178 / 14551 Results
  • June 6, 2022

    In the West Bank, PA forces arrested 9 Palestinian protesters during a general strike in Hebron over rising food prices. Food prices have been rising throughout the world due to Russia’s blockade...

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  • January 17, 2022

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers blocked the main entrance to al-Naqura. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man, alleging that he had tried to stab a soldier at the Gush Etzion...

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  • July 22, 2021

    In the West Bank, 3 Israeli settlers set fire to a Palestinian marble factory in Jamma’in near Huwwara, causing damage of around $920,000. 6 Palestinians were arrested during raids in Zabbuba and...

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  • December 16, 2020

    In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military escort toured Sabastiyya, closing areas of the town off to Palestinians. Israeli settlers also set up a mobile home on Palestinian-owned land near...

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  • May 13, 2015

    IDF troops on the Gaza border e. of Jabaliya open fire on agricultural areas nr. the border fence, causing no damage or injuries. Off the coast nr. Rafah, Israeli naval forces open fire on...

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  • October 23, 2011

    IDF troops on the n. Gaza border fire warning shots at Palestinians scavenging for construction materials in the former Erez industrial zone, forcing them to flee. In the West Bank, the IDF...

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  • September 23, 2011

    Abbas addresses the UNGA and officially submits the papers requesting full UN member-state status. UN secy.-gen. Ban Ki-Moon immediately sends the application to the UNSC. Rotating UNSC head,...

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  • May 15, 2011

    On the anniversary of the Nakba, 1,000s of Palestinians fr. the West Bank, Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria stage marches (mostly nonviolent, though some stone throwing) toward the Israeli border...

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  • March 19, 2011

    Palestinians fire 2 rockets (including 1 Grad) and 54 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel within 15 mins., lightly injuring 2 Israelis, damaging an empty kindergarten, and marking the largest barrage...

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  • March 17, 2011

    Israeli warplanes overfly s. Gaza, dropping leaflets warning Palestinians not to enter the 300-m no-go zone along the border fence. Israel seals the West Bank until 3/21 for the Purim holiday....

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  • March 12, 2011

    In the West Bank, the IDF raids and searches Palestinian villages around Itamar settlement, particularly in Awarta village, in search for the killers of 5 settlers found murdered on 3/11,...

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  • March 1, 2011

    IDF troops on the c. Gaza border fire on armed Palestinians operating e. of Dayr al-Balah, wounding 1. The IDF makes a day-long incursion into Khuza‘a village in s. Gaza to level lands and clear...

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  • February 23, 2011

    Fayyad reiterates his 2/20 national unity offer, saying the PA would forgo further U.S. aid for the sake of national unity if the U.S. went through with threats to suspend aid to the PA if Hamas...

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  • February 19, 2011

    Israeli naval vessels intercept a Palestinian fishing boat off the n. Gaza coast, escort it to Ashdod, confiscate the boat, and release the fishermen. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 4...

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  • February 17, 2011

    Overnight, IDF troops on the n. Gaza border fire on and shell a group of Palestinians nr. the n. Gaza border fence, killing 3 Palestinians; Palestinians say the 3 were unarmed men attempting to...

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  • February 16, 2011

    As the quarter opens, Israel maintains a tight siege of Gaza aimed at unseating the governing Hamas authority, in control since 6/2007. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) enforces a 300-m deep no-go...

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  • January 13, 2011

    After receiving a warning fr. Egypt that Israel is serious about preventing further rocket and mortar fire fr. Gaza, Hamas authorities hold a 2d mtg. (see 1/11) with smaller factions to urge them...

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  • October 8, 2010

    Meeting in Libya, Arab League FMs strongly endorse the 10/2 Palestinian decision to halt direct talks with Israel until Israel halts settlement construction, pledging to meet again in 1 mo. to...

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  • July 13, 2010

    Israel reports that a Libyan ship that had threatened to run the Gaza blockade (see 7/11) has diverted toward the Egyptian port of al-Arish, defusing a potential crisis; the Egyptian Red Crescent...

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  • March 28, 2010

    The Arab League ends 2 days of talks in Libya to debate whether to re-endorse proximity talks without reaching an agreement, though members renew support for the 2002 Arab League initiative...

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  • July 13, 1999

    In Rome, King Abdallah of Jordan holds talks with Italian officials, who agree to forgive or reschedule $130 m. of Jordan's debt. The king then heads to Aqaba, where he receives Israeli PM Barak...

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  • June 11, 1999

    At the UN, U.S., Libyan officials hold 1st mtg. in 18 yrs. U.S. says it will not support full lifting of sanctions until Libya halts support of international terrorism, acknowledges responsibility...

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  • April 28, 1999

    PCC resumes debate on declaration of state issue. (MM 4/28; MBC 4/28 in WNC 4/29; al-Quds 4/29 in WNC 5/3)

    After being briefed by the State Dept. on the U.S...

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  • April 20, 1999

    PC holds special session to discuss Palestinian statehood issue; recommends ending the interim period on 5/4, working toward creation of a Palestinian state. PC speaker Ahmad Qurai`...

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  • April 17, 1999

    Jordan's King Abdallah arrives in Libya for talks with Qaddafi on bilateral relations, expanding economic ties in light of sanctions suspension. He also meets with Arafat, in the country to...

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  • April 5, 1999

    After more than a decade, Libya hands over to the UN 2 suspects in the Pan Am 103 bombing for trial in the Netherlands under Scottish law. UN immediately suspends sanctions on Libya,...

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  • March 19, 1999

    Libya tells the UN that it will turn over by 4/6 the 2 suspects in the 1988 Pan Am 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland. (MM 3/19; NYT, WP, WT 3/20; MM 3/22, 3/24; MEI 3/26) (see 10/...

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  • January 16, 1999

    Egyptian FM Musa speaks with FMs of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria regarding 1/24 Arab League mtg. on Iraq. (MENA 1/16 in WNC 1/20)

    Italy allows PKK leader Ocalan to leave for...

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  • August 26, 1998

    UNSCOM chief inspector Scott Ritter resigns in protest over recent revelations that the U.S. repeatedly urged UNSCOM to forgo "challenge inspections" at Iraqi sites thought to house weapons of...

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  • July 30, 1998

    Noting King Hussein's health troubles (7/28), PM Netanyahu transfers to Jordan the $50 m. that Israel owes the kingdom under the Peace and Stability Fund agmt. (IGPO 7/30)

    In Casablanca,...

