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  • July 21, 1998

    PM Netanyahu says that he wants PA-Israeli negotiations to be expanded to include issues other than FRD. PA says that it entered the latest round of talks with the understanding that they would...

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  • July 12, 1998

    In Amman, Jordan's Crown Prince Hassan receives Israeli MK Yossi Beilin for talks on the Israeli-PA track, U.S. FRD proposal. (MA 7/12, al-Ra'i in WNC 7/14; JT 7/15 in WNC 7/16; MM 7/21)...

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  • July 7, 1998

    Pres. Clinton holds talks with White House, State Dept. on the peace process; instructs State Dept. to inform Israel, PA that the time has come for the 2 sides to deal directly with each other if...

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  • June 29, 1998

    In Luxembourg, EU FMs call for full, rapid implementation of trade cooperation agmt. with the PA, support European Commission's efforts to ensure that exports fr. Israeli settlements do not enter...

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  • June 10, 1998

    In Cairo, Pres. Mubarak, Saudi FM Prince Saud al-Faysal discuss peace process, possible Arab summit. (MENA 6/10 in WNC 6/11; MENA 6/12 in WNC 6/15)

    In Gaza, Arafat, Jordanian PM Majali...

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  • June 9, 1998

    PC gives Arafat until 6/15 to reshuffle the Executive Authority (EA; the PA's cabinet) or face no-confidence vote (he has not faced a no-confidence vote since the 1996 elections). (WP 6/12; MEI 7/...

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  • February 10, 1998

    In Washington, Israeli, PA teams hold separate follow-up talks on the peace process with State Dept. Dep. Special Coordinator for Arab-Israeli Negotiations Aaron Miller, special envoy Ross. No...

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  • January 31, 1998

    After mtg. with Secy. of State Albright, UK FM Robin Cook says Britain is urging the UNSC to find Iraq in violation of its obligations to the council, saying such a res. would provide legal,...

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  • January 22, 1998

    In Washington, Clinton meets with Arafat, encourages him to accept U.S. FRD proposal (see 1/20). Arafat refuses, saying that he expects Israel to hand over 91% of the est Bank before the final...

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  • November 19, 1997

    Arafat says he is healthy despite the uncontrollable trembling of this lower lip, which an Israeli doctor has said may be a sign of Parkinson's disease. (WP 11/20; MEI 11/21; 11/30 in WNC 12/9)...

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  • August 22, 1997

    Israel annouces plans to build a dam just inside the boundary of land claimed by Syria. U.S. criticizes the decision; Syria says that it proves that Israel does not want peace; Jordan says that it...

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  • August 15, 1997

    PLO Political Dept. head Faruq Qaddumi and delegation arrive in Damascus for talks with Pres. Asad regarding recent events in the Middle East. (SANA 8/15 in WNC 8/18)

    In Aqabat Jabr refugee...

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  • August 12, 1997

    U.S. special envoy Ross announces that Israel, the PA have resumed security cooperation, result will make or break long-term peace efforts. (MM 8/12; AFP 8/12 in WNC 8/13; MM, WP, WT 8/13; MM, CSM...

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  • August 3, 1997

    PM Netanyahu tells his cabinet that Israel will not honor its peace agmts. with the PLO unless Arafat cracks down on Islamists. (MM 8/4)

    14-mbr. Knesset Internal Affairs Comm. delegation...

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  • July 27, 1997

    As the 8/12 expiration date of the Middle East Peace Facilitation Act (MEPFA) approaches, key congressmen say that they doubt an extension can be approved before Congress goes into recess 8/1. If...

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  • July 12, 1997

    In Nablus, a bomb explodes nr. an IDF vehicle passing by Joseph's Tomb, injuring 2 soldiers. The IDF closes the main roads to the nearby villages of Bayt Furik, Bayt Dajan. (PR 7/18)

    In...

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  • July 3, 1997

    The UNSCO in Gaza closes an annual 2-day mtg., attended by over 20 UN agencies active in the West Bank and Gaza, to coordinate future plans, strategies. Participants drafted a UN Program of...

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  • June 20, 1997

    EU special envoy Moratinos arrives in Beirut for talks on the peace process with Lebanese FM Faris Buwayz. (VOL 6/20 in WNC 6/23)

    In Hebron, IDF troops in H2 clash with Palestinian...

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  • January 19, 1997

    Arafat visits Hebron. 60,000 Palestinians welcome him. Later, he meets with Hebron's Hamas leaders. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 1/20; al-Quds 1/20 in WNC 1/23; WJW 1/23; MEI 1/24)

    Palestine...

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  • January 15, 1997

    In Gaza, the EA, PLO Exec. Comm., PC ratify the Hebron protocol. (NYT, WP, WT 1/16; PR 1/24)

    Israeli cabinet begins debate on Hebron protocol. (ITV 1/15 in WNC 1/17)

    PA police begin...

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  • November 27, 1996

    After Israeli jurists confirm that the existing Oslo agmts. give Israel overriding responsibility for security in the West Bank and Gaza that would permit the IDF to reenter any PA area, Israel...

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  • November 22, 1996

    At the weekly PA Executive Authority (EA), PLO Exec. Comm. meeting, the executive urges Palestinians to reclaim confiscated land in the West Bank, Gaza; advocates "popular confrontation" every...

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  • November 18, 1996

    Fmr. Israeli PM Shimon Peres, Arafat, the Labor party deny rumors that Peres advised Arafat to hold up the signing of a Hebron protocol, blame the PM's office, Netanyahu for propagating the story...

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  • November 17, 1996

    Israeli, PA negotiations on Hebron resume in Jericho. (RJ 11/18 in WNC 11/19)

    IDF eases closure, allowing 7,000 Palestinians fr. Gaza, 8,000 fr. West Bank into Israel to work, raising the...

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  • October 25, 1996

    PA-Israeli talks on Hebron continue. Arafat reportedly demands that Netanyahu commit to completing IDF redeployment in the West Bank, opening Rafah airport. (MM 10/25; ITV 10/25 in WNC 10/29; WT...

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  • September 3, 1996

    In their 4th day of talks, PA, Israeli officials say plans for a mtg. btwn. Arafat, Netanyahu are hung up over the wording of a statement pledging support for the Oslo accords. Late in the evening...

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  • August 24, 1996

    Japanese FM Ikeda, Pres. Asad, signs bilateral economic agmt. under which Japan will give Syria a $9.6-m. grant toward energy projects. Ikeda leaves for Jordan. (RJ, RMC 8/24 in WNC 8/27; al-Ba...

