injuries were reported. (AP, JP, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/24; AJ, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/25; PCHR 6/26; PCHR 6/30; UNOCHA 7/2)

The UN human rights office said it had found that the bullet that killed Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh on 5/11 was fired by Israeli forces and not during crossfire with Palestinian militants as Israel has claimed. A representative of the UN human rights office said that “[i]t is deeply disturbing that Israeli authorities have not conducted a criminal investigation” into the killing of Abu Akleh. The UN representative called the bullets fired by the Israeli forces “well-aimed” at journalists wearing flak jackets with “PRESS” markings. (AJ, AP, AX, GDN, HA, MEE, NBC, NPR, OHCHR, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WSJ 6/24; IN 6/25)

Amnesty International criticized the PA for its response to the killing of PA critic Nizar Banat in June 2021. The regional director for the Middle East of North Africa Heba Morayef said that “[t]he flawed military trial of 14 low-ranking security officers will not bring about justice” in the case. The family of Banat is no longer partaking in the PA trial, as it does not believe it will bring justice; it is preparing a civil lawsuit instead. (MEE 6/23; AP 6/24)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 2 Palestinians using live ammunition during a raid in Dheisheh refugee camp. 11 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ramallah, Bayt Rima, Beit Ula, Fawwar refugee camp, Idhna, Jenin, Jericho, and Fari‘ah refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, 4 Palestinians were arrested during raids in Silwan and Shu‘fat refugee camp. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen west of al-Sudaniyya; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/23; PCHR 6/30; UNOCHA 7/2)

The Israeli justice ministry began the process of registering land adjacent to the Haram al-Sharif compound, including at the Ophel Archeological Park in the Old City. (HA 6/26; MEE 6/27; MEMO 6/29)

Israeli military authorities extended the administrative detention period of 1 Palestinian prisoner by 4 months despite promising to release him at the end of his current detention period after he had been hunger striking for 111 days. The man is currently hospitalized for complications related to his hunger strike, which he ended on 6/21. The man resumed his hunger strike on 7/2 (WAFA 6/23; WAFA 7/5)

Hamas political bureau chief Ismail Haniyeh met with Hezbollah secretary general Hassan Nasrallah in Beirut. There were also reports that Haniyeh was scheduled to meet with Lebanese president Michel Aoun and prime minister Najib Mikati. (HA 6/23)

The PLO executive committee met in Ramallah. During the meeting, the committee discussed the U.S. Biden administration’s failure to fulfil its promises to the Palestinian people and plans to initiate national dialogue to end the intra-Palestinian political division. (WAFA 6/24)

Peace Now released a report marking the first year of the Bennett-Lapid government, detailing how the current Israeli government has accelerated the displacement of Palestinians compared to average numbers during the Netanyahu governments. Compared with the yearly average of the Netanyahu governments, the Bennett-Lapid government has promoted 26% more settlement units, issued tenders for 15% more settlement construction, demolished 35% more Palestinian homes in the West Bank, and 59% more Palestinian homes in East Jerusalem. Additionally, settler violence has risen with 45% and 45 more Palestinians have been killed by Israeli forces compared with the yearly average of the Netanyahu governments. (PCN 6/23)

Israel’s foreign minister Yair Lapid met with his Türkiye counterpart Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu in Ankara, in a bid to further normalized relations between the 2 countries. (AJ, ALM, HA, MEE, REU 6/23)

24 Democratic senators, led by Chris Van Hollen (D-MD), wrote a letter to the Biden administration, calling on it to “ensure that a comprehensive, impartial, and open investigation” into the killing of Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh is conducted. The senators also addressed secretary of state Antony Blinken, attorney general Merrick Garland, and FBI director Christopher Wray. (HA, MEE, REU 6/23; AJ, MDW, WAFA 6/24)

President of Suriname Chandrikapersad Santokhi told the National Assembly that Suriname would not build an embassy to Israel in Jerusalem, citing budget constraints. Suriname announced plans to open an embassy to Israel in Jerusalem during a visit by its foreign minister Albert Ramdin on 5/30. (AJ, HA 6/24)

UNRWA announced that it had received pledges of $160 million for its general programming, but warned that it still expects a shortfall of $100 million in its core budget for 2022. (WAFA 6/24)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces violently dispersed activists protesting Israeli military drills in Masafer Yatta. Israeli forces also demolished parts of road used to access agricultural lands near Ras Karkar. Elsewhere, Israeli forces demolished a car repair shop in ‘Anata, 1 house under construction in Nil‘in, 4 structures in Nahalin, and 1 agricultural structure in al-Khader. 8 Palestinians were arrested during raids in Beit Furik, Jenin, Qabatiya, Kafr Abbush, Ein as-Sultan refugee camp, and Hebron. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities demolished 1 agricultural structure in Isawiya and razed land in Bayt Hanina. 1 Palestinian was arrested during a late-night raid in Shu‘fat refugee camp. In Gaza, Israeli forces made incursions to level agricultural lands east of Rafah. Israeli forces also opened fire at Palestinian herders east of Jabaliya; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/22; PCHR 6/23; UNOCHA 7/2)