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In the West Bank, PA forces arrested 9 Palestinian protesters during a general strike in Hebron over rising food prices. Food prices have been rising throughout the world due to Russia’s blockade of Ukrainian wheat and global supply chain issues. In Palestine, prices on flour, sugar, and cooking oil have risen up to 30% in the last quarter. 1 Israeli settler opened fire at Palestinians, claiming they had thrown stones at him; no injuries were reported. Israeli forces delivered a demolition notice for part of a Palestinian home in al-Rakiz in the Masafer Yatta area. Israeli forces also raided Nabi Salih, firing tear gas at Palestinians protesting the incursion; no injuries were reported. Elsewhere, Israeli forces violently dispersed a Palestinian protest in Tubas, causing tear-gas related injuries. Israeli forces also delivered notices to Palestinians in Tarqumiyah informing them that 600 dunams (148 acres) of agricultural land will be seized by Israel to expand the settlements of Telem and Adora. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces raided Silwan, firing tear gas at Palestinians and causing injuries. In Jerusalem, Israeli right-wing activists raided the Greek Garden and the Church of Holy Trinity on Mount Zion, damaging property of the Greek Orthodox church. The Greek foreign ministry called on Israel to take “appropriate action” against the perpetrators. (AN, HA, REU, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 6/6; WAFA 6/7; HA, MDW, PCHR 6/9; UNOCHA 6/17)

The Israeli Knesset failed to pass the 1st vote on extending the Emergency Regulations – Judea and Samaria, Jurisdiction and Legal Aid, extending Israeli law to Israeli settlers living in the West Bank. 58 voted against and 52 voted for, as the Israeli right-wing opposition voted against the measure to trigger the dissolution of the coalition government. The emergency regulation expires at the end of June. 2 party members in the Israeli coalition, Mazen Ghanaim from the United Arab List and Ghaida Rinawie Zoabi from Meretz, voted against the bill, as did the members of the Joint Arab List. (AJ, AJ, AP, GDN, NYT, POL, TOI 6/6; ALM, HA, HA, JP, MDW, TOI 6/7; AP 6/8; AP, TOI 6/10)

The Palestinian Prisoner Society reported that 1 Palestinian prisoner who has been hunger-striking for 96 days in protest over his administrative detention was in critical condition. (WAFA 6/6)

Amnesty International (AI) called on Israel to “immediately release” Salah Hammouri, a Palestinian-French human rights lawyer who works for Addameer and who has been held in administrative detention since 3/7. AI also demanded that Israel ensure that Hammouri’s East Jerusalem residency status will not be revoked. (AI 6/6)

A survey conducted by the Israeli Democracy Institute found that 60% of Israeli Jews favored segregation from the country’s Palestinian community, up from 45% in last year’s survey. In comparison, about 20% of Palestinian citizens of Israel favored segregation. (HA 6/6)

In Syria, Syrian media reported that the Syrian military had intercepted Israeli missiles targeting Damascus. (HA, REU 6/6; JP, TOI 6/7)

U.S. senators Mitt Romney (R-UT) and Jon Ossoff (D-GA) sent a letter to U.S. secretary of state Antony Blinken, urging the Biden administration to ensure a “full and transparent investigation” into the killing of Palestinian American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh on 5/11 in Jenin refugee camp. The 2 senators gave the Biden administration 30 days to report on progress related to the investigation. (AJ, HA, MDW, MEE, TOI, WP 6/7)

Haaretz reported on recently released documents at the Israeli State Archive, which details conversations between Israeli and U.S. officials during the 1st Israeli Invasion of Lebanon. In the trove of released documents are conversations between then Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and U.S. president Ronald Reagan, where President Reagan suggests that Palestinian refugees in Lebanon become Lebanese citizens. Prime Minister Begin responds by suggesting that Palestinians in Lebanon be deported to Libya, Iraq, Syria, or Saudi Arabia. (HA 6/6)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers blocked the main entrance to al-Naqura. Israeli forces shot and killed 1 Palestinian man, alleging that he had tried to stab a soldier at the Gush Etzion Junction between Bethlehem and Hebron. The PA called it an extrajudicial execution. 9 Palestinians were arrested during late-night raids in Kobar, Kafr Ni‘ma, Ni‘lin, Beita, Izbat al-Tabib, and Qalqilya. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces evicted the 18-member Salhiya family from their home in Sheikh Jarrah, leading to a standoff where members of the family threatened to blow up a gas container on top of the house if the Israeli forces proceeded to demolish their home. A large crowd protested in support of the family. Several European representatives to Palestine and Israel, with some present at the scene, also condemned the eviction and called on Israel to stop it immediately. 1 Palestinian demolished his own commercial structure in Sheikh Jarrah. Off the coast of Gaza, Israeli naval forces opened fire at Palestinian fishermen within 3 nautical miles west of Gaza; no injuries were reported. In Gaza, Israeli forces made incursions and leveled land north of Beit Lahiya. Israeli forces also opened fire at agricultural lands east of al-Qarara; no injuries were reported. (+972, AJ, AJ, F24, HA, HA, MEMO, MEMO, MEMO, REU, Twitter, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WP 1/17; EI, MEMO, MEMO 1/18; MEMO 1/19; PCHR 1/20)

Palestinian news outlet Safa and Israeli Channel 12 reported that the PA had frozen its work on preparing material for the ICC as a result of agreements made between PA president Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli defense minister Benny Gantz. (MEMO 1/18)

Israeli media reported that Libyan warlord and presidential contender Khalifa Haftar’s plane landed at Ben Gurion airport for a couple of hours before taking off again. In November it was reported that Haftar’s son and advisor Saddam Haftar had visited Israel for meetings with Israeli officials. (MEMO 1/17)

A possible drone attack in the UAE killed 3 Indian and Pakistani nationals and wounded 6 others at an oil facility and started a fire at the airport in Abu Dhabi. The Yemeni Houthi group said it was behind the attack. In a letter by Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett, Israel offered the UAE “security and intelligence support” after the attack, saying “Israel stands with the UAE.” The UAE has been conducting air strikes with its coalition partner Saudi Arabia for years in Houthi-held areas of Yemen, causing many civilian deaths. (AJ, HA, MEMO 1/17; AJ, AJ, ALM, HA, MEMO, REU, REU 1/18; AJ, AP, MEMO 1/19; HA 1/20)

In the West Bank, 3 Israeli settlers set fire to a Palestinian marble factory in Jamma’in near Huwwara, causing damage of around $920,000. 6 Palestinians were arrested during raids in Zabbuba and al-Walaja. In East Jerusalem, 4 Palestinians were arrested in the Old City. In Gaza, an explosion at the Zawiya market killed 1, injured 14, and caused damage. According to the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR), the explosion was caused by explosives stored in a residential building at the market. After the PCHR reported its findings, it was smeared and threatened by the National and Islamic Factions’ Follow-up Committee in the Gaza Strip. In Israel, Israeli forces arrested 2 people who had crossed into Israel from Lebanon. (AJ, AP, HA, HA, MEMO, WAFA 7/22; PCHR 7/23; PCHR 7/25; AQ 7/26; PCHR 7/29)

Israel’s public security minister Omer Bar-Lev called PA president Mahmoud Abbas to wish him well on Eid al-Adha and said he used the oppounity to discuss more communications between the 2. (ALM, WAFA 7/22 HA 7/23)

Haaretz reported that although the ban on family reunifications for Israeli citizens married to Palestinians expired on 7/6, it has not been possible to make an appointment to process an application. According to Haaretz, interior minister Ayelet Shaked has ordered her ministry not to handle any of the requests until a new policy has been formulated. (HA, MEMO 7/22)

The Israeli government told the Israeli high court of justice that it would not grant work permits to Palestinians seeking asylum in Israel based on anti-LGBTQ persecution or domestic violence, saying that the PA “does not systematically persecute people because of their sexual orientation.” (HA 7/23)

In Syria, Israeli forces conducted air strikes for the 2d time in 1 week, this time in the Quseir region. It was unclear if there were any casualties. Syria’s military said its air defenses had intercepted most of the missiles. Russian officials later claimed that it was its air defenses in Syria that had intercepted the Israeli missiles. (AJ, AP, HA, REU 7/22; MEMO 7/23; HA 7/25)

French president Emmanuel Macron called Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett for clarification about Macron being a target of Pegasus spyware exported from the Israeli company NSO Group with Israeli government approval. (HA 7/24; MEMO 7/25)