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  • August 9, 1996

    Joint EA, PLO Exec. Comm. mtg. convenes. (VOP 8/9 in FBIS 8/12)

    Israeli FM Levy boycotts cabinet mtg., says he will quit post if PM Netanyahu does not give him more power, particularly...

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  • August 2, 1996

    EA, PLO Exec. Comm. hold weekly session in Jericho. (VOP 8/2 in FBIS 8/2; VOP 8/3 in FBIS 8/5)

    Israeli cabinet unanimously decides to lift building restrictions in Jewish settlements but is...

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  • July 19, 1996

    Joint EA, PLO Exec. Comm. mtg. is held in Nablus. (VOP 7/20 in FBIS 7/22)

    Israel lodges formal complaint with the PA over the arrest of Israeli Arabs by PA police in the self-rule areas,...

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PM Netanyahu says that he wants PA-Israeli negotiations to be expanded to include issues other than FRD. PA says that it entered the latest round of talks with the understanding that they would address 2 issues only: FRD, the PLO charter. No progress has been made in the talks thus far. (ITV 7/21 in WNC 7/23; WT 7/22)

Arafat, Israeli DM Mordechai separately consult Egypt's Pres. Mubarak regarding the latest round of negotiations. (MENA, RE 7/21 in WNC 7/23; WT 7/22; NYT 7/23)

EU special envoy Moratinos meets with Israeli FMin. officials. (WJW 7/23)

King Hussein announces that tests fr. his last visit to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, on 7/14 indicate that he has lymphatic cancer. (RJ 7/21, 7/22 in WNC 7/23, WT 7/22; RJ 7/22 in WNC 7/24; MM, WP 7/23; MEI 7/31)

At Rep. Gingrich's invitation, a PA delegation led by PC Speaker Qurai` arrives in Washington to meet with congressmen. This is the 1st time that Palestinian lawmakers have been invited to Capitol Hill since the PC was elected in 1/96. (WT 7/21; MM 7/23)

The Senate proposes same reductions in Egyptian, Israeli aid as the House did 7/15. Debates on the House and Senate versions will not be completed until 9/98 at the earliest. (WJW 7/23)

U.S. Principal Dep. Secy. of State for Near Eastern Affairs David Welch returns fr. leading delegation (including Turkish officials) on 5-day trip to n. Iraq to attempt to reconcile the Kurdistan Democratic Party, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. The U.S. hopes to unite the 2 groups to increase pressure on Iraqi pres. Saddam Hussein. (GIU 7/17; MM 7/20, 7/30) (see 6/17)

Amal, Hizballah meet to discuss ways of coordinating their actions against the IDF, SLA in s. Lebanon. (RL 7/22 in WNC 7/23)

In s. Lebanon, an SLA convoy triggers a roadside bomb, killing 1 mbr., wounding 2. (VOL 7/21 in WNC 7/23) (see 5/10)

In Amman, Jordan's Crown Prince Hassan receives Israeli MK Yossi Beilin for talks on the Israeli-PA track, U.S. FRD proposal. (MA 7/12, al-Ra'i in WNC 7/14; JT 7/15 in WNC 7/16; MM 7/21)

In Cairo, Arab League opens 5-day conference on Palestinian affairs, including issues of refugees, economic and social conditions, Judaization of Jerusalem. Reps. fr. Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the PLO, Organization of the Islamic Conference attend. (MENA 7/13 in WNC 7/15; JT 7/15 in WNC 7/16)

In s. Lebanon, the IDF blows up 3 Lebanese homes nr. a crossing separating its self-declared security zone fr. unoccupied Lebanon. Off the coast of Tyre, the Israeli navy fires on Lebanese fishing boats, sinking one; the crew escapes. (RL 7/12 in WNC 7/14)

Pres. Clinton holds talks with White House, State Dept. on the peace process; instructs State Dept. to inform Israel, PA that the time has come for the 2 sides to deal directly with each other if they want to reach a final status agmt. (ITV 7/9 in WNC 7/13)

UNGA votes (124-4, with 10 abstentions) to upgrade the PLO's UN status to that of a nonvoting mbr. or "superobserver." (MM 7/7; MENA 7/7, al-Ahram 7/10 in WNC 7/13; CSM, MM, NYT, WP, WT 7/8; MM, WJW 7/9; al-Thawra 7/9 in WNC 7/14; PR 7/10; MEI 717; JP 7/18) (see 6/29)

Turkish Maritime Lines inaugurates new Turkey-Cyprus-Israel route. (Kibris [Nicosia] 7/8 in WNC 7/13)

In Luxembourg, EU FMs call for full, rapid implementation of trade cooperation agmt. with the PA, support European Commission's efforts to ensure that exports fr. Israeli settlements do not enter the EU with "Made in Israel" labels. (MEI 7/3) (see 5/20)

In Jerusalem, PM Netanyahu attends fundraiser for Ateret Cohanim settler group, expresses solidarity with settlers in East Jerusalem. Ateret Cohanim says that it will use the proceeds fr. the $200-a-plate dinner to take over more East Jerusalem properties. (MM 6/30; IDF Radio 6/30 in WNC 7/1; ITV 6/30 in WNC 7/2)

Israeli pres. Ezer Weizman says that since PM Netanyahu has dropped idea of holding national referendum on FRD (see 6/25), the only solution to the stalemated peace process is to call new elections; says that he will no longer perform missions on behalf of the PM. Netanyahu says he will not call elections, accuses Weizman of politicizing the traditionally ceremonial office of the president. (MM 6/29; IDF Radio, ITV 6/29 in WNC 6/30; CSM, NYT, WT 6/30; ITV 6/30 in WNC 7/2; JP 7/4)

Israeli FMin. legal adviser Alan Baker presents legal opinion that concludes that upgrading the PLO's status at the UN to that of a "superobserver" would not constitute a violation of the Oslo agmts. (MM 6/29; MA 6/29 in WNC 6/30)

Jordanian Planning M Rima Khalaf arrives in Kuwait for talks on improving bilateral relations. She is the 1st Jordanian minister to visit Kuwait since the Gulf War. (al-Dustur 6/28 in WNC 6/30; Petra-JNA 6/29, JT, SA 6/30 in WNC 7/1; JT 7/1 in WNC 7/2)