The Israeli military began construction of a 45-kilomiter concrete barrier in the northern part of the West Bank that will replace a metal fenced area of the separation wall. (HA, MEMO 6/22)

Israeli military reopened an iron gate to the Abud village near Ramallah after Haaretz submitted an inquiry into why it had been closed. The iron gate to Abud had been closed since 6/8, forcing residents to take long detours to reach Ramallah. (HA 6/26)

The PA granted bail for 14 Palestinian security officers accused of partaking in the killing of PA critic Nizar Banat on 6/24/2021. The next court hearing in the case is scheduled for 7/3. (MEE 6/22)

110 of 120 members of the Knesset voted, in a preliminary vote, to dissolve the Knesset. A final vote is expected next week. (ALM, AP, AX, HA, REU 6/22)

Axios reported that the U.S. is working on a roadmap for normalization between Israel and Saudi Arabia ahead of President Joe Biden’s visit to the 2 countries in July. (AX, MEE, TOI 6/22; AX, TOI 6/23)

A U.S. federal appeals court upheld an Arkansas law requiring state contractors to pledge not to boycott Israel. The judge writing the opinion claimed that “[b]ecause those commercial decisions are invisible to observers unless explained, they are not inherently expressive and do not implicate the First Amendment.” The American Civil Liberties Union said it would appeal the case to the Supreme Court. (AJ, AP, FOX, HA, HUFF, MDW, MEE, WP 6/22; TOI 6/23)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers razed 2 dunums (0.5 acres) of Palestinian farmland near Kisan. Israeli settlers also threw stones at Palestinians at the Deir Sharaf junction, injuring 1. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling near Silat ad-Dhahr, damaging 1. Israeli settlers also chased Palestinian herders in Khillet Makhoul; no injuries were reported. Israeli forces delivered a demolition order for 1 greenhouse in Tubas, 3 stop-work orders for residential structures in Masafer Yatta, 2 stop-work orders against homes in Rujeib, and seized 1 tractor in al-Zawiyeh. 9 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Hebron, Ramallah, and Dheisheh refugee camp. In East Jerusalem 2 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids. In Gaza, 3 Palestinians were arrested near the Gaza Fence east of Rafah. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/20; WAFA, WAFA 6/21; PCHR 6/23; UNOCHA 7/2)

Israeli police indicted 1 Israeli settler for attacks on left-wing Israeli activists in the Masafer Yatta area on 6/10. The settler was indicted on charges of assault, armed assault, and intentionally damaging a vehicle. (HA 6/20)

The New York Times reported that its own investigation into the killing of Palestinian American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh concluded that the bullet that killed Abu Akleh on 5/11 was fired from the location of an Israeli military convoy and “most likely by a soldier from an elite unit.” It also concluded that there were no armed Palestinians near where Abu Akleh was killed. Investigations by CNN, Bellingcat, B’Tselem, and many other organizations have also found that Israeli soldiers deliberately killed Abu Akleh. (AJ, NYT, WAFA 6/20)

Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett and foreign minister Yair Lapid held a press conference announcing that they have decided to hold a vote next week to dissolve the Knesset. If the vote passes, Foreign Minister Yair Lapid will be caretaker prime minister until new elections are held on 10/25. In a joint statement, the 2 ministers said that they had “exhausted options to stabilize” the government coalition. Israeli media reported that Prime Minister Bennett was mulling retiring from politics. A decisive factor in the government coalition’s collapse was the failure to extend the emergency regulations extending Israeli law to Israeli settlers, which will be automatically extended if the Knesset is dissolved. (HA 6/19; AJ, ALM, ALM, AX, DW, F24, GDN, HA, HA, MDW, MEE, MEMO, NPR, NYT, REU 6/20; ABC, ALM, ALM, AP, AP, CNN, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, HA, IN, JP, MEE, REU, TOI 6/21; ALM, CNN 6/22)

Prime Minister Bennett also claimed that Türkiye, in coordination with Israel, had arrested several people said to be planning attacks against Israelis in Türkiye. It was reported that the people arrested were working on behalf of Iran. Foreign Minister Yair Lapid is expected to travel to Türkiye on 6/23. On 6/19, Israel’s president Isaac Herzog spoke to Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, thanking him for his country’s effort to arrest the potential attackers. (HA, HA, REU 6/19; HA 6/20)