The African Union (AU) said it would readmit Israel as an observer country. Israel was ejected as an observer 19 years ago after pressure from then brotherly leader of Libya Muammar Gaddafi. The Israeli foreign ministry had prior to the readmission sent a senior official to Addis Ababa in Ethiopia to meet with 30 ambassadors to the AU. Hamas later issued a statement calling the AU decision “shocking and reprehensible.” The South African government called the AU decision appalling, “unjust and unwarranted.” Algeria, Egypt, Comoros, Tunisia, Djibouti, Mauritania, and Libya later voiced opposition to Israel’s readmission, saying that the decision could divide the AU nations. (HA, TOI 7/22; AJ, ALM, MEMO 7/23; MEMO, MEMO 7/26; AA, AJ 7/28; WAFA 8/1; MEMO, MEMO, MEMO 8/2; AJ, MEMO, MEMO 8/4; MEMO 8/9; MEE 8/11; AA 8/17; WAFA, WAFA 8/19)

In the West Bank, Israeli settlers with military escort toured Sabastiyya, closing areas of the town off to Palestinians. Israeli settlers also set up a mobile home on Palestinian-owned land near Hebron. Elsewhere, Israeli settlers unleashed dogs on Palestinian shepherds and their sheep in Kisan, causing injuries to several sheep. Israeli forces seized 2 Palestinian-owned tractors north of Jericho. 10 Palestinians were arrested during raids in and around Ramallah, Salfit, Nablus, Ya‘bad, and Bayt Umar. In Gaza, Israeli forces made incursions and levelled farmland east of ‘Abasan and Khuza‘a. (WAFA, WAFA, WAFA, WAFA 12/16; PCHR 12/17)

In the 1st of 3 votes, the Knesset approved a bill that would provide funding for Israeli settlement outposts in the West Bank and would retroactively give government approval for the settlements. Palestinian-Israeli MK Aida Touma-Sliman called the bill “a war crime under the auspices of the Knesset.” (HA, WAFA 12/17; WAFA 12/22)

The UN Security Council approved appointing UN Middle East envoy Nickolay Mladenov to be its new envoy to Libya and approved Norwegian national Tor Wennesland as the UN envoy to the Middle East. Wennesland was, prior to his new role, the Norwegian special envoy to the Middle East peace process. (TOI 12/14; AJ 12/16)

IDF troops on the Gaza border e. of Jabaliya open fire on agricultural areas nr. the border fence, causing no damage or injuries. Off the coast nr. Rafah, Israeli naval forces open fire on Palestinian fishing boats, causing no damage. In the West Bank, Israeli authorities order the demolition of an electricity grid nr. Nablus. Israeli forces deliver demolition orders to a Palestinian agricultural structure and 3 homes nr. Bethlehem; block off all entrances to a nearby village. IDF troops confront a group of 4 Palestinians nr. Nablus, assaulting them and arresting 1. The IDF conducts late-night raids and house searches in Tulkarm, Hebron, 1 village each nr. Nablus and Tubas, and 2 nr. Bethlehem, arresting 10 Palestinians and issuing an arrest summons to 1; patrols in 2 villages nr. Jenin and 1 each nr. Qalqilya and Ramallah. Meanwhile, thousands of Palestinians march through the streets of Ramallah commemorating the 67th anniversary of the Nakba. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces conduct house searches and raids in al-Ram, arresting 1 Palestinian. (MNA, WAFA 5/13; PCHR 5/14; PCHR 5/21)

ICC prosecutor Bensouda says that she has not been provided any official information from either the Palestinians or Israel relating to Israel’s assault on the Gaza Strip in 7–8/2014, and that, unless that changes, her decision to launch a full investigation will be based on publicly available materials. (AP, JP 5/13)

Israeli PM Netanyahu’s new govt. presents a document to the Knesset outlining the basic principles binding its ruling coalition. In language similar to that used for the 2009 and 2013 govts., it says that the govt. will work toward a peace agreement with the Palestinians, but it does not specify a 2-state solution. It also notes that “if an agreement of this kind is reached [with the Palestinians], it will be brought for the approval of the cabinet and Knesset, and if necessary, a national referendum as well.” (AFP, HA 5/13)

In an interview published today, U.S. Pres. Obama says that the U.S. is “taking a hard look” at its positions regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and that the Palestinians “deserve an end to the occupation and the daily indignities that come with it.” Obama is hosting several leaders of the GCC countries at a summit in Washington today to discuss regional issues. (AWS, HA, REU 5/13)

The head of the Palestinian Power and Natural Resources Authority Omar Kittanah announces that the PA cabinet has approved an initiative to connect the electricity grid in the West Bank to Jordan. The PA will begin looking for funding for the project, which is estimated to cost $100 m. It is part of a regional, 3-year initiative to connect the grids of Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, and the oPt. (MNA 5/13)

The Vatican announces that it has concluded a treaty that will recognize the state of Palestine. (AP, NYT 5/13)

IDF troops on the n. Gaza border fire warning shots at Palestinians scavenging for construction materials in the former Erez industrial zone, forcing them to flee. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts early morning patrols in and around Tulkarm, midmorning patrols in 3 villages nr. Ramallah, afternoon patrols in Tulkarm town and r.c. (where stone-throwing Palestinians confront the troops, who respond with tear gas and percussion grenades, causing no injuries), and late-night patrols in al-Bireh, Salfit, and 2 villages nr. Jenin and Ramallah; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Salfit. In East Jerusalem, Israeli forces raid the offices of the al-Quds Development Association in Dahiyat al-Barid, arresting the director and then raiding his home; later raid the al-Iman School in Bayt Hanina, arresting a teacher and then raiding his home. (PCHR 10/27; OCHA 10/28)

In Libya, rebel forces secure control of most of the country. The rebel-led Transitional National Council declares liberation and announces plans to form an interim government as Libyans celebrate nationwide. (WP 10/23, 10/24)

Abbas addresses the UNGA and officially submits the papers requesting full UN member-state status. UN secy.-gen. Ban Ki-Moon immediately sends the application to the UNSC. Rotating UNSC head, Lebanese amb. Nawaf Salam, says he will distribute it to UNSC mbrs. on 9/26. (NYT, WP, WT 9/24)

Netanyahu also addresses the UNGA session, calling on Abbas to resume talks immediately in New York, again without giving details on the basis or goal of talks. (WP 9/24) Within 3 hrs. of Abbas’s speech, the Quartet issues a vague statement calling on Israel and the Palestinians to return to talks within a month, with the objective of reaching a final agreement within a year. While Quartet special envoy Blair heralds this as “breakthrough,” UN and U.S. officials say the idea is to delay UNSC consideration of the Palestinian application to the UN on the assumption that if talks are “underway and making progress,” the UNSC would put off a vote in hopes that the parties could reach negotiated agreement. (State Dept. press release 9/23; NYT, WP, WT 9/24)