Hizballah, SLA clash in s. Lebanon, leaving 2 SLA mbrs. dead. In a separate incident in s. Lebanon, 2 civilians are injured by Israeli shelling. (RL 6/29 in WNC 6/30; RL 6/30 in WNC 7/1)

In Cairo, Pres. Mubarak, Saudi FM Prince Saud al-Faysal discuss peace process, possible Arab summit. (MENA 6/10 in WNC 6/11; MENA 6/12 in WNC 6/15)

In Gaza, Arafat, Jordanian PM Majali discuss peace process, possible Arab summit. Majali hands Arafat a letter fr. King Hussein, outlining Netanyahu's position on FRD as transmitted to the king via Israeli DM Mordechai on 6/7. (JTV 6/10 in WNC 6/12; Shihan 6/27 in WNC 6/30; al-Dustur 7/1 in WNC 7/2) 

Syrian FM Shara` meets with PLO Exec. Comm. mbr. and Arafat adviser on refugee affairs As`ad `Abd al-Rahman to reopen discussion on refugee issues. (RMC 6/12 in WNC 6/15)

During their 2d day of talks, Iran, Turkey sign memorandum of understanding on setting up a joint chamber of commerce, beginning engineering and technical cooperation on natural gas. (IRIB Television 6/10, MENA 6/11 in WNC 6/12; IRNA 6/11, 6/13 in WNC 6/17)

In Hebron district, IDF bulldozes 70 dunams of Palestinians orchards, saying it has warned Palestinians not to farm "state land." Trees on the land were 5+n10 yrs. old. (Christian Peacemaker Teams press release 7/14)

In East Jerusalem, Israeli peace activists protesting settlement activity clash with Israeli police. (CSM 6/11)

Some 50 Christian human rights activists stage sit-in to protest settler's occupation of Silwan homes 5/8. (WT 6/11)

PC gives Arafat until 6/15 to reshuffle the Executive Authority (EA; the PA's cabinet) or face no-confidence vote (he has not faced a no-confidence vote since the 1996 elections). (WP 6/12; MEI 7/3)

In Cairo, U.S. Asst. Secy. of State for Near East Affairs Martin Indyk briefs Pres. Mubarak on U.S. efforts to persuade Israel to accept the U.S. FRD proposal. (MENA, RE 6/9 in WNC 6/10; ITV, MENA 6/9 in WNC 6/11; MENA 6/9 in WNC 6/17)

In Vienna, Jordan's Crown Prince Hassan discusses peace process with Chancellor Viktor Klima, who assumes the presidency of the EU on 7/1. (RJ 6/9 in WNC 6/10, 6/11; Der Standard 6/12 in WNC 6/15)

In Tel Aviv, Jordan, Israel discuss import of Jordanian agricultural goods, farm products to Israel, PA self-rule areas. (JT 6/11 in WNC 6/12)

Iran, Turkey convene economic summit in Tehran. (IRIB Television 6/9 in WNC 6/11; IRNA 6/10 in WNC 6/12)

In keeping with UN Res. ES-10/5 of 3/17, Switzerland opens in Geneva a 3-day experts-level mtg. btwn. Israel, the PLO, with the International Comm. of the Red Cross, to examine measures that would contribute to the effective application of the Fourth Geneva Conventions in the occupied territories. (Palestine and the UN 6/98)

Israeli Interior Min. approves construction of 58 housing units for Jewish settlers nr. the Mount of Olives in East Jerusalem. (Palestine and the UN 6/98)

U.S. government arrests without charge Muhammad Salah, a naturalized U.S. citizen once arrested in Israel for being a mbr. of Hamas; seizes his home, bank accounts worth $1.4 m.; hopes its investigation will lead to an indictment on charges of funding Hamas "terrorism." (NYT 6/14; JP 6/20; Shihan 7/11 in WNC 7/14)

In Washington, Israeli, PA teams hold separate follow-up talks on the peace process with State Dept. Dep. Special Coordinator for Arab-Israeli Negotiations Aaron Miller, special envoy Ross. No progress is made. Israeli team is led by Cabinet Secy. Nave, Netanyahu foreign policy adviser Uzi Arad. PA team is led by Local Government M Erakat; PLO Washington rep. Hassan `Abd al-Rahman also attends. (JT 2/10 in WNC 2/12; WP 2/10; MM, WJW 2/12; PR 2/13)

In Amman, EU Pres. Santer discusses peace process with Jordanian PM Majali. (RJ 2/10 in WNC 2/11)

In Amman, PA, Jordan open 3 days of talks on expanding cooperation in health-related fields. (JT 2/10 in WNC 2/11; JT 2/11 in WNC 2/12)

Russian special envoy Posuvalyuk delivers message to Israeli PM Netanyahu fr. Iraqi pres. Saddam Hussein, saying that Iraq has "neither the intention nor the ability" to attack Israel. (WT 2/11; CSM 2/18)

After PM Netanyahu demands halt to Palestinian pro-Iraq demonstrations, PA's Gaza police chief Brig. Gen. Ghazi Jabali issues order preventing all marches, protests, flag burnings in area A. Human rights groups say order undermines right to peaceful assembly. (LAW 2/10; IDF Radio, ITV 2/10 in WNC 2/11; NYT 2/11; PR 2/13)

Jordan bans all demonstrations "for any reason," citing preservation of national security given the "delicate" regional situation. (JTV 2/10 in WNC 2/11; JTV 2/11, JT 2/12 in WNC 2/15; JTV 2/12 in WNC 2/17)

Defense Secy. Cohen says that Oman has given the U.S. permission to station support planes in Oman for an attack on Iraq; combat units will be station in Bahrain, Kuwait, Germany, Spain, Diego Garcia. (MM 2/10; CSM , MM 2/11)

After mtg. with Secy. of State Albright, UK FM Robin Cook says Britain is urging the UNSC to find Iraq in violation of its obligations to the council, saying such a res. would provide legal, international support for U.S. attack. At the same time, the UN should consider quadrupling the oil-for-food program to demonstrate that UN is not trying to punish ordinary Iraqis. (NYT 2/1) (see 1/30)

Secy. of State Albright arrives in Israel for dinner mtg. with PM Netanyahu to follow up on 1/20 Netanyahu-Clinton mtg.; say that she is frustrated both sides' failure to make tough decisions, that U.S. is likely to abandon mediation if Israel "continues to display a stubborn and uncompromising attitude toward the Palestinians." (NYT 2/1; NYT, WP 2/2; HA, YA 2/2 in WNC 2/4; CSM, MM, NYT 2/3; MEI 2/13)