Israeli defense minister Benny Gantz told the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee that Israel and partners in the Middle East had begun working together on air force cooperation against Iran, calling the cooperation the “Middle East Air Defense Alliance.” Defense minister Gantz said that he continues to work with the U.S. to strengthen the cooperation with Middle East countries. (AP, HA  NYT, REU 6/20)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers erected an outpost near al-Lubban ash-Sharqiya. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man trying to enter Israel for work at the separation wall near Qalqilya. The PA called the killing a “field execution.” Israeli forces also shot and injured 1 Palestinian near the separation wall west of Tarqumiyah. In Gaza, Israeli forces made incursions and leveled land east of Beit Hanun. (AA, ABC, AJ, AP, HA, JP, MEE, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/19; PCHR 6/23; HA 7/1; UNOCHA 7/2)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers raided Huwwara, spraying pepper spray at 1 Palestinian man confronting the settlers who were trying to steal Palestinian flags. Israeli settlers also assaulted 2 Palestinians near Burqa, causing hospitalizations. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers attacked 1 Palestinian family traveling in a car near Duma, spraying pepper spray at 3 Palestinians, including a 2-year-old who received medical assistance. Israeli forces delivered stop-work orders against 3 houses and 1 agricultural structure in al-Khader. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Tulkarm, Kafr Qaddum, Habla, Aida refugee camp, Hebron, and al-Juwaya. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers attacked 2 Palestinians working for the Israeli municipality in the Ramat Eshkol settlement; 1 of the Palestinians was slashed with a knife in the back and the other was beaten and suffered a broken arm. The Israeli settlers had asked the 2 men if they were Arabs before assaulting them. Israeli forces raided Silwan, firing tear gas and stun grenades, causing injuries. 3 were arrested during late-night raids in Silwan and the Old City. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces shot and injured 3 Palestinian fishermen and damaged 1 boat within 3 nautical miles west of al-Sudaniyya. (MEE, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/16; HA 6/17; HA 6/20; PCHR 6/23; UNOCHA 7/2)

Al Jazeera published an image of the bullet that killed Shireen Abu Akleh in Jenin refugee camp on 5/11. Ballistic and forensic experts said that the bullet was 5.56mm, used by Israeli forces, and manufactured in the U.S. (AJ, AP, HA 6/16)

The Catalonian parliament passed a resolution saying Israel is committing the crime of apartheid against the Palestinian people. (MEE 6/16; WAFA 6/17)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces delivered demolition notices for 6 houses and 2 commercial structures in Ar-Rafaiya in the Masafer Yatta area and stop-work orders for 7 houses under construction in Marda. 6 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Kharbatha al-Misbah, Nablus, Aida refugee camp, and Yatta. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities demolished 3 Palestinian homes: 2 in Sur Baher and 1 in Bayt Hanina. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinian farmers east of Beit Hanun; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/15; MEMO, PCHR 6/16; UNOCHA 7/2)

Haaretz reported that settler violence against Palestinians has been raising in 2022, with more than 400 recorded incidents in the 1st half of the year, compared to 650 recorded incidents in all of 2021. A source in the Israeli military told Haaretz that the military is aware of the situation and is seeing an increase in radicalized Israeli settlers. The Israeli military recorded 360 incidents of Israeli settler violence in the West Bank against Palestinians in 2019; in 2020 the number increased to 500, before in increasing to 650 last year. (HA 6/15)

An Israeli police investigation into the attacks on the funeral procession for Palestinian American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh on 5/13 found that Israeli police had acted with misconduct, but no commanders were disciplined. According to the Haaretz source, the decision not to discipline any of the commanders responsible was made before the investigation started. The report was also not released to the public. (TOI 6/15; AJ, F24, HA, JP, MEE 6/16)

An Israeli court found former Gaza director of the charity World Vision, Mohammad El Halabi, guilty of membership of a terrorist organization, providing information to a terror group, taking part in forbidden military exercises, and carrying a weapon. The purported evidence against El Halabi is kept secret and the guilty verdict was in part based on a confession given under duress to an informant. World Vision, independent audits, and the Australian government have all said they have found no evidence of wrongdoing by El Halabi since he was 1st arrested in 2016. El Halabi has declined multiple plea deals that would have seen him released before the upcoming sentencing, refusing to enter a plea for a crime he says he is innocent of. (WAFA 6/14; AP, HA, NYT, REU 6/15; WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/16; WAFA 6/19)

Palestinian officials said that the U.S. had refused Palestinian calls for peace negotiations, claiming that the Israeli political situation is too sensitive. The request was made during the weekend, when top Palestinian officials met with U.S. secretary of state for Near East affairs Barbara Leaf and her deputy Hady Amr in Ramallah ahead of president Joe Biden’s visit to Palestine, Israel, and Saudi Arabia on 7/13-7/16. Israeli sources told Haaretz that Secretary Leaf had asked Israeli politicians to refrain from sending Israeli soldiers into Area A and not to carry out punitive demolitions ahead of President Biden’s visit. Israeli foreign minister Yair Lapid said that Israel is seeking peace with Saudi Arabia and elaborated, “I won't say whether we have under-the-radar talks with the Saudis . . . We have a joint interest in the subject of Iran, that it won't become a nuclear threshold state.” (AJ, AP, AX, AX, HA, HA, HA 6/15)

Russia summoned the Israeli ambassador to express “grave concern” over an Israeli air strike that damaged the Damascus International Airport on 6/10. The Russian deputy foreign minister Mikhail Bogdanov called Israel’s reasoning for attacking the airport “unconvincing.” (HA, JP, REU 6/15)

Israel, Egypt, and the EU signed a deal to increase the sale of liquified natural gas from Israel to the EU via Egypt, in a stated effort to reduce EU countries’ dependency on Russian gas. The EU also said it would provide Egypt $105 million in aid to help the country cope with the rise in wheat prices. (ALM, AP, REU 6/14; ALM, AP, HA, MEE, MEMO, REU, TOI, WSJ 6/15)