In the West Bank, 1,000s of Palestinians gather in Ramallah’s Clock Tower Square after dark to watch Abbas’s UN address televised live and celebrate the application for statehood. Similar rallies are held across the West Bank, but are banned in Gaza by Hamas authorities, who are angry that Abbas did not consult with Hamas over the process. Observers note (e.g., NYT, WP 9/24) that the “festive mood was tempered with resentment at . . . Obama’s firm stance against the initiative.” One Palestinian on the street states (WP 9/24): “We are choking on the American double standard. America supported the movements for freedom in Egypt, Tunis, Libya and Yemen, but this stops when it comes to the Palestinian people. We are asking, why?” During the day, the regular weekly protest against the separation wall in Bil‘in, al-Nabi Salih, and Ni‘lin are turned into rallies in support of the UN statehood initiative; in al-Nabi Salih, Palestinian demonstrators burn Israeli flags and posters of Obama. Similar small rallies are held at Qalandia r.c. The IDF fires rubber-coated steel bullets, tear gas, and percussion grenades at the demonstrators, causing no serious injuries. (NYT, WP 9/24; PCHR 9/29; OCHA 9/30)

Meanwhile, nr. Kiryat Arba settlement in Hebron, a Palestinian boy is killed in a hit-and-run by a vehicle with Israeli plates. Later in the day in the same area, a Jewish settler man and his infant son, residents of Kiryat Arba, die in a car crash; the IDF says it was an accident, but local settlers accuse the army of covering up a murder, claiming that vengeful local Palestinians stoned the vehicle causing it to crash. The IDF denies the claims and expresses concern that settlers are attempting to provoke violence on the eve of Abbas’s UN speech. Meanwhile, unarmed Palestinians patrolling the outskirts of Qusra village in the n. West Bank (subject of numerous recent attacks by Jewish settlers fr. Esh Kodesh outpost) throw stones at a group of armed Jewish settlers that try to enter the village, sparking a clash; the IDF intervenes, firing tear gas and live ammunition at the Palestinians, killing 1 Palestinian and wounding 7. The IDF also patrols in 2 villages nr. Ramallah and Salfit in the morning, in Jericho in the afternoon, and in al-Bireh, 2 villages nr. Salfit, and 1 nr. Tulkarm late at night. (NYT, WP 9/24; PCHR 9/29)

On the anniversary of the Nakba, 1,000s of Palestinians fr. the West Bank, Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria stage marches (mostly nonviolent, though some stone throwing) toward the Israeli border. In Lebanon, though troops, riot police, and UNIFIL soldiers deploy to prevent marchers fr. reaching the border, a large group succeeds in reaching the border fence nr. Hizballah-controlled Maroun al-Ras village, where they throw stones at IDF troops. IDF troops open fire into Lebanon, leaving 10 Palestinians dead and at least 112 wounded. Palestinians refugees marching fr. Syria knock down the border fence into the Golan Heights, enter the Druze village of Majdal Shams, and rally in the village square, erecting Palestinian flags. IDF troops open fire to drive them back across the border, killing 4 Palestinians and wounding around 200. On the border with Jordan, Jordanian troops fired tear gas and scuffle with some 800 Palestinians, preventing them fr. reaching the border, leaving 14 demonstrators and 3 police officers lightly injured. In Egypt, govt. forces reinforce their border, preventing some 250 Palestinians fr. marching to the Rafah crossing. In Cairo, riot police fire tear gas, disperse protesters converging on the Israeli embassy, injuring around 120. On the Gaza border, IDF troops fire live ammunition and artillery at Gazans marching toward the border, wounding at least 125. In the West Bank, IDF troops fire tear gas, rubber-coated steel bullets to disperse around 1,000 stone-throwing Palestinians marching toward the Qalandia crossing (injuring 10s) and violently beat scores of Palestinians marching fr. Palestinian-controlled area A toward Israeli security-controlled area B in Hebron (injuring 10s). A large peaceful rally commemorating the Nakba is held in Ramallah. Numerous smaller and protests clashes are also reported in the West Bank and East Jerusalem; rights groups say some 185 Palestinians have been injured in these clashes over the past 3 days, 153 of them in Jerusalem. Netanyahu accuses the demonstrators of “incitement” and challenging “the very existence of Israel.” Other Israeli officials accuse Iran and Syria of instigating the Palestinians, noting that Syrian security did nothing to prevent Palestinians fr. approaching the border. (DS, IFM, IsRN, JAZ, JP, MA, YA 5/15; Christian Science Monitor, NYT, PCHR, WP, WT 5/16)

Unrelated to the “March to Palestine,” IDF troops fired across the border into Gaza, killing a Palestinian who allegedly was planting an explosive device. Inside Israel, an Israeli Palestinian drives his truck into several cars, a bus, and pedestrians in Tel Aviv, killing 1 Israeli and injuring 17 in what Israeli police say was a deliberate terrorist attack; the driver, who is arrested, strongly denies deliberately harming anyone, saying he lost control of his vehicle when a tire blew. The IDF also patrols in 2 village nr. Qalqilya (arresting 1 Palestinian teenager for throwing stones) and 2 nr. Tulkarm; sends undercover units into Nur al-Shams r.c. nr. Tulkarm late at night, surrounding and raiding a house and arresting 1 Palestinian; conducts other late-night arrest raids, house searches in and around al-‘Arub r.c. and Hebron, and nr. Salfit. Jewish settlers fr. Kiryat Arba settlement in Hebron throw 4 Molotov cocktails at a nearby Palestinian home, causing minor damage. Israel resumes transferring VAT taxes to the PA (see 5/1), having received PA assurances that none of the money would be accessible to Hamas under the new Fatah-Hamas unity deal, but warning that it would reconsider suspending transfers if Hamas was allowed to join a PA govt. (NYT 5/16; PCHR 5/19; OCHA 5/20)

At quarter’s end, fierce fighting is ongoing in Libya and NATO intervention continues. Rebel-held areas increasingly report shortages of food and medical supplies. No reliable figures on casualties are available since independent media access and communications are extremely difficult. Deaths are thought to be well into the 1,000s and perhaps as high as 10,000. (WP 5/16; REU 6/9)

Palestinians fire 2 rockets (including 1 Grad) and 54 mortars fr. Gaza into Israel within 15 mins., lightly injuring 2 Israelis, damaging an empty kindergarten, and marking the largest barrage since OCL in 1/2009. Hamas acknowledges it fired 33 of the mortars, targeting IDF bases along the border in retaliation for a 3/16 Israeli air strike that killed 2 Hamas mbrs. Israel retaliates with heavy air strikes and tank fire on Hamas facility e. of Gaza City, killing a Hamas official and wounding at least 5 Palestinians (including at least 2 civilians); artillery fire throughout the morning directed at villages on the s. Gaza border with Israel, damaging a mosque in Abassan but causing no injuries; 4 air strikes on rocket-launching sites in s. Gaza, causing no reported injuries; and, late at night, artillery fire directed at suspicious movement nr. the s. Gaza border, killing 2 16-yr.-old Palestinians, allegedly armed. Meanwhile, a group of 10 armed, plain-clothed Palestinians claiming to be Hamas-affiliated security forces raid the Gaza City bureaus of CNN, NHK news channel, and Reuters, attacking journalists, destroying cameras, and confiscating tapes to punish them for filming Hamas police dispersing a 3/17 Palestinian rally. Hamas’s interior M Fathi Hamad denies the men were connected to Hamas, and Reuters confirms that the men did not show identification. In the West Bank, Jewish settlers fr. Dolev settlement nr. Ramallah set up a tent and hold Purim services on a nearby plot of Palestinian land; the IDF observes but does not intervene, and the settlers leave on their own the next morning (3/20). Jewish settlers attack Palestinians and international activists working an olive grove nr. Hebron; the IDF intervenes to remove the settlers. Jewish settlers fr. Suissa settlement nr. Hebron raid a nearby Palestinian farm, releasing 100s of sheep into crop fields; the IDF observes but does not intervene. Jewish settlers stone Palestinian cars driving nr. Hebron and Qalqilya. (AP, JP 3/19; JP, NYT, WP 3/20; PCHR 3/24; OCHA 4/1)