PLO Exec. Comm. passes by voice vote the list of PLO charter clauses that have been rescinded as given to U.S. Pres. Clinton 1/22, UK PM Blair 1/26. Israel says voice vote is not "sufficient." (ITV 1/31, IDF Radio 2/1 in WNC 2/4; MM 2/2, 2/4)

Lebanese army operation against Tufayli (see 1/30) carries into the early morning hours. At dawn, Tufayli and his men flee the school, take refuge in the nearby village of Britel. The army seals the town to search for Tufayli, allowing residents to leave but no one to enter. The 2 days of clashes leave 4 Tufayli supporters, 3 soldiers, 1 civilian dead; at least 50 wounded. By the end of the day, Tufayli escapes, but 14 of his men are arrested. Government says Tufayli faces charges of endangering the country, killing soldiers and civilians, forming an armed group. (RL, RMC, VOL 1/31, RL 2/1 in WNC 2/4; NYT, WT 2/1; MM 2/2; MEI 2/13)

In Washington, Clinton meets with Arafat, encourages him to accept U.S. FRD proposal (see 1/20). Arafat refuses, saying that he expects Israel to hand over 91% of the est Bank before the final stages of the permanent status talks. Arafat agrees to renegotiate the 12/17 MOU on security, gives Clinton 2 letters: one, requested by the U.S., formalizing Palestinian recognition of Israel's right to exist, spelling out for the 1st time which of the 33 articles of the 1968 PLO charter were annulled in 1996; the other saying that a "time-out" on Israeli settlement construction should extend to every place on the West Bank that is not within 50 meters of an existing settlement structure. After mtg., Clinton says that he hopes that land for peace will prevail in the Middle East that "the Palestinians can realize their aspirations to live as a free people." (NYT, WP, WT 1/23; ITV, MENA 1/23, JT, RE 1/24 in WNC 1/27; MM, WT 1/26; MEI 1/30; MA 2/3 in WNC 2/4)

CIA Dir. George Tenet meets with Arafat at his hotel to discuss security issues, 12/17 MOU on security. (NYT, WP 1/23)

Israeli Interior Min. approves 2 building plans for the Palestinian neighborhood of Ras al-Amud in Jerusalem: "Arab sector" plan includes the construction of "additional public space," 1,020 housing units; "Jewish sector" plan includes 132 housing units. Construction permits are not issued automatically; Jewish, Arab landowners must apply to the local authority for permits. (IGPO 2/4; MM, NYT 2/5) (see 9/14/97)

U.S. orders deportation of Hani al-Sayigh, a Saudi Arabian suspected of involvement in the 6/96 bombing of the U.S. barracks at al-Khobar. Sayigh fled Saudi Arabia for Canada (3/97), which then extradited him to the U.S. (6/97) at Washington's request to provide testimony linking Iran with the bombing. Sayigh failed to provide such information, and the U.S. was forced to drop charges of collusion against him for lacked evidence. He faces possible execution if he is sent back to Saudi Arabia. (NYT, WP) (see 9/9)

IDF opens fire with rubber bullets, live ammunition, teargas, percussion grenades on Palestinians protesting bulldozing of land nr. Neve Dalim settlement, injuring 4. (PCHR 1/24) (see 1/21)

Israel launches Ofek-4 satellite to spy on Iran, Iraq, Syria, but it disintegrates before entering orbit. (ITV 1/23 in WNC 1/27; WT 1/24; MM 1/26; JP 2/7)

Arafat says he is healthy despite the uncontrollable trembling of this lower lip, which an Israeli doctor has said may be a sign of Parkinson's disease. (WP 11/20; MEI 11/21; 11/30 in WNC 12/9)

Israel agrees to allow 250 civilian PLO employees to take up permanent residence in the West Bank/Gaza.(al-Dustur 11/19 in WNC 11/21; PR 11/21)

Israel court jails for 5 yrs. a PA Preventive Security Force (PSF) officer convicted of abducting an Arab informer for Israel fr. Jerusalem, taking him to Jericho, torturing him. (WP 11/20)

Israel places Gaza resident Ashraf Atta Ahmad Kandil under administrative detention in an Israeli prison for 6 mos. He is the only Gazan under administrative detention, along with 600 West Bank Palestinians. (PCHR 1/15)

Russia's minister of science and technology arrives in Israel for mtg. of the joint Russian-Israeli Economic Comm. to discus ways of increasing cooperation. (Globes [Internet] 11/19 in WNC 11/21)

Facing the erosion of its efforts to isolate Iran economically, U.S. announces new policy of pushing for a "Eurasian transportation corridor" (fr. Azerbaijan to Turkey) to bring Caspian oil to the West; pressuring Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan to shelve proposal for pipeline through Iran to the Gulf. U.S. Energy Secy. Federico Peña says U.S. has no plans to help finance the Eurasian corridor project. (NYT, WP, WT 11/20; MM 11/26)

Hizballah detonates roadside bomb in s. Lebanon, injuring 1 South Lebanon Army (SLA) mbr. (VOL 11/19 in WNC 11/21)

Israel annouces plans to build a dam just inside the boundary of land claimed by Syria. U.S. criticizes the decision; Syria says that it proves that Israel does not want peace; Jordan says that it is "totally against the spirit" of the 1994 Jordan-Israeli peace treaty. (MM 8/22; AFP, RMC 8/24, RMC 8/25 in WNC 8/26; MM, NYT 8/26; al-Dustur, JT 8/26 in WNC 8/27; al-Dustur, al-Ra'i 8/27 in WNC 8/28; NYT 8/28; MM 10/28)

Netanyahu phones Secy. of State Albright to warn the U.S. that the peace process is in serious trouble, blames Arafat exclusively, claims PA is not abiding by understandings reached in mtgs. with U.S. special envoy Denis Ross 8/10+n13. (ITV 8/23 in WNC 8/26; WT 8/25)

PA Executive Authority (EA), PLO Exec. Comm. discuss report published in Jane's Foreign Report that Israeli military sources were considering setting up an ultrasecret special unit that would carry out "punitive actions" against Palestinian politicians. The report concludes that the group being considered might be similar to the Lakam unit of the 1970s--a unit that reported only to the PM, was unknown to the Shin Bet, Mosad. (NYT 8/24; WT 8/25)