In the West Bank, PA security forces, dressed in civilian clothes, violently dispersed Palestinian students and staff protesting the dismissal of 10 students from the Islamic bloc and 5 employees at An-Najah National University in Nablus, causing several injuries from beatings and pepper spray. The Iranian news agency Tansim said 1 of its Palestinian reporters was abducted by Palestinian gunmen while covering the events before being beaten and warned against writing negatively about the PA. Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles traveling between Nablus and Jenin. Israeli settlers also vandalized 8 olive trees in Qaryut. Israeli forces evicted 4 Palestinians from their land in Wadi Fukin. 12 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ramallah, Tuqu‘, Bethlehem, Surif, al-Tabaqa, Nablus, Far‘un, Rumana, and Aqabat Jaber refugee camp; Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinians protesting the raid in Nablus, injuring 2 with shrapnel. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces assaulted and arrested 2 Palestinians in Silwan and arrested 1 other in Isawiya. (MEE, WAFA, WAFA 6/14; PCHR 6/15; PCHR 6/16; AP, HA 6/17; UNOCHA 7/2)

Hamas released a statement accusing PA forces in the West Bank of torturing Hamas supporters. (ALM 7/2)

EU commission president Ursula von der Leyen announced that the frozen $224 million in economic aid to the PA from 2021 had been unfrozen and would be transferred to the PA. The announcement came ahead of a meeting between President von der Leyen and PA prime minister Mohammed Shtayyeh in Ramallah. Von der Leyen later met with Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett and president Isaac Herzog. The EU funding to the PA was frozen due to 1 Hungarian commissioner’s concern over “incitement” in PA schoolbooks. Prime Minister Shtayyeh also met with his Italian counterpart Mario Draghi. (AA, HA, JP, POL, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/14; AJ, WAFA 6/15)

Israel’s deputy religious affairs minister Matan Kahana of the Yamina party was filmed telling Israeli high schoolers in the Efrat settlement that “if there was a button that could be pressed, that would remove all the Arabs from here, send them on an express train to Switzerland—where they would live an amazing life, I wish them all the best in Switzerland—I would press that button. . . . there is no such button. We were probably meant to [co]exist here on this land in some form,” Palestinian members of the Israeli parliament attacked Kahana for his remarks and he later apologized for wording his statements poorly. (AJ, AP, HA, MEE 6/14; HA, MDW, TOI 6/15)

The U.S. White House expressed concern over negotiations between the Israeli spyware company NSO Group and the American defense contractor L3Harris for the latter to buy technology from the former. The deal would see NSO Group removed from the U.S. department of commerce’s blacklist and would transfer NSO’s clients in the U.S., UK, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, and possibly EU and NATO countries to L3Harris. The New York Times later reported that the negotiations had collapsed after they were made public and that U.S. intelligence officials had backed L3Harris’s potential acquisition of NSO Group. (HA 6/14; MEE, REU 6/15; NYT, WP 7/10; HA, TOI 7/11)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces shot and injured 1 Palestinian with live ammunition during a late-night raid in al-Bireh. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinians protesting a raid in Jalazun refugee camp, injuring 1 minor with a baton round. Elsewhere, Israeli forces demolished 1 Palestinian home under construction in Aqabat Jaber refugee camp. Israeli forces also demolished 1 Palestinian home and delivered a stop-work notice to another in al-Twana in the Masafer Yatta area. 15 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in al-Bireh, Silwad, ‘Askar refugee camp, Beita, Qabatiya, al-Arroub refugee camp, Hebron, al-Ubeidiya, Beitunia, Silwad, and Fasayil. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers raided Silwan, leading to a confrontation between Palestinians and Israeli police; 3 were injured by shrapnel from tear gas canisters and 2 were arrested. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/13; PCHR 6/16; UNOCHA 6/17)

PA president Mahmoud Abbas arrived in Nicosia, Cyprus, for a 3-day trip. President Abbas is scheduled to meet Cypriot president Nicos Anastasiades, other government officials, and church leaders. (WAFA 6/13; WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/14; WAFA, WAFA 6/15)

An Israeli public opinion poll conducted by Channel 12 found that 56% of Israelis are opposed to having a Palestinian party as a member of the Israeli government coalition, while 31% was found to be in favor. (HA 6/13)

The U.S. White House announced that president Joe Biden will visit Palestine, Israel, and Saudi Arabia on 7/13-7/16, after the trip was postponed. The trip was originally scheduled for June. During his trip, President Biden is scheduled to meet with PA president Mahmoud Abbas, Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett, and Saudi crown price Mohammed bin Salman. (AJ, AP, AX, HA, REU, REU, REU 6/14; WAFA 6/15)

Iran’s Fars News reported that 1 employee at the Semnan Space Center was killed while on a mission. The reporting followed the death of an Iranian aerospace expert working for the Revolutionary Guard on 6/12. The initial reporting said the man was killed in a car accident. Several Iranians linked to Iran’s Revolutionary Guard, nuclear, and missile programs have been killed or mysteriously died in the past weeks. The New York Times reported that Iranian officials believe that Israel poisoned 2 Iranian scientists who died earlier this month after falling ill in May. (AJ, HA, HA, NYT 6/13; HA 6/14)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces razed farmland in al-Khader, uprooting 95 olive trees. Israeli forces also seized 4 tents and delivered a stop-work order for a house near Yatta. Elsewhere, 1 Israeli military SUV rammed 1 Palestinian, causing severe injuries. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 6 nautical miles west of Gaza City. In Israel, Israeli authorities demolished 1 Palestinian-owned home in Tira, saying it was built without a permit. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/12; PCHR 6/16; UNOCHA 6/17)