U.S., British, and French forces begin strikes (fr. planes and warships) on Libya. The forces target radar and antimissile batteries to enforce a no-fly zone against Qaddafi’s forces. (NYT, WP 3/20)

When protests in Dara’a resume today, Syrian security forces seal off the city and clash with the demonstrators. Violence in Dara’a continues through 3/22. (NYT, WP 3/20; NYT, WP 3/21)

Israeli warplanes overfly s. Gaza, dropping leaflets warning Palestinians not to enter the 300-m no-go zone along the border fence. Israel seals the West Bank until 3/21 for the Purim holiday. During the day, the IDF patrols in al-Bireh, Ramallah, Tulkarm (randomly stopping and searching vehicles), 4 villages nr. Qalqilya (searching several shops in 1 village but making no arrests), and 3 others nr. Jenin (ordering 4 Palestinians to appear for questioning). Late at night, the IDF patrols in Jericho and conducts arrest raids, house searches nr. Jenin. Jewish settlers beat a Palestinian laborer working inside Shilo settlement; a settlement security guard intervenes, calling Israel border police who transport the Palestinian to a Ramallah hospital. Jewish settlers burn the cars of 2 Palestinian laborers working in Keddumim settlement nr. Qalqilya. Later, Keddumim settlers stone Palestinian cars on a nearby road; the IDF intervenes to disperse them. Jewish settlers fr. Karnei Shomron settlement nr. Qalqilya stone passing Palestinian vehicles. In Gaza, Hamas-affiliated police break up 40 protesters rallying in Gaza City calling for national reconciliation, arresting 1 protester and 2 Palestinian cameramen covering the event. (AFP, NYT 3/18; PCHR 3/24; OCHA 4/1)

The UNSC authorizes (10-0, with Brazil, China, Germany, India, and Russia abstaining) “all necessary measures” short of foreign occupation to protect civilians in Libya, including calling for an immediate halt to the heavy fighting ongoing nationwide, imposition of a no-fly zone, and interdiction of ships heading to support Qaddafi’s forces. (NYT, WP, WT 3/18)

In the West Bank, the IDF raids and searches Palestinian villages around Itamar settlement, particularly in Awarta village, in search for the killers of 5 settlers found murdered on 3/11, detaining at least 20 young men for questioning. At least 27 attacks on Palestinians and their property by armed Jewish settlers retaliating for the Itamar murders are reported in Nablus (10), Hebron (9), Qalqilya (6), and Ramallah (2). Incidents involved: rampaging through Palestinian areas (6 cases, including an attempt to kidnap 2 children); vandalizing homes, businesses, and community buildings (11, including an attempt to set fire to a mosque); stoning and vandalizing cars (10); and cutting down olive trees (1). Meanwhile, a statement released to the press claims responsibility in the name of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade of Imad Mughniyah; AMB officials deny any connection to the purported offshoot group. Netanyahu makes a televised address calling on settlers not to take matters into their own hands and to allow the IDF to search for the assailants, also calling on the PA to halt the incitement that encourages such attacks. Abbas issues a statement denouncing the killings. The IDF also conducts late-night patrols in Qalqilya and 3 nearby villages. (HA, JP 3/12; al-Hayat, JP, JTA, NYT, WP 3/13; PCHR 3/17; OCHA 3/18)

The Arab League calls on the UN to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and recognizes the rebels’ provisional govt., steps that NATO had requested as a precondition for Western intervention in Libya, where extremely heavy fighting continues. (NYT, WP, WT 3/13)

After Yemen’s opposition rejected (3/10) as insufficient a proposal by Pres. Saleh to discuss constitutional reform and again demanded he immediately step down, Saleh deploys troops to crush growing antigovernment protests, authorizing them to use water cannons, tear gas, live ammunition, and sniper fire. Over the next few days, injuries quickly rise into the 100s but demonstrations only grow, now involving 10,000s of protesters. (NYT, WP 3/13; WT 3/14; NYT 3/15, 3/16; NYT, WP, WT 3/17; WP 3/18; see also NYT, WP, WT 3/11)

IDF troops on the c. Gaza border fire on armed Palestinians operating e. of Dayr al-Balah, wounding 1. The IDF makes a day-long incursion into Khuza‘a village in s. Gaza to level lands and clear lines of sight. Israeli naval vessels fire on Palestinian fishing boats off the s. Gaza coast, forcing them to return to shore. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts morning arrest raids, house searches nr. Jenin; raids Hebron in the evening to arrest local human rights activists Issa ‘Amru on charges of incitement and affiliation with an illegal organization (the Youth Commission against Settlement in Hebron); conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Hebron and late-night patrols in villages nr. Jericho and Ramallah. In reaction to the IDF’s removal of 3 structures at Havat Gilad outpost on 2/28, Jewish settlers fr. Yitzhar implement their “price-tag doctrine” of retaliating against Palestinians for any action to curb settlers, throwing a Molotov cocktail at a Palestinian home and smashing the windows of 7 Palestinian cars nr. Nablus. (WT 3/2; PCHR 3/3; OCHA 3/4; WJW 3/10)

By this date, rebel forces in Libya have set up a provisional govt. in Benghazi and today call for international intervention (imposition of a no-fly zone, air strikes, supply of weapons but not ground forces) to topple Qaddafi. Analysts say the country looks poised for a “long and bloody stalemate.” Fierce fighting continues nationwide and more than 100,000 Libyans and foreigners have fled the country. The international community is meeting intensively to discuss options. (NYT, WP, WT 3/2; WP 3/3; NYT, WP, WT 3/4–8; NYT 3/9; WP, WT 3/11; NYT, WP 3/12)

Fayyad reiterates his 2/20 national unity offer, saying the PA would forgo further U.S. aid for the sake of national unity if the U.S. went through with threats to suspend aid to the PA if Hamas joined the govt. Abbas and senior Hamas officials agree to discuss the idea. (JPI 3/11)

At Abbas’s request, Israel agrees to allow some 300 Palestinians fleeing Libya to enter the West Bank. In Gaza, Islamic Jihad and Hamas mbrs. detonate an explosive device by the border fence as an IDF patrol passes on the Israeli side, then fire 3 mortars at the troops, causing no injuries. IDF soldiers retaliate with tank and gunfire, killing 1 armed Palestinian and wounding 6 armed Palestinians and at least 3 bystanders (including 2 children). Late at night, the IDF makes 5 air strikes on buildings in central and southern Gaza, causing no injuries; in the 1 instance in which a building is occupied, Israeli intelligence units phone to warn the occupants to leave. An 11-yr.-old Palestinian girl is killed and 4 family mbrs. are wounded when explosives accidentally detonate in their Gaza home. The IDF makes a brief incursion into c. Gaza to level land along the border fence to clear lines of sight. IDF troops on the n. Gaza border fire warning shots at Palestinian scavenging for construction materials in the fmr. settlement sites, wounding 2 Palestinian. Late in the evening, Israeli naval vessels fire on Palestinian fishing boats off the n. Gaza coast, forcing them to return to shore. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in ‘Aqabat Jabir refugee camp (r.c.) in the morning, photographing historic sites; conducts latenight patrols in Birzeit and 1 village nr. Tulkarm; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches, and patrols in and around Jenin r.c. (DPA, HA, IsRN, JP, NYT, REU, WAFA 2/23; PCHR, WP 2/24; PCHR 3/3; OCHA 3/4)