Netanyahu's inner cabinet discusses Russian military aid to Iran. The cabinet proposes freezing economic cooperation projects with Russia if it continues to help Iran. (NYT 8/25) (see 8/21)

Hizballah detonates roadside bomb in s. Lebanon, killing 1 SLA mbr. (Voice of the South 8/22 in WNC 8/25; MEI 8/29)

PLO Political Dept. head Faruq Qaddumi and delegation arrive in Damascus for talks with Pres. Asad regarding recent events in the Middle East. (SANA 8/15 in WNC 8/18)

In Aqabat Jabr refugee camp, Israeli police find the auto of an Israeli taxi driver who disappeared en route btwn. Jerusalem and the West Bank settlement of Beyt Ha'arava 8/14. Israeli police place a curfew on the Jericho area. Israeli police, IDF, PA police begin search. (ITV, QY 8/15 in WNC 8/18)

Hrs. after they are released by the PA atty. gen., 10 Hamas mbrs. are rearrested by the PSF. The PSF also detain 2 PA officials for complying with the atty. gen.'s orders. (LAW 8/19)

Crown Prince Hassan's son Prince Rashid Bin al-Hassan is injured in a car accident on his way to Aqaba, 2 passengers are killed, 1 is injured. (JTV 8/15 in WNC 8/20)

U.S. special envoy Ross announces that Israel, the PA have resumed security cooperation, result will make or break long-term peace efforts. (MM 8/12; AFP 8/12 in WNC 8/13; MM, WP, WT 8/13; MM, CSM, NYT 8/14)

In Nablus, 10,000 Palestinians march to protest U.S., Israeli efforts to press Arafat to crack down on anti-Israeli militants in the West Bank, Gaza. Palestinians in Gaza stage a smaller rally. (CSM, WP, WT 8/13)

Syria formally rejects an Israeli proposal for a new formula to resume negotiations. (MM 8/13; YA 8/13 in WNC 8/14; YA 8/14 in WNC 8/15)

MEPFA expires, forcing the PLO to close its office in Washington. The U.S. will continue diplomatic contacts with the PA. U.S. assistance to Palestinian projects will not be interrupted. (NYT, WP, WT 8/13; MM, WP 8/14; PR 8/15) (see 8/1)

PA military court finds 3 Force 17 mbrs. guilty of treason for "spying for the Israeli intelligence service"; condemns 1 to death, 1 to life with hard labor, 1 to 15 yrs. with hard labor. (NYT, WP, WT 8/13) (see 7/19)

Israel eases restrictions on produce crossing fr. the West Bank and Gaza, allowing 3 trucks of eggplants into Israel. (IDF Radio 8/12 in WNC 8/13; WT 8/13)

Nr. Bethlehem, 2 Palestinian cousins sneak through the IDF blockade of the city--1 to get heart medication, 1 to get money owned him by his employer nr. Jerusalem. They are caught, severely beaten by the IDF, sent back to a hospital in Bethlehem. (WP 8/16)

Palestinian woman gives birth at an IDF checkpoint outside Ramallah after soldiers refuses to let her into the PA-controlled city to reach a hospital. (WT 8/13)

SLA vacates 7 Lebanese villages s. of Sidon, turning them over to the Lebanese army. (RL 8/12 in WNC 8/13)

Israel releases Joseph, Jean Nahra, who were kidnapped in s. Lebanon by the IDF 7/9, taken to al-Khiyam prison. Israel has never explained their detention. (WT 8/13) (see 8/7)

PM Netanyahu tells his cabinet that Israel will not honor its peace agmts. with the PLO unless Arafat cracks down on Islamists. (MM 8/4)

14-mbr. Knesset Internal Affairs Comm. delegation representing almost all Israeli parties (except Moledet, Shas, Tsomet) arrives in Amman for a 2 day visit to discuss the current impasse in PA-Israeli talks resulting fr. the 7/30 bombings; encourages King Hussein to personally mediate btwn. the sides. Jordanian parliamentary mbrs. boycott the delegation. (RJ 8/3, 8/4 in WNC 8/5; JT 8/5 in WNC 8/6; SA 8/5 in WNC 8/7)

Israel continues arresting Palestinians following the 7/30 bombings, bringing the total arrested to 116; also demolishes 3 Palestinian homes allegedly built without permits nr. Jerusalem. (WP 8/4; LAW 8/5; PR 8/8)

Israeli authorities prevent a delegation of 20 young campers fr. Qatar, UAE (who just completed a summer program sponsored by the PA Youth and Sports Min.) fr. leaving Gaza for Egypt. (al-Quds 8/4 in WNC 8/5; PR 8/8)

Nr. the West Bank Jewish settlement of Karmel, a Palestinian is fatally shot fr. a passing car bearing Israeli license plates. (ITV 8/3 in WNC 8/5; MM, WP 8/4; NYT 8/5)

Iraq, Syria form a joint tourism company, which will run 2 daily trips to transport businessmen btwn. the countries. (RMC 8/4 in WNC 8/5) (see 8/1)

As the 8/12 expiration date of the Middle East Peace Facilitation Act (MEPFA) approaches, key congressmen say that they doubt an extension can be approved before Congress goes into recess 8/1. If no extension is passed then aid to and contacts with the PLO must be cut off at least temporarily. (WP 7/27; MM, WT 7/29; WJW 7/31; JP 8/2; WP 8/13)

A 3-day exhibition of Syrian pharmaceutical companies hosted by Iraq opens in Baghdad. Around town, portraits of Syria's Pres. Asad appear next to pictures Iraq's Pres. Saddam Hussein. (RMC 7/27 in WNC 7/29; MM 7/28) (see 7/24)

The Arab Land Party, the Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'th Party, the Jordanian Communist Party, the Pan-Arab Action Front Party, the Popular Unity Party, the Progressive Arab Ba'th Party announce that they will boycott 11/97 elections unless Jordan suspends the new press law, stops all official normalization with Israel, ensures the right of parties to equal use of all mass media, halts violations of public freedoms and democracy, treats parties as national institutions. (al-Ra'i 7/28 in WNC 7/29) (see 7/26)

In. s. Lebanon, 1 SLA mbr. is wounded by Hizballah shelling. (VOL 7/28 in WNC 7/29)

In Nablus, a bomb explodes nr. an IDF vehicle passing by Joseph's Tomb, injuring 2 soldiers. The IDF closes the main roads to the nearby villages of Bayt Furik, Bayt Dajan. (PR 7/18)