The Washington Post released an investigation into the killing of Shireen Abu Akleh on 5/11, concluding that the shot that killed Abu Akleh was likely fired by Israeli soldiers. The investigation also rejected the Israeli narrative that crossfire between Israeli forces and Palestinian militants was happening at the time of the killing. (MDW, TOI, WP 6/12; WAFA 6/13)

PLO secretary general Hussein al-Sheikh and PA director of general intelligence Majid Faraj met with U.S. secretary of state for Near East affairs Barbara Leaf and her deputy Hady Amr in Ramallah. During the meeting, Secretary General al-Sheikh called on the U.S. to reopen its consulate to Palestinians in Jerusalem and to remove the PLO from the U.S. list of terrorist organizations. (WAFA 6/13)

The Israeli cabinet authorized a compensation program for cultural institutions in Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights, that are excluded from EU Creative Europe funding. Israel had agreed to exclude Israeli settlements from funding from EU’s Creative Europe program when it signed the funding agreement. (HA, JP 6/12)

U.S. president Joe Biden told reporters that his upcoming trip to Saudi Arabia, scheduled for the middle of July, relates to national security issues for Saudi Arabia and Israel. (AX, HA, REU 6/12)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers destroyed a memorial for 1 Palestinian rights activist who was killed by Israeli forces on 1/5 in Umm al-Khair. Israeli settlers also assaulted 1 Palestinian farmer in Kisan. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man and injured 3 by live ammunition and 2 with baton rounds during a raid in Halhul. Israeli forces also shot and injured 1 Palestinian with live ammunition during a raid in Nablus. Elsewhere, Israeli forces shot and injured 3 Palestinians with live ammunition during a raid in Jenin refugee camp. Israeli forces also raided Jayyus, injuring 1 Palestinian with live ammunition and confiscating 1 bulldozer. Meanwhile, Israeli forces demolished an apartment building under construction in Beit Jala. Israeli forces also delivered a punitive demolition notice and took measurements for a separate punitive demolition in Rumana. 7 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Baytin, al-Mazra‘a ash-Sharqiya, Tell, Tammun, Nur Shams refugee camp, and Tulkarm. In East Jerusalem, 9 Palestinians were arrested, and 1 Palestinian was assaulted before being taken to a hospital for treatment during a late-night raid in Isawiya and the Old City. (AJ, AN, AP, HA, MEE, REU, TOI, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/9; AA, PCHR 6/10; PCHR 6/16; UNOCHA 6/17)

Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett met with UAE president Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al Nahyan in Abu Dhabi. Israeli media speculated if the meeting was part of Israeli and U.S. preparations to normalize relations between Saudi Arabia and Israel. (AJ, ALM, AP, HA, NYT, REU 6/9; HA 6/10)

Israel announced that Israeli citizens will be able to travel to the Qatar 2022 soccer World Cup, despite Israel and Qatar not having formal relations. Foreign minister Yair Lapid said the development “opens a new door for us to warm ties [with Qatar].” Israel is not qualified for the World Cup in Qatar. (MEE, REU 6/9)

The U.S. state department announced that the Palestinian Affairs Unit at the Israeli embassy will change its name to U.S. Office of Palestinian Affairs and start reporting directly to the Near Eastern Affairs Bureau in the State Department “on substantive matters” instead of the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem. The diplomatic representative to the PA was also changed from U.S. ambassador to Israel Tom Nides to Hady Amr, who was promoted to the state department envoy to Palestinians. The PA has demanded that the Biden administration uphold president Joe Biden’s promises made during his presidential campaign, including to reopen the U.S. consulate to Palestinians in Jerusalem. (AJ, AP, AX, GDN, HA, MEE, REU 6/9; JP 6/12)

A bipartisan group of members of the U.S. house and senate introduced legislation that would require the defense department to submit a strategy for an integrated air and missile defense system for Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Oman within 180 days. The bill, “the Deterring Enemy Forces and Enabling National Defenses Act of 2022,” was described as an effort to bolster Israeli ties with countries in the Middle East. The senate version of the bill was introduced by Cory Booker (D-NJ), Jacky Rosen (D-NV), Joni Ernst (R-IA), and James Lankford (R-OK), while the house version was introduced by Brad Schneider (D-IL), David Trone (D-MD), Jimmy Panetta (D-CA), Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Ann Wagner (R-MO), and Don Bacon (R-NE). (HA 6/9)

The director general of the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) Rafael Grosso warned that Iran is in the process of removing 27 surveillance cameras from the country’s nuclear sites. The Iranian move comes as the progress in talks for the U.S. to renter the Iran nuclear deal has stalled, and Israel has intensified its assassinations of Iranian military personnel and scientists. Director General Grosso said that Iran would leave some 40 surveillance cameras at its nuclear facilities. The announcement came 1 day after 30 members of the IAEA board released a joint statement urging Iran to cooperate with the agency. (AJ, HA, REU, REU, REU, REU, REU, REU 6/8; AJ, AP 6/9; AP 6/10)