Israeli naval vessels intercept a Palestinian fishing boat off the n. Gaza coast, escort it to Ashdod, confiscate the boat, and release the fishermen. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in 4 villages nr. Jericho, Qalqilya, Salfit, and Tulkarm in the afternoon, and 1 village nr. Tulkarm late at night. From Ramallah, FCC mbr. Tawfik Tirawi calls for a “day of rage” against the 2/18 U.S. veto; protests denouncing the U.S. are held in Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Nablus, and Tulkarm. For safety, the U.S. consulate in East Jerusalem restricts staff movement for 3 days. (HA, Oxfam International, WP 2/20; PCHR 2/24; OCHA 2/25)

In Libya, security forces in Benghazi open fire on some 20,000 mourners leaving funerals of antigovernment protesters killed in recent clashes, leaving at least 84 dead and scores injured and bringing the death toll in 3 days of clashes to as many as 200 dead and nearly 850 wounded in Benghazi alone. British embassy officials say they have received reports of govt. forces using heavy weapons and snipers against protesters. From this point, antigovernment demonstrations and fierce military repression escalate sharply, and opposition groups take up arms. (NYT, WP 2/20; NYT, WP, WT 2/21)

Overnight, IDF troops on the n. Gaza border fire on and shell a group of Palestinians nr. the n. Gaza border fence, killing 3 Palestinians; Palestinians say the 3 were unarmed men attempting to sneak into Israel to find work, but the IDF claims they were armed men preparing to lay explosive devices along the border. In the West Bank, the IDF demolishes 3 wells and an agricultural storehouse nr. a settler-only bypass road nr. Hebron; seals and patrols in Jit nr. Qalqilya during the afternoon. In Ramallah, some 1,000 young Palestinians hold a rally calling for national unity and reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas. (AFP, WP 2/18; PCHR 2/24; OCHA 2/25)

U.S. pres. Barack Obama phones PA pres. Mahmud Abbas to urge him to delay a 2/18 vote on a UN Security Council (UNSC) res. reaffirming that Israeli settlements are illegal and an obstacle to peace or agree to a compromise UNSC presidential statement (less than a res.) criticizing settlements and urging the sides to resume negotiations. Abbas agrees to convene an emergency meeting of the PLO Exec. Comm. (PLOEC) and Fatah Central Comm. (FCC) to consider the matter. (HA 2/17; HA, MNA, NYT 2/18)

After violence overnight (see 2/16), Bahrain’s govt. declares martial law, deploying the military to the streets and warning of a “sectarian abyss”; the main Shi‘i political party withdraws fr. parliament, protesting the acts of the minority Sunni leadership; and opposition groups call for massive demonstrations after Friday prayers on 2/18. (NYT, WP, WT 2/18)

In Libya, protesters in 5 main cities observe a “Day of Rage” against Qaddafi, clashing with govt. forces, leaving at least 12 protesters dead and 10s wounded; the govt. cuts phone and Internet service and bars journalists to prevent coverage. Serious clashes in and around Benghazi continue on 2/18. (NYT, WP, WT 2/18; NYT, WP 2/19)

As the quarter opens, Israel maintains a tight siege of Gaza aimed at unseating the governing Hamas authority, in control since 6/2007. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) enforces a 300-m deep no-go zone inside the full length of the Gaza border and limits the Palestinian fishing zone off Gaza to 500–1,000 m off the immediate Bayt Lahiya and Rafah coasts, and 3 naut. mi. elsewhere—restrictions that place 17% of Gaza’s total landmass, including 35% of its viable agricultural areas, and 85% of the maritime areas allocated to the Palestinians under the Oslo accords off limits to Palestinians. In the West Bank, governed by the Fatah-led Palestinian Authority (PA), IDF operations and restrictions on movement and access continue but are relatively low. In the West Bank, the IDF patrols in Tulkarm before dawn and in Birzeit late at night; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Nablus. (PCHR 2/17, 2/24; OCHA 2/25)

Regionwide antigovernment protests, which toppled the Egyptian and Tunisian regimes last quarter, continue (see Quarterly Update in this issue and in JPS 159). In Bahrain, demonstrators for the 1st time shift fr. calling for a transition to a constitutional monarchy to calling for the ouster of the monarchy altogether. Syria sees its 1st hint of unrest when more than 500 protesters in Damascus spontaneously rally to the defense of a motorist being beaten by a police officer and refuse to disperse, chanting “The Syrian people will not tolerate humiliation” for more than 3 hrs. until Interior M Saed Samour personally goes to the scene to pledge to punish the policeman. Major clashes between govt. forces and protesters seeking regime change are reported in eastern Libya, while modest demonstrations in Yemen call for the president to step down. (NYT, WP, WT 2/17)

After receiving a warning fr. Egypt that Israel is serious about preventing further rocket and mortar fire fr. Gaza, Hamas authorities hold a 2d mtg. (see 1/11) with smaller factions to urge them to adhere to a cease-fire, then deploys IQB mbrs. along the border and at makeshift checkpoints on roads leading toward the border to deter groups fr. firing into Israel. In the West Bank, the IDF steps up patrols dramatically, operating in 8 villages nr. Qalqilya, 3 nr. Jenin, 1 nr. Ramallah, and 1 nr. Tulkarm between late morning and late afternoon, arresting 1 stone-throwing teenager nr. Tulkarm and summoning several residents of Bayt Qad nr. Qalqilya for questioning; conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Jenin and Qalqilya. Jewish settlers fr. a settlement outpost nr. Nablus attack a Palestinian farmer working his field nearby; when nearby villagers come to the farmers aid, IDF troops intervene, firing rubber-coated steel bullets and tear gas at the Palestinians, seriously injuring 2 and moderately injuring 1. (NYT, WP 1/14; PCHR 1/20; OCHA 1/21)

In Tunisia, opposition forces call for massive antigovernment demonstrations after Friday prayers on 1/14 to demand Pres. Ben Ali’s immediate resignation. In the days since 12/29/2010, protests have increasingly come to reflect deep-seated frustration with overall government corruption and lack of political freedom, rather than just economic angst. The major riots that first roiled the countryside have become increasingly violent and spread nationwide, reaching the capital on 1/12 and the key resort city of Hammamet (where Ben Ali and his extended family have residences) on 1/13, leaving at least 30 dead. In effort to quell protests, Ben Ali has simultaneously moved to appease and clamp down on critics, pledging to investigate government corruption and recent “excesses” by the security forces and firing his interior minister (directly responsible for orchestrating the crackdown on demonstrators), but also deploying army units and riot police around Tunis and imposing a nighttime curfew, blaming “foreign terrorists and Islamic radicals capitalizing on the frustrations of the unemployed.” Rumors suggest that close relatives of Ben Ali, including billionaire businessman Muhammad Sakher El Materi (his son-in-law and heir apparent), have already fled the country. Today, Ben Ali gives a hastily prepared television address. Appearing unsettled, he orders security forces to hold their fire and release jailed protesters, agrees to make other minor reforms, and pledges to give up the presidency when he turns 75 (in 2014) in keeping with the constitution, but rejects demands to step down immediately and end his 23-yr. authoritarian rule. In a threatening move, however, he withdraws the army fr. Tunis, replacing them with special police and other security forces more loyal to his ruling party. Credible rumors say the shift has come about because Tunisia’s army chief Gen. Rachid Ammar has refused Ben-Ali’s orders to shoot demonstrators. By this date, small protests inspired by Tunisian demonstrators have been held in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, and Morocco denouncing unemployment and corruption among the ruling elites, but are not perceived as destabilizing. (NYT, WP 1/13; NYT 1/14, 1/17, 2/24; see also WP 1/10, NYT 1/12)