In Hebron, 25 Jewish settlers start stone-throwing riot with Palestinians, prompting the IDF to intervene, wounding 9 Palestinians. IDF also places cement barriers along Shalala Street, which divides the PA-, Israeli-controlled enclaves; closes 50 Palestinian shops in Israeli-controlled downtown Hebron in retaliation for nearly 2 wks. of Palestinian protests, clashes. (NYT, WT 7/13; LAW 7/14)

In Ramallah, mbrs. of the PLO Exec. Comm. join in demonstrations to protest the expansion of Jewish settlements, anti-Muslim posters in Hebron. (PR 7/18)

The IAF Executive Bureau discusses whether it should follow the Muslim Brotherhood's lead and boycott 11/97 Jordanian elections, does not come to a final decision. Muslim Brotherhood issues formal statement outlining reasons for its decision to boycott. (al-Aswaq 7/12, al-Dustur, JT, al-Ra'i 7/13, RJ 7/14 in WNC 7/16; MM 7/14, 7/15; al-Quds al-Arabi 7/16 in WNC 7/18) (see 7/9)

In Ankara, PM Yilmaz's new government wins (281-256) its first vote of confidence. (WP 7/13)

Claiming they saw suspicious movements, IDF soldiers in s. Lebanon fire a shell at a 70-yr.-old Lebanese man collecting fodder for his cattle, killing him. Israel apologizes for the "accident." (RL 7/12 in WNC 7/16)

The UNSCO in Gaza closes an annual 2-day mtg., attended by over 20 UN agencies active in the West Bank and Gaza, to coordinate future plans, strategies. Participants drafted a UN Program of Cooperation, due to be made public later in 8/97. (UNSCO press release 7/3)

In advance of congressional debate on renewal of the Middle East Peace Facilitation Act, which permits U.S. aid to the PLO, Netanyahu's director of policy planning David Bar-Ilan endorses the distribution to congressmen of video tapes showing Arafat calling for jihad, praising anti-Israeli attacks. The tapes are distributed by Reps. Jim Saxton (R-NJ), Robert Andrews (D-NJ). (WJW 7/3)

PA military court sentences 3 Force 17 officers to death for the fatal beating, allegedly over a personal dispute, of Nasir Radwan. 2 other officers are sentenced to 5 yrs. in prison, 1 is given 6 mos., 2 are acquited. Arafat must approve the death penalties. (LAW, WP 7/4; JP 7/12) (see 7/1)

DM Mordechai, the Chief Sephardi Rabbi Baqshi-Doron apologize on Israel's behalf for the anti-Muslim posters placed around Hebron by a settler 6/28. (ITV 7/3 in WNC 7/7)

Israeli special forces infiltrate a group of Palestinian protesters in the PA-controlled section of Hebron, draw weapons to make series of violent arrests. In plain view of reporters, 1 Palestinian is beaten unconscious, dragged 100s of yards over asphalt covered by broken glass. (MM 7/3; WP 7/5; JP 7/12)

Lebanon lodges complaint with ILMG regarding shelling of civilian areas 7/2, which left 1 wounded. (RL, VOL 7/3 in WNC 7/7)

Hizballah fires several rockets fr. s. Lebanon toward n. Israel. The rockets land along the Israeli-Lebanese border, causing no damage or injuries. (RL 7/3 in WNC 7/7)

EU special envoy Moratinos arrives in Beirut for talks on the peace process with Lebanese FM Faris Buwayz. (VOL 6/20 in WNC 6/23)

In Hebron, IDF troops in H2 clash with Palestinian demonstrators in H1, shooting across the dividing line btwn. the 2 sections of town, wounding at least 40 before PA security forces are able to disperse the crowd. Palestinians chant "PLO, Israel no!" Settlers complain that the IDF should use live ammunition instead of rubber bullets, the 4/5 of Hebron turned over to the PA should be retaken. (NYT, WP, WT 6/21; MEI 6/27)

Turkish pres. Demirel asks Motherland party leader Mesut Yilmaz to form a new government, ending prospects for an Erbakan-Ciller coalition. (NYT, WP, WT 6/21; Milliyet [Istanbul] 6/21, 6/22 in WNC 6/24) (see 6/18)

SLA threatens to shell s. Lebanon's coastal road if any more bombs are detonated nr. Jazzin. (RL 6/20 in WNC 6/23; MM 6/26, 6/27) (see 6/18)

Arafat visits Hebron. 60,000 Palestinians welcome him. Later, he meets with Hebron's Hamas leaders. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 1/20; al-Quds 1/20 in WNC 1/23; WJW 1/23; MEI 1/24)

Palestine National Council authorizes its Legal Comm. to amend the PLO charter. (PR 1/24)

Palestinian sources in `Ayn al-Hilwa refugee camp in s. Lebanon say that 3 high ranking Fatah mbrs., associated with anti-Arafat faction leader Col. Munir Makdah, have been assassinated in the past wk. They are Ahmad Ayyub, Khalil Ward, and Abu al-'Asal. (AFP, RMC 1/19 in WNC 1/22) (see 4/16/96)

France refuses Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein's request to transfer his son Uday to Paris for treatment. (MM 1/20) (see 12/12)

In Gaza, the EA, PLO Exec. Comm., PC ratify the Hebron protocol. (NYT, WP, WT 1/16; PR 1/24)

Israeli cabinet begins debate on Hebron protocol. (ITV 1/15 in WNC 1/17)

PA police begin entering Hebron. Redeployment should be completed by 1/17. (NYT 1/15, 1/16)

Syria terms the new Hebron agmt. an "enslavement of [the] Palestinians." (WP 1/16)

Netanyahu policy adviser Bar Ilan says that he believes that, under the new Hebron agmt., Israel could stay in control of 50% of the West Bank after the 3d stage of further redeployment. (WT 1/16)

Jordanian delegation arrives in Baghdad for talks with Iraq on an economic agmt. encompassing an oil deal, trade protocol. (RJ 1/15 in WNC 1/17)

The U.S. warns Pres. Nelson Mandela that it might withdraw millions of dollars in aid to South Africa if Mandela approves a $641-m. arms sale to Syria. Mandela angrily rejects the warning, noting that 3 EU states are trying to sell Syria the same equipment, and the U.S. has not issued warnings to them. Israel summons the South African amb. to express its "deep concern" over the sale. (South Africa Radio [Johannesburg] 1/15 in WNC 1/15; IGPO 1/15 in WNC 1/17; al-Safir 1/15, SANA in WNC 1/21; MM, NYT, WT 1/16)