A study by the organization AirPressure.info found that Israel has violated Lebanese air space 22,000 times in the past 15 years. (GDN, MEE 6/9)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers re-erected a settlement outpost near al-Lubban ash-Sharqiya; the settlement outpost was dismantled by Israeli forces on 6/7. 18 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Ni‘lin, al-Mughayyir, Bayt Rima, Balata refugee camp, Rujeib, Bayt Dajan, Ya‘bad, Jenin, Tulkarm, Tubas, Fawwar refugee camp, and Beit Fajjar. In East Jerusalem, Israeli authorities took measurements for the demolition of a 4-story apartment building in Silwan. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces arrested 2 Palestinian fishermen and seized their boat within the fishing zone. (PCHR, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/8; PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

The Israeli supreme court rejected a petition for a retrial in a case where the Israeli settler group Ateret Cohanim allegedly purchased 3 buildings in the Old City from the Greek Orthodox church, allowing the settler organization to evict the Palestinian tenants. The Greek Orthodox church called the ruling “unfair” and without “any legal logical basis.” The EU voiced concern about the supreme court ruling. (HA, YNET 6/9; MEMO, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/10; MEMO, WAFA 6/11)

Israel extended its antiquities authority to the West Bank. The Israel Antiquities Authority will replace the Coordinator on Government Activities in the Territories in managing archeological sites in the West Bank. (HA 6/8)

Speaking, via phone link at a conference on the holy sites in Jerusalem, dubbed “Property Documentation and the Historical Status of the Holy al-Aqsa Mosque,” PA president Mahmoud Abbas said that the PA would not accept any changes to the status quo of the holy sites in Jerusalem, saying all Islamic and Christian holy sites are Palestinian. (WAFA, WAFA 6/8; WAFA 6/9)

Israeli media reported that members of a Liberian delegation in Israel headed by minister of state for presidential affairs Nathaniel McGill told Israeli journalists that Liberia will open a trade office in Jerusalem that eventually will become Liberia’s embassy to Israel. The delegation was meeting Israeli officials, including president Isaac Herzog. (ALM 6/9)

Axios reported that last week, Israel refused a proposal for a White House summit with the PA, U.S., Egypt, and Jordan to create a political horizon for ending the occupation. (AX 6/8)

Axios also reported that the White House is sending the newly appointed assistant secretary of state for Near East affairs, Barbara Leaf, to Israel and Ramallah for meetings with Israeli and Palestinian officials. (AX 6/8)

Haaretz reported that the EU commission’s anti-fraud office will not open an investigation into the 6 Palestinian rights organizations Israel deemed terrorist organizations in October 2021, saying that it had not seen sufficient evidence from Israel against the 6 organizations. EU diplomats told Haaretz that the evidence handed to EU countries by Israel was not compelling and did not meet the threshold of proof. (HA 6/8)

In a visit to the Buraq Wall/Western Wall, Bosnia and Herzegovina parliament speaker Dragan Čović told reporters that the Old City is part of Israel. (JP 6/10)

The World Bank approved a grant of $30 million for PA reforms in transparency, inclusion, and green economy and a $7 million grant for social services and online employment oppounities for Palestinians in Gaza. (WAFA 6/8)

In the West Bank, Israeli forces delivered demolition notices for 4 houses, 8 water wells, and 1 agricultural structure in a-Tabban in the Masafer Yatta area and stop-work notices for 2 water wells and 1 agricultural structure in Zif. Israeli forces also sealed a well in Beit Lid. Elsewhere, Israeli forces prevented Palestinians from working their land in Qusra. Israeli forces also fired tear gas at Palestinians trying to enter Israel for work at the separation wall near Jenin. 15 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in and around Hebron, Bethlehem, Nablus, and Ramallah. In East Jerusalem, representatives from the EU and UN visited Palestinians in Silwan who are threatened by Israeli demolitions and displacement. Israeli forces shot and injured 3 minors with baton rounds on the Jerusalem-Ramallah street. 5 Palestinians were arrested during raids. In the Naqab, Israeli forces demolished al-Araqib for the 202d time since 2000. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/7; PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

The PA finance ministry said it would pay PA employees 80% of their wages as it continues to be unable to pay its employees in full due to Israel’s withholding of parts of the PA tax revenue. (REU 6/7)

PA prime minister Mohammed Shtayyeh met with German vice chancellor and economy and energy minister Robert Habeck in Ramallah. The 2 discussed German support for energy projects in Palestine. Prime Minister Shtayyeh briefed Vice Chancellor Habeck on Israeli violations against Palestinians. Shtayyeh also called on the international community to create a political horizon for ending the Israeli occupation and for Germany to exert pressure on Israel to allow the PA to hold elections in East Jerusalem. (WAFA 6/7)