Meeting in Libya, Arab League FMs strongly endorse the 10/2 Palestinian decision to halt direct talks with Israel until Israel halts settlement construction, pledging to meet again in 1 mo. to discuss alternatives and decide on next steps; a meeting is set for 11/9. (REU 10/8; MNA, NYT, UNSCO, WP 10/9; al-Ahram Weekly 10/8–14)

Overnight, in the West Bank, the IDF raids a Palestinian residential building in Hebron, killing 2 IQB mbrs. in an exchange of fire (with the IDF firing machine guns, medium-caliber bullets, and grenades) and then bulldozing the structure, also destroying an adjacent store, heavily damaging 4 houses and another store nearby, and arresting 12 Palestinians. The IQB mbrs. allegedly were behind the 8/31 shooting of 4 Jewish settlers nr. Hebron; Palestinians do not consider their deaths willful killings or assassinations. The IDF also patrols in 3 villages n. of Tulkarm late at night, making no arrests. Palestinians (accompanied by Israeli and international activists in some locations) hold weekly nonviolent demonstrations against the separation wall, land confiscations, and settlement expansion in Bil‘in, Ni‘lin, Nabi Salih/Dayr Nizam. IDF soldiers fire rubbercoated steel bullets, tear gas, and stun grenades at the protesters; 10s suffer tear gas inhalation and a 13-yr.-old Palestinian is moderately wounded. In East Jerusalem, a Jewish settler deliberately attempts to run down a group of Palestinian stonethrowing children with his car in Silwan, injuring 2 (both age 10). Also in East Jerusalem, 2 settlement guards posted outside a Palestinian house previously seized by settlers beat a local Palestinian working on his home nearby; the IDF observes but does not intervene until the Palestinian begins to fight back, at which point they arrest him and order him to stay away from his home for 1 wk. (WP 10/9; PCHR 10/14; OCHA 10/15)

Israel reports that a Libyan ship that had threatened to run the Gaza blockade (see 7/11) has diverted toward the Egyptian port of al-Arish, defusing a potential crisis; the Egyptian Red Crescent Society will take the goods to Gaza through the Rafah terminal. (Israel had been urging Egypt and Italy to intervene with Libya to encourage it to divert the boat.) Meanwhile, IDF troops on the c. Gaza border shell residential areas of Gaza Valley village after spotting “suspicious figures” in the area, hitting 1 home, killing 1 Palestinian woman and wounding 3 civilians in and around the house. Israeli naval vessels fire on Palestinian fishing boats off the n. Gaza coast, forcing them back to shore. In the West Bank, the IDF conducts late-night arrest raids, house searches nr. Jenin, Salfit. Israeli authorities demolish 6 Palestinian homes in and around East Jerusalem (3 in Issawiyya, 1 in Bayt Hanina, 2 in Jabal Mukabir). (NYT, WP, WT 7/14; PCHR 7/15; OCHA 7/16)

The Arab League ends 2 days of talks in Libya to debate whether to re-endorse proximity talks without reaching an agreement, though members renew support for the 2002 Arab League initiative offering full normalization for full peace. (WP 3/29; WJW 4/1)

The IDF makes a brief incursion into s. Gaza e. of Abasan to level land along the border fence to clear lines of sight. In the West Bank, 10s of Palestinians, Christian clerics, and international activists take part in a nonviolent march from Bethlehem to the main IDF checkpoint to Jerusalem to protest Israeli restrictions on Christians entering Jerusalem today, Palm Sunday; IDF troops beat marchers, arrest 12 Palestinians (including Fatah Central Comm. mbr. Abbas Zaki; all are released on 4/1) and 4 internationals (releasing them later in the day), and seal the Gilo crossing to Jerusalem (including to medical cases and tourists) through 3/31. (OCHA, PCHR 4/1)

In Rome, King Abdallah of Jordan holds talks with Italian officials, who agree to forgive or reschedule $130 m. of Jordan's debt. The king then heads to Aqaba, where he receives Israeli PM Barak for brief talks on the peace process. Barak promises to honor all agmts. with the Palestinians, including the Wye accord; says he has received positive messages fr. Damascus, hopes that negotiations with Syria will resume soon. (RJ 7/13, JT 7/14 in WNC 7/15; JT [Internet], MM, NYT 7/14)

PA Planning M Shaath says that the PA, under U.S. pressure to avoid friction with the new Israeli government, will seek the speedy adjournment of the 7/15 UN mtg. of the signatories to the Fourth Geneva Convention. The mtg. was planned as an open-ended session to consider possible sanctions against Israel for human rights violations and settlement activity in the occupied territories. (AFP, MBC 7/13 in WNC 7/15; NYT, WT 7/14)

In Iran, student demonstrations devolve into riots, with clashes btwn. student groups, other individuals on the one hand and police, Ansar-e Hezbollah mbrs. on the other. Some 1,400 demonstrators have been arrested over the past 6 days. (GIU, MM 7/13; AFP, IDF Radio, IRIB Television 7/13 in WNC 7/15; CSM, MM, NYT, WP 7/14; MEI 7/16; WP 7/18)

Lebanon asks the UN to investigate reports that Israel has again been stealing soil fr. s. Lebanon. The UN, U.S. intervened with Israel in 11/98 after the IDF confirmed that Israelis were hauling fertile topsoil fr. occupied s. Lebanon into Israel. (VOL 7/13 in WNC 7/15; WT 7/14; al-Ba`th 7/19 in WNC 7/23) (see 11/6/98)

In Tripoli, Iranian, Libyan officials discuss expanding bilateral ties. (IRNA 7/14 in WNC 7/15)

ILMG meets for 1st time since 6/24 incidents; discusses 16 Lebanese complaints, 21 Israeli complaints. (RL 7/13 in WNC 7/15; Tishrin 7/15 in WNC 7/20) (see 7/8)

At the UN, U.S., Libyan officials hold 1st mtg. in 18 yrs. U.S. says it will not support full lifting of sanctions until Libya halts support of international terrorism, acknowledges responsibility for and compensates victims of Pan Am 103 bombing. (NYT, WT 6/12; JANA [Tripoli] 6/12 in WNC 6/14) (see 4/5)

An IDF officer is wounded during a clash with Hizballah in s. Lebanon. (VOL 6/12 in WNC 6/14)

PCC resumes debate on declaration of state issue. (MM 4/28; MBC 4/28 in WNC 4/29; al-Quds 4/29 in WNC 5/3)

After being briefed by the State Dept. on the U.S.'s 4/26 letter to the PA, Israel accepts in principle Pres. Clinton's call for an extension of the interim period. (Prime Minister's Report 4/30)

U.S. State Dept. spokesman Rubin says that the U.S. is "deeply concerned" that Israel has repeatedly broken promises not expand settlements onto land not immediately adjacent to existing settlements. (MM 4/29)

Jordanian-Syrian border crossing comm. opens 3 days of talks in Damascus. Jordan proposes adopting identity cards, rather than passports, for travel btwn. the 2 countries. (JT 5/1 in WNC 5/3) (see 4/26)