After Israeli jurists confirm that the existing Oslo agmts. give Israel overriding responsibility for security in the West Bank and Gaza that would permit the IDF to reenter any PA area, Israel drops its demand for written guarantees fr. the PA detailing IDF hot pursuit rights in Hebron, a key sticking point of the talks. (MM 11/27; IDF Radio 11/27 in WNC 11/29; MM 11/28; IDF Radio 11/28 in WNC 12/2; CSM, MM 11/29)

JT reports that the PLO is setting up a new "superministry" that will replace the Tunis-based Department of Returnees Affairs and will have headquarters in Gaza and offices in Amman, Gaza, West Bank to deal with issues concerning Palestinian refugees. The main objectives of the superministry, which will not be tied to any PA ministry, are political mobilization of the refugees; improvement of refugees' living conditions; establishment and further development of bilateral ties with Arab and non-Arab countries, the UNRWA, the Multilateral Working Group on Refugees. (JT 11/27 in WNC 12/2)

Netanyahu adviser Gold arrives in London for talks with the British FMin. on ways of advancing regional cooperation. (IDF Radio 11/27 in WNC 12/2; MM 11/29) (see 12/25)

Israeli Atty. Gen. Mikhael Ben-Ya'ir reports that border police routinely mistreat Palestinians, recommends that officers convicted of abuse be punished more harshly. (WT 11/28) (see 11/26)

Turkey announces that it has canceled its purchase of Cobra helicopters fr. the U.S., gives the U.S. no explanation. (ANATOLIA 11/27 in WNC 11/29)

Israel reinforces troops, equipment in s. Lebanon. Israeli naval vessels detain, search a German ship entering Tyre port. (RL 11/27 in WNC 11/29) (see 11/23)

The Lebanese government passes a law suspending the closure of all unlicensed media outlets, which was set for 11/30 (see 9/17). Under the law, unlicensed outlets may continue to broadcast apolitical news only until they are explicitly denied a license. (al-Nahar 11/28 in WNC 12/4)

At the weekly PA Executive Authority (EA), PLO Exec. Comm. meeting, the executive urges Palestinians to reclaim confiscated land in the West Bank, Gaza; advocates "popular confrontation" every time "Israeli bulldozers appear on Palestinian land"; vows to support such Palestinian resistance politically and financially. (MEI 12/6) (see 11/18)

Israeli Infrastructure M Ariel Sharon draws up plans for construction of 900 housing units for settlers on the Golan Heights as the 1st stage in a program to add 2,500 new residences over the next 3 yrs. Under this "Golan 2000" plan (as yet unapproved by the government), the buildings would be considered extensions of existing settlements, though they would be at a distance fr. built-up areas. The settler population would increase fr. 16,000 to 25,000; currently, 18,000 Druze live on the Golan. (MM 11/22; YA 11/22 in WNC 11/25; NYT, WP 11/23; ITV 11/24 in WNC 11/26; MM 11/25; WJW 11/28; PR 11/29; JP 11/30; MEI 12/6)

PA says it will give out up to 15 video cameras to Palestinians living nr. Israeli checkpoints so they can record any abuses of Palestinians by Israeli border police. (WP 11/23) (see 11/19)

Fmr. Israeli PM Shimon Peres, Arafat, the Labor party deny rumors that Peres advised Arafat to hold up the signing of a Hebron protocol, blame the PM's office, Netanyahu for propagating the story. (IDF Radio, QY 11/18 in WNC 11/19; MM 11/19)

In Beirut, PLO's Qaddumi, PA's Faisal Husseini (in charge of the PA Jerusalem file) meet with Lebanese officials to discuss the political issues surrounding a solution Palestinian refugees issue (e.g., settling refugees in Lebanon, considered by both sides to be undesirable; easing restrictions on refugees' movement; continuing UNRWA operations). (al-Nahar, RMC 11/18 in WNC 11/20)

Israeli military court convicts 4 IDF soldiers of negligently shooting to death a Palestinian youth in the West Bank on 11/13/93, sentences them to 1 hr. in jail, fines them 1 agora (about 1/3 of a cent). (WP 11/19; WT 11/21; JP 11/30)

Israeli, PA negotiations on Hebron resume in Jericho. (RJ 11/18 in WNC 11/19)

IDF eases closure, allowing 7,000 Palestinians fr. Gaza, 8,000 fr. West Bank into Israel to work, raising the total number of Palestinians allowed into Israel to 50,000. (WT 11/17)

Israel accuses Syria of developing with Russia nerve gas, other chemical weapons. (MM, WT 11/18)

In Ramallah, PA releases 3 Hamas mbrs. fr. jail to mark the 8th anniversary of the Palestine National Council's declaration of independence. (MM 11/18)

Shin Bet announces that it has detained Hamas mbr. Khadar Mubarak, is interrogating him on suspicion that has information that could prevent an attack. The detention is revealed after Mubarak's lawyer files a petition with the High Court, claiming that Mubarak is being tortured. (ITV 11/17 in WNC 11/19) (see 11/14)

PLO delegation led by Political Dept. head Faruq Qaddumi arrives in Beirut for 2-day talks on regional political developments. (RL 11/17, 11/19 in WNC 11/19)

Turkey inaugurates 2d bridge on the Turkish-Iraqi border at the al-Khubar border post. (Iraqi Television Network 11/17 in WNC 11/19)

PA-Israeli talks on Hebron continue. Arafat reportedly demands that Netanyahu commit to completing IDF redeployment in the West Bank, opening Rafah airport. (MM 10/25; ITV 10/25 in WNC 10/29; WT 10/26; YA 10/27 in WNC 10/29)

Israel releases list of the 10 "most serious violations" of Oslo by the PA: PA police firing on IDF, ignoring bans on illegal weapons and disbanding independent militias, refusal to extradite individuals suspected of terrorism, incitement to violence against Israel, failure to change the PLO covenant, opening offices in Jerusalem, hiring "Palestinian terrorists" to serve in the PA police, exceeding the agreed upon number of PA police, injuring human rights and the rule of law, conducting diplomatic relations. (IGPO 10/25 in WNC 10/30; HA 10/28 in IL 10/28; PR 11/1; WJW 12/5)