UN human rights council’s commission of inquiry on the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and Israel, released its 1st report since receiving its mandate on 5/27/2021. In its report, it pointed to Israel’s continued occupation of Palestinian territory and discrimination against Palestinians as a key factor in recurrent tensions between Israelis and Palestinians. 2d, the report noted Palestinian resentment is fueled by lack of consequences for Israeli human rights violations. A commissioner working on the report said that “Israel clearly has no intentions of ending the occupation. In fact, it has established clear policies to ensure complete permanent control over the Occupied Palestinian Territory.” The report also criticized the PA and Hamas for using the occupation as justification for human rights violations against their own people. (AJ, AP, HA, REU, UNOCHR, WAFA 6/7; MEE, MEMO, WAFA, WAFA 6/8)

Israeli ambassador to the UN Gilad Erdan was elected vice president of the 77th session of the UN general assembly (UNGA), along with 20 others. The appointment will see Ambassador Erdan chair UNGA meetings and being part of agenda selection. Erdan will serve for 1 year, starting in September. PA prime minister Mohammed Shtayyeh said that the PA leadership was “surprised by and deplore the election of Israel's ambassador to the United Nations for the position of Vice President of the United Nations General Assembly, which we consider an attempt to promote and legitimize the colonial occupation regime on the land of the State of Palestine.” (JP 6/7; TOI 6/8; MEE 6/9; WAFA 6/13)

In the West Bank, PA forces arrested 9 Palestinian protesters during a general strike in Hebron over rising food prices. Food prices have been rising throughout the world due to Russia’s blockade of Ukrainian wheat and global supply chain issues. In Palestine, prices on flour, sugar, and cooking oil have risen up to 30% in the last quarter. 1 Israeli settler opened fire at Palestinians, claiming they had thrown stones at him; no injuries were reported. Israeli forces delivered a demolition notice for part of a Palestinian home in al-Rakiz in the Masafer Yatta area. Israeli forces also raided Nabi Salih, firing tear gas at Palestinians protesting the incursion; no injuries were reported. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed a Palestinian protest in Tubas, causing tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces also delivered notices to Palestinians in Tarqumiyah informing them that 600 dunams (148 acres) of agricultural land will be seized by Israel to expand the settlements of Telem and Adora. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces raided Silwan, firing tear gas at Palestinians and causing injuries. In Jerusalem, Israeli right-wing activists raided the Greek Garden and the Church of Holy Trinity on Mount Zion, damaging property of the Greek Orthodox church. The Greek foreign ministry called on Israel to take “appropriate action” against the perpetrators. (AN, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/6; WAFA 6/7; HA, MDW, PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

The Israeli Knesset failed to pass the 1st vote on extending the Emergency Regulations – Judea and Samaria, Jurisdiction and Legal Aid, extending Israeli law to Israeli settlers living in the West Bank. 58 voted against and 52 voted for, as the Israeli right-wing opposition voted against the measure to trigger the dissolution of the coalition government. The emergency regulation expires at the end of June. 2 party members in the Israeli coalition, Mazen Ghanaim from the United Arab List and Ghaida Rinawie Zoabi from Meretz, voted against the bill, as did the members of the Joint Arab List. (AJ, AJ, AP, GDN, NYT, POL, TOI 6/6; ALM, HA, HA, JP, MDW, TOI 6/7; AP 6/8; AP, TOI 6/10)

The Palestinian Prisoner Society reported that 1 Palestinian prisoner who has been hunger-striking for 96 days in protest over his administrative detention was in critical condition. (WAFA 6/6)

Amnesty International (AI) called on Israel to “immediately release” Salah Hammouri, a Palestinian-French human rights lawyer who works for Addameer and who has been held in administrative detention since 3/7. AI also demanded that Israel ensure that Hammouri’s East Jerusalem residency status will not be revoked. (AI 6/6)

A survey conducted by the Israeli Democracy Institute found that 60% of Israeli Jews favored segregation from the country’s Palestinian community, up from 45% in last year’s survey. In comparison, about 20% of Palestinian citizens of Israel favored segregation. (HA 6/6)

In Syria, Syrian media reported that the Syrian military had intercepted Israeli missiles targeting Damascus. (HA, REU 6/6; JP, TOI 6/7)

U.S. senators Mitt Romney (R-UT) and Jon Ossoff (D-GA) sent a letter to U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken, urging the Biden administration to ensure a “full and transparent investigation” into the killing of Palestinian American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh on 5/11 in Jenin refugee camp. The 2 senators gave the Biden administration 30 days to report on progress related to the investigation. (AJ, HA, MDW, MEE, TOI, WP 6/7)

Haaretz reported on recently released documents at the Israeli State Archive, which details conversations between Israeli and U.S. officials during the 1st Israeli Invasion of Lebanon. In the trove of released documents are conversations between then Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and U.S. president Ronald Reagan, where President Reagan suggests that Palestinian refugees in Lebanon become Lebanese citizens. Prime Minister Begin responds by suggesting that Palestinians in Lebanon be deported to Libya, Iraq, Syria, or Saudi Arabia. (HA 6/6)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers attempted to enter Nabi Salih but were repelled by Palestinians. Israeli forces raided Shufa, seizing Palestinian flags from poles and houses. Israeli forces also seized 1 t-shirt from a 3-year-old at a checkpoint near Tura, saying that the t-shirt depicted a rifle. 10 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Hebron, Husan, Nablus, and al-Am‘ari refugee camp. In East Jerusalem, Israeli settlers toured the Haram al-Sharif compound, closing it off to Muslim worshippers. In Gaza, Israeli forces opened fire at Palestinian farmers and shepherds east of Rafah, al-Qarara, and Maghazi; no injuries were reported. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/5; PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