Under pressure fr. farmers' groups, large corporations, the U.S. eases sanctions to allow sale of food, medical supplies to Iran, Libya, Sudan, other nations accused of supporting "terrorism"; adopts a general exemption for food, medicine whenever the U.S. imposes trade sanctions. (NYT, WP, WT 4/29; MM 4/30; MEI 5/7)

PA police confront an IDF patrol that accidentally strayed into Silleh village in West Bank area A, nr. Jinin. When the patrol refuses to halt, police open fire, wounding an IDF soldier. IDF declares the area around Jinin a closed military zone. (NYT, WP 4/29; NYT 5/1; JP 5/7)

To improve their chances in the upcoming 7/99 municipal elections, 13 Jordanian opposition parties agree to form a unified list, but decide to exclude the Islamist opposition party, the IAF. (al-Dustur 4/30 in WNC 5/3; SA 5/2 in WNC 5/5)

PC holds special session to discuss Palestinian statehood issue; recommends ending the interim period on 5/4, working toward creation of a Palestinian state. PC speaker Ahmad Qurai` says that after 5/4, the PC, existing PA institutions will continue to function until new elections are held, alternative institutions are formed. (al-Quds 4/21 in WNC 4/22; al-Quds 4/22 in WNC 4/27; PR 4/23)

Christian leaders in Nazareth accept Israeli government compromise on mosque, plaza construction. Muslim leaders reject it, preferring the case to be settled in court. The Vatican denounces as a "provocation" plans to build a mosque next to the Church of the Annunciation. (WP, WT 4/21; MM 4/27) (see 4/18)

In al-Am'ari refugee camp in the West Bank, PA Military Intelligence Service (MIS) mbrs. shoot, wound a Palestinian during an arrest. In protest, Palestinians block the main road, seize a weapon fr. a MIS mbr. MIS breaks up demonstration, arrests several Palestinians. (al-Ayyam, al-Hayat al-Jadida 4/21 in WNC 4/23)

EU suspends sanctions on Libya in line with similar move by UN on 4/5. (WT 4/21)

Syria announces that 25 government officials, directors of public sector corporations have been placed under investigation as part of a government crackdown on corruption directed by Pres. Asad's son, Bashar al-Asad. (al-Bayan 4/20 in WNC 4/22)

ILMG discusses IDF occupation of Arnun, issues statement saying that ILMG mbrs. differ on whether Israel was justified under the April understandings in taking Arnun, urges both sides to take "concrete steps" to return the situation in the village to status-quo-ante 4/15. (MM 4/21; AFP 4/29 in WNC 4/30)

Jordan's King Abdallah arrives in Libya for talks with Qaddafi on bilateral relations, expanding economic ties in light of sanctions suspension. He also meets with Arafat, in the country to discuss declaration of state issue. (Great Jamahiriyya Radio, Libyan Television Network, al-Ra'i, RJ 4/17, JTV, Libyan Television Network, RJ 4/18 in WNC 4/19; JT [Internet] 4/19; al-Bayan 4/19 in WNC 4/20; MEI 4/23)

After more than a decade, Libya hands over to the UN 2 suspects in the Pan Am 103 bombing for trial in the Netherlands under Scottish law. UN immediately suspends sanctions on Libya, which were imposed in 1992. (CSM, MM, NYT, WP, WT 4/6; WT 4/7; MEI, MM 4/9; CSM 4/15; MEI 4/23) (see 3/19)

In Ankara, Arafat meets with Turkish pres. Sulayman Demirel, then heads to Moscow for mtg. with Russian FM Igor Ivanov. (NYT, WP, WT 4/6; Interfax 4/6 in WNC 4/7; PR 4/9; WJW 4/15)

Muslims in Nazareth observe general strike, call for mayor's resignation over project to build Christian pilgrimage site. (NYT, WP 4/6; WP, WT 4/7; MM 4/8; MEI 4/23) (see 4/4)

Libya tells the UN that it will turn over by 4/6 the 2 suspects in the 1988 Pan Am 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland. (MM 3/19; NYT, WP, WT 3/20; MM 3/22, 3/24; MEI 3/26) (see 10/26)

In Kurdish-controlled Turkey, a bomb explodes, rupturing the Iraq-Turkey pipeline, Iraq's main outlet for exporting oil under the UN Oil-for-Food program. (WP 3/22; AFP 3/22 in WNC 3/23; NYT 3/24)

Egyptian FM Musa speaks with FMs of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria regarding 1/24 Arab League mtg. on Iraq. (MENA 1/16 in WNC 1/20)

Italy allows PKK leader Ocalan to leave for an undisclosed location to seek asylum. Italy has been under diplomatic pressure fr. the U.S., economic pressure fr. Turkey to turn Ocalan over to Ankara. (NYT 1/17, 2/19) (see 11/25)

UNSCOM chief inspector Scott Ritter resigns in protest over recent revelations that the U.S. repeatedly urged UNSCOM to forgo "challenge inspections" at Iraqi sites thought to house weapons of mass destruction. (MM 9/3; MA 9/3 in WNC 9/11; MM 9/4; MM 9/9, 9/11; Babil 9/17 in WNC 9/25; NYT, WP 10/2; WP 10/11, 10/12) (see 8/7)

IDF soldiers enforcing the Hebron closure prevent Palestinian woman in labor fr. reaching hospital, causing her baby's death. (LAW, WP 8/27; JP 9/5, 9/12; WP 9/19)

Libya tentatively accepts proposal approved by Britain, U.S. to try 2 suspects in the 1988 Pan Am bombing in the Hague under Scottish law. (MM 8/26; NYT, WP, WT 8/27; WP, WT 8/28; MEI 9/4; WP 9/30) (see 7/30)

Five settlers fr. Yitzhar settlement abduct a Palestinian teenager, take him to the graves of 2 settlers killed 8/5, hold him there for 2 hrs., beat him. (PR 9/4)

Settlers in Hebron set fire to a Palestinian home nr. the Jewish sector of the city, injuring 1 man. IDF soldiers enforcing th curfew on the city prevent fire fighters fr. reaching the site. (PR 9/4)

Amal shells an SLA post in s. Lebanon, killing 1 SLA mbr., wounding another. (RL 8/26 in WNC 8/27)

Noting King Hussein's health troubles (7/28), PM Netanyahu transfers to Jordan the $50 m. that Israel owes the kingdom under the Peace and Stability Fund agmt. (IGPO 7/30)

In Casablanca, the Jerusalem Comm. closes 2-day mtg., agrees to set up fund to support Islamic institutions in the city, calls on mbrs. to reexamine their relations with Israel. On the sidelines of the mtg., Arafat meets separately with Iranian FM Kamal Kharrazi, Jordanian FM Anani, Syrian FM Shara` to discuss the peace process. (al-Quds 7/31 in WNC 8/10; MM 8/6; JP 8/8; MM 8/13)

PM Netanyahu receives EU special envoy Moratinos, who briefs the PM on his mtgs. in Syria, in Lebanon, with the PA. (IGPO 7/30)

The UK accepts Arab League proposal that 2 Libyan suspects in the 12/88 Lockerbie bombing be tried under Scottish law at The Hague. The U.S. agreed to the suggestion 7/29. (RE 7/30 in WNC 8/6)

In s. Lebanon, Hizballah ambushes an IDF patrol, killing 1 soldier, wounding 5. (VOL 7/30 in WNC 8/6; MM, NYT, WP 7/31; JP 8/8)