French Pres. Chirac makes brief stops in Lebanon to meet with in Cairo before returning to Paris. (MM 10/25; RE, RL 10/25 in WNC 10/29; WT 10/27; MM 10/30)

Germany begins 2d mediation effort to settle the issue of Israeli pilot Ron Arad (downed over Lebanon in 1986 and believed to be held by Hizballah), Lebanese political prisoners in Israeli jails (incl. Dirani, Obeid). Germany's 1st mediation effort resulted in a prisoner swap 7/21. (RL 10/25, 10/26 in WNC 10/29; al-Safir 10/29 in WNC 11/4; MM 11/11) (see 9/25)

Hizballah detonates 4 roadside bombs in s. Lebanon, killing 2 IDF soldiers, wounding 5. (MM 10/25; QY 10/25 in IL 10/25; JP 11/2)

In their 4th day of talks, PA, Israeli officials say plans for a mtg. btwn. Arafat, Netanyahu are hung up over the wording of a statement pledging support for the Oslo accords. Late in the evening, a "vague" statement is concluded and signed by UN Coordinator Larsen, laying out a framework for continuing negotiations. (MM 9/3; ITV 9/3 in WNC 9/5; CSM, WT 9/4; CSM, WP, WT 9/5; MEI 9/6; PR 9/13; JP 9/14) (see 9/2)

U.S. carries out early morning strike on 14 Iraqi air defense sites in s. Iraq, firing 27 cruise missiles, killing 5 Iraqis, wounding 19; extends s. no-fly zone fr. the 32d parallel to the 33d. Later in the evening, the U.S. fires 17 cruise missiles at same targets in "mop-up" operation. Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey refuse to let U.S. use their bases as staging area for the raids. Arab League, Arab MKs, China, France, PA, PLO, Russia, Syria also criticize strikes. Non-Arab MKs, Germany, Japan, UK call strikes justified. (MM 9/3; IDF Radio, JT, RE 9/3 in WNC 9/4; JTV, RE, RJ, TDN 9/3, al-Dustur, JT 9/4 in WNC 9/5; CSM, MM, NYT, WP, WT 9/4; al-Nahar, al-Quds 9/4, JT 9/5 in WNC 9/6; MEI 9/6, 9/20) (see 9/2)

Japanese FM Ikeda, Pres. Asad, signs bilateral economic agmt. under which Japan will give Syria a $9.6-m. grant toward energy projects. Ikeda leaves for Jordan. (RJ, RMC 8/24 in WNC 8/27; al-Ba`th 8/25 in WNC 10/11)

PSF mbrs. acting in Arafat's name ban sale of books by Arafat critic and fmr. top PLO mbr., Columbia University Prof. Edward W. Said. PA Information Min. orders books by Said confiscated fr. a Ramallah book shop to be returned but not sold. Police ignore the order. (NYT 8/25; MM 8/28; PR 8/30; JP 8/31)

Jordanian army withdraws fr. Karak; government begins releasing detainees taken into custody during the riots. (JT, al-Ra'i, RJ, RMC 8/24 in WNC 8/27; WP, WT 8/25; JT 8/25 in WNC 8/27; RMC 8/29 in WNC 8/30)

Joint EA, PLO Exec. Comm. mtg. convenes. (VOP 8/9 in FBIS 8/12)

Israeli FM Levy boycotts cabinet mtg., says he will quit post if PM Netanyahu does not give him more power, particularly control over the negotiations with the PA. (QY 8/9 in FBIS 8/9; WP 8/10; WT 8/11) (see 8/7)

4 Palestinian prisoners fr. the PA-controlled Jneid prison in Nablus are admitted to hospital for injuries incurred in detention. The 4 have been detained without charge for 8 mos. (PR 8/16) (see 8/8)

EA, PLO Exec. Comm. hold weekly session in Jericho. (VOP 8/2 in FBIS 8/2; VOP 8/3 in FBIS 8/5)

Israeli cabinet unanimously decides to lift building restrictions in Jewish settlements but is vague about how much building it will permit. PA protests. Abolishing the ban on new construction also does away with the special ministerial comm. (formed 1/22/95) that had reviewed building requests, leaving approval of new construction to the DM alone. (MM 8/2; QY 8/2 in FBIS 8/2; ITV 8/2 in FBIS 8/5; VOP 8/2, 8/3 in FBIS 8/6; NYT, WT 8/3; CSM 8/5; WJW 8/8; PR 8/9; JP 8/10)

Netanyahu adviser Gold makes emergency trip to Washington to brief Secy. of State Christopher, special envoy Ross on the new settlement policy. (WT 8/3; ITV 8/3 in FBIS 8/5; WJW 8/8)

Nr. Tulkarm, PSF opens fire on 100s of Palestinian protesters who try to storm a West Bank jail, killing 1, wounding 30. Several inmates escape in the melee but surrender hrs. later. PA police arrest 200, put curfew on Tulkarm, say Hamas mbrs. hiding in the crowd are responsible for the shooting (though jail officials deny this). IDF seals the town, allowing no one in or out. (MM 8/2; AFP, QY, VOP 8/2 in FBIS 8/5; WT 8/3; CSM, NYT 8/5; VOA 8/5 in FBIS 8/5; MM 8/15) (see 7/11)

Joint EA, PLO Exec. Comm. mtg. is held in Nablus. (VOP 7/20 in FBIS 7/22)

Israel lodges formal complaint with the PA over the arrest of Israeli Arabs by PA police in the self-rule areas, accuses police of stealing Israeli cars. (QY 7/19 in FBIS 7/19)

Nr. Nablus, more than 100 Palestinians tear down fences, throw stones at settlers who illegally confiscated Palestinian land for Karyut settlement. 10s of settlers attack Palestinians with clubs, destroy Palestinian cars, beat 3 journalists, confiscate film fr. their cameras. IDF fires teargas to break up clash, imposes curfew. (JMCC, QY 7/19 in FBIS 7/22; NYT 7/20)

Palestinian Omar Muhammad Ali Rizaq, who admitted killing 2 passengers (incl. 1 American) during a 1985 hijacking of an Egyptair flight fr. Athens to Malta, is convicted in the U.S. Rizaq was convicted, served 7 yrs. in Malta, and was released by Maltese officials before being arrested by U.S. agents in Nigeria in 1993. He was tried under U.S. antiterrorism statues that permit prosection when Americans are victims. (NYT 7/20)