Lebanese president Michel Aoun and prime minister Najib Mikati condemned Israel for placing an Israeli gas-drilling rig in a maritime zone that both countries claim is theirs. Prime Minister Mikati said “the Israeli enemy’s attempts to create a new crisis, by encroaching on Lebanon’s maritime wealth, and imposing a fait accompli in a disputed area in which Lebanon adheres to its rights, is extremely dangerous.” Israel claimed that the gas-drilling rig was placed outside of the disputed area. President Aoun and Prime Minister Mikati later, on 6/6, called on U.S. envoy Amos Hochstein to complete negotiations in Beirut on demarcating the 2 countries’ maritime borders to “prevent an escalation.” A Haaretz investigation using satellite images later suggested that the gas-drilling rig was not in the maritime area that both Israel and Lebanon claim. (AJ, HA, REU 6/5; AJ, AN, HA, MEE, REU, REU, TOI 6/6; REU, REU, REU 6/7; AP, REU 6/9; HA 6/12)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military escort raided Nabi Salih and attempted to steal a Palestinian flag, leading to a confrontation between Israeli forces and Palestinians; 1 was injured by a baton round and others suffered tear-gas related injuries. Israeli settlers also set up a settlement outpost near Khirbet al-Farisiyya. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles south of Bethlehem. Israeli forces violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Kafr Qaddum, injuring 3 with baton rounds and others with tear gas. Israeli forces also violently dispersed Palestinian protesters in Bayt Dajan, injuring 1 with baton rounds, 1 with burns from a tear gas canister, and others with tear gas. Elsewhere, Israeli forces raided Beit Umar and Qaryut, causing tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces also seized 1 excavator near Yatta. 2 Palestinians were arrested at a checkpoint near Nablus. In Gaza, 3 Palestinians were arrested near the Gaza fence east of Khan Yunis. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/3; WAFA 6/4; PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

Israel released the director of Health Work Committees, Shatha Odeh, after arresting her on 7/7/2021. (WAFA 6/3)

The White House postponed president Joe Biden’s trip to Israel from later this month to July, saying it will be part of a broader trip to the Middle East that will include Saudi Arabia. (HA 6/1; AJ, AP, NBC 6/3; AX, HA 6/4)

80 Democrats in the U.S. Congress, led by David Price (D-NC), Barbara Lee (D-CA), Jennifer Wexton (D-VA), and Joaquin Castro (D-TX), wrote a letter to secretary of state Antony Blinken urging the Biden administration to take action against efforts to undermine the 2-state solution. The Democrats mentioned 5 issues of concern, including settler violence and non-intervention by Israeli forces, settlement expansion, demolitions, increased funding for West Bank settlements, and the PA program for paying stipends to Palestinian prisoners. (HA 6/3)

In Iran, colonel Ali Esmailzadeh of the Quds Force died in an incident at his home in Karaj. Iran denied that Esmailzadeh was assassinated. Local reporting said Esmailzadeh fell from the roof or a balcony at his home. Esmailzadeh’s death follows an incident on 5/22 in which another Iranian colonel was assassinated and an incident on 5/25 in which an Iranian scientist was killed in a drone strike. Both of those incidents were reportedly linked to Israel. Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett told International Atomic Energy Agency director Rafael Grossi in a meeting that “Israel reserves the right to self-defense and action against Iran to stop its nuclear program.” (AJ, AP, AP, HA, HA 6/3; NYT, TOI 6/4; REU 6/7)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers vandalized Palestinian vehicles in al-Bireh with graffiti. Israeli settlers also vandalized Palestinian vehicles in Deir Istya. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian during a raid in Dheisheh refugee camp; 2 were arrested. Israeli forces also shot and killed 1 Palestinian minor near the separation wall west of al-Midya. PCHR reported that the minor was playing with friends when he was shot from 164-218 yards. The PA called the killing an execution. Elsewhere, Israeli forces raided Taqqua, causing tear-gas related injuries near a kindergarten, and arrested 1 minor. Israeli forces also shot and injured 1 Palestinian during a raid in al-Arroub refuge camp. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen west of al-Sudaniyya; no injuries were reported. In Israel, an Israeli security guard pressed a knee on the neck of a Palestinian citizen of Israel for 30 minutes, pinning him to the ground at his workplace in Beersheba; the security guard claimed that the man had tried to steal a gun; the Palestinian man said the security guard refused him access to his workplace because he was Palestinian and that he accidentally touched the guard’s gun while trying to escape. (AJ, AP, HA, MDW, MEE, MEE, PCHR, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/2; PCHR, WAFA 6/3; HA, UNOCHA 6/4; MEE 6/5; PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

The Israeli high court of justice gave the Israeli government 2 months to explain why it is preventing Palestinian landowners from accessing their land at the partly evacuated Homesh settlement outpost. (HA 6/2)

The UN said that it had accepted Turkey’s request to formally rename the country Türkiye. (AJ 6/2)